Index of Diseases


Abdomen, Acute

Definition: Clinical syndrome characterized by abdominal pain of great severity associated with other symptoms and signs, usually those of acute peritonitis, which might well be the result of a ruptured abdominal viscus or a similar abdominal catastrophe requiring urgent surgical operation. Annotation: do not confuse with ABDOMINAL PAIN ID#: D000006

Abdominal Abscess

Definition: An abscess located in the abdominal cavity, i.e., the cavity between the diaphragm above and the pelvis below. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: for coord read note on ABSCESS ID#: D018784

Abdominal Injuries

Definition: General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity. Annotation: general term for inj of organs in the abdom cavity; prefer specific organs /inj ID#: D000007

Abdominal Neoplasms

Definition: Annotation: general term for neopl of organs in the abdom cavity; prefer specific organ/neopl terms; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with histol type of neopl if given (IM) ID#: D000008

Abdominal Pain

Definition: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region. Annotation: do not confuse with ABDOMEN, ACUTE for abrupt abdom dis requiring emerg surg ID#: D015746

Abducens Nerve Diseases

Definition: Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS. Annotation: neopl: coord IM with CRANIAL NERVE NEOPLASMS (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D020434

Abducens Nerve Injury

Definition: Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. Injury to this nerve results in lateral rectus muscle weakness or paralysis. The nerve may be damaged by closed or penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA or by facial trauma involving the orbit. Annotation: ID#: D020222


Definition: A disorder of lipid metabolism inherited as an autosomal recessive trait characterized by the near absence of APOLIPOPROTEINS B and apoB-containing lipoproteins in plasma. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is deficient or absent in enterocytes. Clinical and laboratory findings include acanthocytosis, hypocholesterolemia, peripheral neuropathy, posterior column degeneration, ataxia, and steatorrhea. Intellectual abilities may also be impaired. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p118; Curr Opin Lipidol 1994 Apr;5(2):81-6) Annotation: do not confuse with HYPOBETALIPOPROTEINEMIA ID#: D000012


Definition: Congenital malformations of organs or parts. Annotation: GEN only: prefer /abnorm: Manual 19.7+, 19.8.1; do not use /compl /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; policy: Manual 23.20+; TN 109: relation to /congen & INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D000013

Abnormalities, Drug-Induced

Definition: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment. Annotation: IM; do not use /chem ind /compl /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; coord IM with specific chem /adv eff-pois-tox (IM) + specific organ /abnorm or specific abnorm /chem ind (IM); Manual 23.20.3 ID#: D000014

Abnormalities, Multiple

Definition: Annotation: IM; do not use /compl /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; coord IM with specific abnorm (IM); Manual 23.20.2 ID#: D000015

Abortion, Habitual

Definition: Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions. Annotation: ID#: D000026

Abortion, Incomplete

Definition: Abortion in which not all the products of conception have been expelled. Annotation: not all conception products are expelled; restrict to spontaneous, not induced abortions; don't forget also check tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY ID#: D000027

Abortion, Missed

Definition: The retention in the uterus of a dead fetus two months or more after its death. Annotation: dead fetus retained 2 or more months; /prev /ther /vet permitted; don't forget also check tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY ID#: D000030

Abortion, Septic

Definition: Infected abortion in which there is dissemination of microorganisms and their products into the maternal systemic circulation. Annotation: infected abortion; /prev /ther permitted; /vet permitted only if discussed as "septic" abortion: do not use automatically for animal abortion in brucellosis, vibriosis, trichomoniasis, etc. in animals; don't forget also check tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY ID#: D000031

Abortion, Spontaneous

Definition: Expulsion of the products of conception before the completion of gestation without deliberate interference. Annotation: /chem ind permitted but do not confuse with ABORTION, INDUCED (E4); /chem ind: consider also ABORTIFACIENT AGENTS; don't forget also check tags HUMAN & FEMALE & PREGNANCY ID#: D000022

Abortion, Threatened

Definition: Condition of vaginal bleeding with or without pain in early pregnancy which may presage an abortion. Annotation: pain & bleeding in early pregn heralding abortion; /prev /ther /vet permitted; don't forget check tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY ID#: D000033

Abortion, Veterinary

Definition: Premature expulsion of the fetus in animals. Annotation: IM + specific type of abortion with /vet (NIM); don't forget also check tags ANIMAL & FEMALE & PREGNANCY ID#: D000034

Abruptio Placentae

Definition: Premature separation of the normally implanted placenta. Annotation: premature separation of placenta; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D000037


Definition: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection. Annotation: IM; coord IM with site (organ/dis term) (IM) + precoord organism/infect term (IM); if unspecified bacterial abscess do not coord with BACTERIAL INFECTIONS (since most abscesses are bact) but coord with specific bact infect term if given (as ABSCESS + STAPH INFECTIONS) ID#: D000038

Acanthamoeba Keratitis

Definition: Infection of the cornea by an ameboid protozoan which may cause corneal ulceration leading to blindness. Annotation: note category: a corneal dis: do not confuse with KERATOACANTHOMA, a skin dis ID#: D015823


Definition: Separation of the prickle cells of the stratum spinosum of the epidermis, resulting in atrophy of the prickle cell layer. It is seen in diseases such as pemphigus vulgaris (see PEMPHIGUS) and KERATOSIS FOLLICULARIS. Annotation: ACANTHOLYSIS BULLOSA see EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA is also available ID#: D000051

Acanthosis Nigricans

Definition: A circumscribed melanosis consisting of a brown-pigmented, velvety verrucosity or fine papillomatosis appearing in the axillae and other body folds. It occurs in association with endocrine disorders, underlying malignancy, administration of certain drugs, or as in inherited disorder. Annotation: a type of melanosis ID#: D000052


Definition: A rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the absence of CATALASE activity. Though usually asymptomatic, a syndrome of oral ulcerations and gangrene may be present. Annotation: ID#: D020642

Accelerated Idioventricular Rhythm

Definition: A transient and intermittent type of arrhythmia with episodes lasting from a few seconds to a minute which usually occurs in patients with acute myocardial infarction or with digitalis toxicity. Suppressive therapy is rarely necessary because the ventricular rate is generally less than 100 beats per minute. Annotation: a supraventric tachycardia; DF: note short X ref ID#: D016170

Accessory Nerve Diseases

Definition: Diseases of the eleventh cranial (spinal accessory) nerve. This nerve originates from motor neurons in the lower medulla (accessory portion of nerve) and upper spinal cord (spinal portion of nerve). The two components of the nerve join and exit the skull via the jugular foramen, innervating the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, which become weak or paralyzed if the nerve is injured. The nerve is commonly involved in MOTOR NEURON DISEASE, and may be injured by trauma to the posterior triangle of the neck. Annotation: neopl: coord IM with CRANIAL NERVE NEOPLASMS (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D020436


Definition: A lack of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice despite stimulation of gastric secretion. Annotation: ID#: D000126


Definition: An autosomal dominant disorder that is the most frequent form of short-limb dwarfism. Affected individuals exhibit short stature caused by rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, characteristic facies with frontal bossing and mid-face hypoplasia, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, limitation of elbow extension, genu varum, and trident hand. (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man,, MIM#100800, April 20, 2001) Annotation: ID#: D000130

Acid-Base Imbalance

Definition: Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body. Annotation: ID#: D000137


Definition: A pathologic condition resulting from accumulation of acid or depletion of the alkaline reserve (bicarbonate) content of the blood and body tissues, and characterized by an increase in hydrogen ion concentration (decrease in pH). (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: an acid-base imbalance; GEN & unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D000138

Acidosis, Lactic

Definition: Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as diabetes mellitus, leukemia, or liver failure. Annotation: accumulation of lactic acid ID#: D000140

Acidosis, Renal Tubular

Definition: A rare sometimes familial disorder of the renal tubule characterized by the inability to excrete urine of normal acidity. This leads to a hyperchloremic acidosis which is often associated with one or more secondary complications such as hypercalcinuria with nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis, rickets, or osteomalacia and severe potassium depletion. Annotation: does not include TYPE IV RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS ID#: D000141

Acidosis, Respiratory

Definition: Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute. Annotation: ID#: D000142

Acinetobacter Infections

Definition: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER. Annotation: gram-neg bact infect ID#: D000151

Acne Keloid

Definition: A type of acneiform disorder in which secondary pyogenic infection in and around pilosebaceous structures ends in keloidal scarring. It manifests as persistent folliculitis of the back of the neck associated with occlusion of the follicular orifices. It is most often encountered in black or Asian men. Annotation: acneiform eruption with keloid scarring ID#: D000153

Acne Rosacea

Definition: An acneiform eruption occurring mostly in middle-aged adults and appearing generally on the forehead, cheeks, nose, and chin. Three types are recognized: granulomatous, glandular hyperplastic with rhinophyma, and ocular. Annotation: an acneiform eruption ID#: D012393

Acne Vulgaris

Definition: A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors. Annotation: an acneiform eruption ID#: D000152

Acneiform Eruptions

Definition: Visible efflorescent lesions of the skin caused by acne or resembling acne. (Dorland, 28th ed, p18, 575) Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D017486

Acquired Hyperostosis Syndrome

Definition: Syndrome consisting of synovitis, acne, palmoplantar pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO). The most common site of the disease is the upper anterior chest wall, characterized by predominantly osteosclerotic lesions, hyperostosis, and arthritis of the adjacent joints. The association of sterile inflammatory bone lesions and neutrophilic skin eruptions is indicative of this syndrome. Annotation: ID#: D020083

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

Definition: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993. Annotation: caused by HIV; coord IM with HIV-1 or HIV-2 (IM) if pertinent; /epidemiol: consider also HIV SEROPREVALENCE; AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS is available if particularly discussed: see note there; for lymphoma with AIDS, use LYMPHOMA, AIDS-RELATED ID#: D000163


Definition: Craniostenosis characterized by acrocephaly and syndactyly, probably occurring as an autosomal dominant trait and usually as a new mutation. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: congen deform of skull, fingers & toes; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D000168


Definition: Inflammation involving the skin of the extremities, especially the hands and feet. Several forms are known, some idiopathic and some hereditary. The infantile form is called Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. Annotation: dermatitis of hands or feet so do not bother to coord with HAND DERMATOSES or FOOT DERMATOSES unless particularly discussed ID#: D000169


Definition: A condition seen primarily in childhood, most often resulting from chronic exposure to MERCURY COMPOUNDS which may result in ENCEPHALOPATHY and POLYNEUROPATHY. Clinical features include pain, swelling and pinkish discoloration of the fingers and toes, weakness in the extremities, extreme irritability, HYPERESTHESIA, and alterations in level of consciousness. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p603) Annotation: ID#: D000170


Definition: A disorder caused by excessive secretion of SOMATOTROPIN, characterized by bony enlargement of the face (especially prognathism), hands, feet, head, and thorax. Impaired glucose tolerance; HYPERTENSION; ARTHRITIS; diffuse hyperplasia of soft tissues; CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME; visceromegaly; and MUSCULAR WEAKNESS are frequently associated with this condition. The most common etiology is a somatotropin secreting pituitary ADENOMA (see also PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80) Annotation: coord with SOMATOTROPIN /secret (in animals) or SOMATROPIN /secret (in humans) if pertinent ID#: D000172

Acrospiroma, Eccrine

Definition: A tumor derived from eccrine sweat duct epithelium which may be intra-epidermal (hidro-acanthoma simplex), juxta-epidermal (eccrine poroma) or intradermal (dermal duct tumor). They are comparatively uncommon. There is no indication that heredity or external agents cause these tumors. (Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2409) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with SWEAT GLAND NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018250

ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic

Definition: Symptom complex due to ACTH production by non-pituitary neoplasms. Annotation: caused by "ACTH production by non-pituitary neoplasms"; do not use /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term with /secret (IM) + histol type of neopl /secret (IM) ID#: D000182


Definition: A disease characterized by suppurative and granulomatous lesions in the respiratory tract, upper alimentary tract, skin, kidneys, joints, and other tissues. Actinobacillus lignieresii infects cattle and sheep while A. equuli infects horses and pigs. Annotation: a vet dis entity caused by Actinobacillus lignieresii: do not confuse with ACTINOBACILLUS INFECTIONS; check tag ANIMAL ID#: D000187

Actinobacillus Infections

Definition: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOBACILLUS. Annotation: do not confuse with ACTINOBACILLOSIS, a specific vet dis entity caused by A. lignieresii ID#: D000189

Actinomycetales Infections

Definition: Infections with bacteria of the order ACTINOMYCETALES. Annotation: gram-pos bact infect by organism of the order ACTINOMYCETALES; do not confuse with ACTINOMYCOSIS, infection by genus ACTINOMYCES ID#: D000193


Definition: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOMYCES. Annotation: bact infect, not fungal despite "-mycosis": = infection by genus ACTINOMYCES; do not confuse with ACTINOMYCETALES INFECTIONS, infection by order ACTINOMYCETALES; pulm actinomycosis = ACTINOMYCOSIS (IM) + LUNG DISEASES (IM), not LUNG DISEASES, FUNGAL ID#: D000196

Actinomycosis, Cervicofacial

Definition: A form of ACTINOMYCOSIS characterized by slow-growing inflammatory lesions of the lymph nodes that drain the mouth (lumpy jaw), reddening of the overlying skin, and intraperitoneal abscesses. Annotation: bact infect, not fungal despite "-mycosis": = infect by genus ACTINOMYCES ID#: D000197

Activated Protein C Resistance

Definition: A hemostatic disorder characterized by a poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C (APC). The activated form of Factor V (Factor Va) is more slowly degraded by activated protein C. Factor V Leiden mutation (R506Q) is the most common cause of APC resistance. Annotation: ID#: D020016

Acute Disease

Definition: Disease having a short and relatively severe course. Annotation: IM GEN only; usually NIM with specific dis IM; no qualif when NIM; Manual 23.16+ ID#: D000208

Acute-Phase Reaction

Definition: An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma. Annotation: note category: in presence of a dis, use /etiol, not /compl ID#: D000210

Adams-Stokes Syndrome

Definition: Transient asystole or ventricular fibrillation in the presence of atrioventricular block. Annotation: transient asystole or ventric fibrill in AV block ID#: D000219

Addison's Disease

Definition: A disease characterized by hypotension, weight loss, anorexia, weakness, and sometimes a bronze-like melanotic hyperpigmentation of the skin. It is due to tuberculosis- or autoimmune-induced disease (hypofunction) of the adrenal glands that results in deficiency of aldosterone and cortisol. In the absence of replacement therapy, it is usually fatal. Annotation: an autoimmune dis with adrenal hypofunction ID#: D000224


Definition: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization. Annotation: coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D000230

Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar

Definition: A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with LUNG NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D002282

Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell

Definition: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018262

Adenocarcinoma, Follicular

Definition: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with THYROID NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018263

Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous

Definition: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: also called "mucoid" or "mucous" carcinoma; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D002288

Adenocarcinoma, Papillary

Definition: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D000231

Adenocarcinoma, Scirrhous

Definition: An adenocarcinoma with a hard (Greek skirrhos, hard) structure owing to the formation of dense connective tissue in the stroma. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D002293

Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous

Definition: A malignant tumor composed of cells showing differentiation toward sebaceous epithelium. The tumor is solitary, firm, somewhat raised, more or less translucent, and covered with normal or slightly verrucose epidermis. It may be yellow or orange. The face and scalp are the commonest sites. The growth can be slow or rapid but metastasis is uncommon. Surgery cures most of the cases. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, pp2403-4) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with SEBACEOUS GLAND NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018266


Definition: A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: do not confuse with FIBROADENOMA; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D000232


Definition: A benign tumor characterized histologically by tall columnar epithelium within a lymphoid tissue stroma. It is usually found in the salivary glands, especially the parotid. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D000235


Definition: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D000236

Adenoma, Acidophil

Definition: A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with PITUITARY NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D000239

Adenoma, Adrenal Cortical

Definition: A benign neoplasm of adrenal cortical cells resembling normal adrenal cells histologically but possessing functional autonomy. In general it does not exceed 5 cm in its largest dimension, although benign tumors exceeding 20 cm have been reported. Adrenal cortical adenomas produce hypercortisolism and hyperaldosteronism, but seldom produce adrenogenital syndromes. For the most part the prognosis after surgery is reasonably favorable. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1286) Annotation: coord IM with ADRENAL CORTEX NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018246

Adenoma, Basophil

Definition: A small tumor of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland whose cells stain with basic dyes. It may give rise to excessive secretion of ACTH, resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with PITUITARY NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D000237

Adenoma, Bile Duct

Definition: A benign tumor of the intrahepatic bile ducts. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC (IM) + BILE DUCT NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D002759

Adenoma, Chromophobe

Definition: A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes. Annotation: coord IM with PITUITARY NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D000238

Adenoma, Islet Cell

Definition: A benign tumor of the islets of Langerhans that may occur anywhere throughout the pancreas. Such tumors may result in HYPERINSULINISM or ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with PANCREATIC NEOPLASMS (IM); note ALPHA-CELL TUMOR see GLUCAGONOMA; BETA-CELL TUMOR see INSULINOMA but delta-cell tumor = SOMATOSTATINOMA or VIPOMA ID#: D007516

Adenoma, Liver Cell

Definition: A benign epithelial tumor of the liver. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with LIVER NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018248

Adenoma, Oxyphilic

Definition: A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askenazy cells. Annotation: coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM); for X ref Hurthle CELL TUMOR, coord IM with THYROID NEOPLASMS ID#: D018249

Adenoma, Pleomorphic

Definition: A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with SALIVARY GLAND NEOPLASMS (IM) or specific salivary gland neopl precoord (IM); if of a minor salivary gland, coord IM with SALIVARY GLAND NEOPLASMS (IM) + SALIVARY GLANDS, MINOR (IM); for X ref SYRINGOMA, CHONDROID, coord IM with SWEAT GLAND NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D008949

Adenoma, Sweat Gland

Definition: A benign neoplasm derived from epithelial cells of sweat glands. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with SWEAT GLAND NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D006607

Adenoma, Villous

Definition: An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with probably COLONIC NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018253

Adenomatoid Tumor

Definition: A small, circumscribed, benign tumor of the genital tract, composed of small glandlike spaces lined by flattened or cuboidal mesothelium-like cells. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord genital/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018254

Adenomatosis, Pulmonary

Definition: A neoplastic disease in which the alveoli and distal bronchi are filled with mucus and mucus-secreting columnar epithelial cells. It is characterized by abundant, extremely tenacious sputum, chills, fever, cough, dyspnea, and pleuritic pain. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with LUNG NEOPLASMS (IM); DF: ADENOMATOSIS PULM ID#: D018255

Adenomatous Polyposis Coli

Definition: An autosomal dominant polyposis syndrome in which the colon contains few to thousands of adenomatous polyps, often occurring by age 15 to 25. Annotation: ID#: D011125

Adenomatous Polyps

Definition: Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: neoplastic; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018256


Definition: A benign neoplasm of muscle (usually smooth muscle) with glandular elements. It occurs most frequently in the uterus and uterine ligaments. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018194

Adenophorea Infections

Definition: Infections with nematodes of the subclass ADENOPHOREA. Annotation: nematode infect ID#: D017188


Definition: A malignant neoplasm arising simultaneously or consecutively in mesodermal tissue and glandular epithelium of the same part. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018195

Adenoviridae Infections

Definition: Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; ADENOVIRUS INFECTIONS, HUMAN is available ID#: D000257

Adenovirus Infections, Human

Definition: Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses. Annotation: ID#: D000258


Definition: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound. Annotation: IM GEN only; coord NIM with organ/dis precoord (IM) ID#: D000267

Adie Syndrome

Definition: A syndrome characterized by a TONIC PUPIL that occurs in combination with decreased lower extremity reflexes. The affected pupil will respond more briskly to accommodation than to light (light-near dissociation) and is supersensitive to dilute pilocarpine eye drops, which induce pupillary constriction. Pathologic features include degeneration of the ciliary ganglion and postganglionic parasympathetic fibers that innervate the pupillary constrictor muscle. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p279) Annotation: ID#: D000270

Adiposis Dolorosa

Definition: A rare disease, believed to be autosomal dominant, manifested by fatty deposits that press on nerves causing weakness and pain. Annotation: ID#: D000274

Adnexal Diseases

Definition: Diseases of the uterine appendages: the ovaries, uterine tubes, and ligaments of the uterus. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: dis of ovaries, fallopian tubes & uterine ligaments collectively; inflamm dis = ADNEXITIS ID#: D000291


Definition: Inflammation of the adnexa uteri. (Dorland, 28th ed) Annotation: female only: note category; "male adnexitis": index under GENITAL DISEASES, MALE ID#: D000292

Adrenal Cortex Diseases

Definition: Annotation: ID#: D000303

Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancers of the cortex of the adrenal gland. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D000306

Adrenal Gland Diseases

Definition: Annotation: coord IM with ADRENAL MEDULLA (IM) for dis of adrenal medulla; for adrenal hyperplasia see note at ADRENAL GLANDS ID#: D000307

Adrenal Gland Hyperfunction

Definition: Annotation: do not confuse with ADRENAL GLAND HYPOFUNCTION; do not use /congen ( = ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; non-congen adrenal hyperplasia: index under ADRENAL GLANDS /pathol (IM) + HYPERPLASIA (NIM) ID#: D000308

Adrenal Gland Hypofunction

Definition: Adrenocortical hypofunction includes all conditions in which adrenal steroid hormone secretion falls below the requirements of the body. Adrenal insufficiency may be divided into two general categories: (1) those associated with primary inability of the adrenal to elaborate sufficient quantities of hormone and (2) those associated with a secondary failure due to a primary failure in the elaboration of adrenocorticotropin. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1970) Annotation: do not confuse with ADRENAL GLAND HYPERFUNCTION ID#: D000309

Adrenal Gland Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the adrenal gland. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D000310

Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital

Definition: A group of syndromes caused by inherited defects in cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and, in some types, ALDOSTERONE biosynthesis. Each of the several types that occur, such as simple virilizing forms (adrenogenital syndrome), salt-wasting forms, and virilizing hypertension forms may be caused by a variety of defects. Defects in 21-hydroxylase (STEROID 21-MONOOXYGENASE) are most common. Other defects occur in the enzymes 11 beta-hydroxylase (STEROID 11 BETA-MONOOXYGENASE), 17 alpha-hydroxylase (STEROID 17 ALPHA-MONOOXYGENASE), or 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES). Annotation: ID#: D000312

Adrenal Rest Tumor

Definition: A rare, usually benign, ovarian tumor thought to be derived from embryonic rest cells of the adrenals. This tumor causes various degrees of masculinization. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with OVARIAN NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D000314


Definition: An X-linked recessive leukodystrophy characterized by an abnormal accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids in LYSOSOMES. It primarily affects the white matter of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the ADRENAL CORTEX. This disorder results from defective beta-oxidation and occurs almost exclusively in males and has multiple phenotypes. Relatively common clinical features include the childhood onset of ATAXIA; NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HYPERPIGMENTATION; adrenal insufficiency; SEIZURES; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and DEMENTIA. A related condition, adrenomyeloneuropathy, usually has its onset in adult life and is characterized by spastic paraparesis, adrenal insufficiency, neuropathy, and HYPOGONADISM. (From Neuropediatrics 1998 Feb;29(1):3-13; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p188) The defective gene for this disorder has been localized to the long arm of the X chromosome (Xq28). Annotation: do not confuse with ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY, NEONATAL see PEROXISOMAL DISORDERS ID#: D000326


Definition: Spasmodic swallowing of air. Annotation: ID#: D000334

Afferent Loop Syndrome

Definition: A complication of gastrojejunostomy, caused by acute or chronic obstruction of the afferent loop due to hernia, intussusception, kinking, volvulus, etc. It is characterized by pain and vomiting of bile-stained fluid and includes acute afferent loop obstruction. Annotation: ID#: D000343


Definition: A deficiency or absence of fibrinogen (coagulation factor I) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a blood coag disord ID#: D000347

African Horse Sickness

Definition: An insect-borne reovirus infection of horses, mules and donkeys in Africa and the Middle East; characterized by pulmonary edema, cardiac involvement, and edema of the head and neck. Annotation: caused by an Orbivirus; in horses, mules & donkeys; if in horses don't forget also HORSES (NIM) & check tag ANIMAL; if in mules or donkeys, coord IM with EQUIDAE (IM) & check tag ANIMAL ID#: D000355

African Swine Fever

Definition: A sometimes fatal ASFIVIRUS infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros). Annotation: do not confuse with SWINE FEVER see CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER ID#: D000357


Definition: An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood. Annotation: TN 225: relation to HYPO- & DYSGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA ID#: D000361


Definition: Complete or severe loss of the subjective sense of taste, frequently accompanied by OLFACTION DISORDERS. Annotation: do not confuse with DYSGEUSIA, distortion of sense of taste ID#: D000370

Aging, Premature

Definition: Changes in the organism associated with senescence, occurring at an accelerated rate. Annotation: unspecified with relation to age; in children, consider PROGERIA; in adults, consider PROGERIA, ADULT see WERNER SYNDROME ID#: D019588


Definition: A decrease in the number of GRANULOCYTES (BASOPHILS, EOSINOPHILS, and NEUTROPHILS). Annotation: ID#: D000380


Definition: Loss or impairment of the ability to write (letters, syllables, words, or phrases) due to an injury to a specific cerebral area or occasionally due to emotional factors. This condition rarely occurs in isolation, and often accompanies APHASIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994) Annotation: ID#: D000381

Agricultural Workers' Diseases

Definition: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops. Annotation: coord IM with specific dis (IM); specify geog if pertinent ID#: D000382

AIDS Arteritis, Central Nervous System

Definition: Inflammation of blood vessels of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that occurs in association with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME. In children, this condition may be associated with INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM formation. Cerebral vasculitis in this setting is frequently associated with AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS including varicella, CMV, fungal, tuberculosis, and syphilis. (From Neurol Clin 1997 Nov;15(4):927-44; Neurology 1998 Aug;51(2):560-5) Annotation: DF: AIDS ARTERITIS CNS ID#: D020943

AIDS-Associated Nephropathy

Definition: Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients. Annotation: coord IM with specific kidney dis (IM); specify HIV-1 or HIV-2 (IM or NIM) if pertinent; DF: HIVAN ID#: D016263

AIDS-Related Complex

Definition: A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS. Annotation: coord IM with HIV-1 or HIV-2 (IM) if pertinent; DF: note short X ref ID#: D000386

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections

Definition: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus. Annotation: coord IM with HIV-1 or HIV-2 (IM or NIM if pertinent); coord IM with specific opportunistic infect (IM); DF: AIDS RELAT OPPORTUNISTIC INFECT ID#: D017088


Definition: Spontaneous autoamputation of the fourth or fifth toe. Annotation: ID#: D000387

Airway Obstruction

Definition: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs. Annotation: acute: chronic airway obstruct, chronic airflow obstruct & COAD (chronic obstruct airway dis) go under LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE (see note there); NASAL OBSTRUCTION is also available ID#: D000402

Akathisia, Drug-Induced

Definition: A condition associated with the use of certain medications and characterized by an internal sense of motor restlessness often described as an inability to resist the urge to move. Annotation: shows "anxiety, restlessness & agitation": do not confuse with DYSKINESIA, DRUG-INDUCED which shows repetitive movements ID#: D017109

Akinetic Mutism

Definition: A syndrome characterized by a silent and inert state without voluntary motor activity despite preserved sensorimotor pathways and vigilance. Bilateral FRONTAL LOBE dysfunction involving the anterior cingulate gyrus and related brain injuries are associated with this condition. This may result in impaired abilities to communicate and initiate motor activities. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p348; Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1995 Feb;63(2):59-67) Annotation: ID#: D000405

Alagille Syndrome

Definition: Hypoplasia of the hepatic ducts, congenital pulmonary artery stenosis, facial abnormalities, and other congenital malformations, particularly skeletal. It is often presented as jaundice during the neonatal period. It is an autosomal recessive disease generally manifesting during childhood. "Arteriohepatic" refers to the pulmonary artery and the intrahepatic bile ducts, not to the hepatic artery. Annotation: ID#: D016738


Definition: General term for a number of inherited defects of amino acid metabolism in which there is a deficiency or absence of pigment in the eyes, skin, or hair. Annotation: hypopigmentation of skin, hair, eye; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D000417

Albinism, Ocular

Definition: Albinism affecting the eye in which pigment of the hair and skin is normal or only slightly diluted. The classic type is X-linked (Nettleship-Falls), but an autosomal recessive form also exists. Ocular abnormalities may include reduced pigmentation of the iris, nystagmus, photophobia, strabismus, and decreased visual acuity. Annotation: hypopigmentation of eye; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D016117

Albinism, Oculocutaneous

Definition: Heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders comprising at least four recognized types, all having in common varying degrees of hypopigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes. The two most common are the tyrosinase-positive and tyrosinase-negative types. Annotation: ID#: D016115


Definition: Annotation: ID#: D000419

Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures

Definition: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174) Annotation: ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL DELIRIUM is available ID#: D020270

Alcohol-Induced Disorders

Definition: Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol. Annotation: ID#: D020751

Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System

Definition: Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves. Annotation: ID#: D020268

Alcoholic Neuropathy

Definition: A condition where damage to the peripheral nervous system (including the peripheral elements of the autonomic nervous system) is associated with chronic ingestion of alcoholic beverages. The disorder may be caused by a direct effect of alcohol, an associated nutritional deficiency, or a combination of factors. Clinical manifestations include variable degrees of weakness; ATROPHY; PARESTHESIAS; pain; loss of reflexes; sensory loss; diaphoresis; and postural hypotension. (From Arch Neurol 1995;52(1):45-51; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1146) Annotation: ID#: D020269

Aleutian Mink Disease

Definition: A slow progressive disease of mink caused by the ALEUTIAN MINK DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by poor reproduction, weight loss, autoimmunity, hypergammaglobulinemia, increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, and death from renal failure. The disease occurs in all color types, but mink which are homozygous recessive for the Aleutian gene for light coat color are particularly susceptible. Annotation: caused by a parvovirus; don't forget also MINK (NIM) & check tag ANIMAL ID#: D000453


Definition: A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Annotation: ID#: D000471

Alkalosis, Respiratory

Definition: A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: excess loss of CO2 from body ID#: D000472


Definition: An inborn error of amino acid metabolism resulting from a defect in the enzyme homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase and causing an accumulation of homogentisic acid in the urine. The condition is characterized by ochronosis in various tissues and arthritis. Annotation: an inborn error of amino acid metab; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D000474


Definition: Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present. Annotation: ID#: D000505

Alopecia Areata

Definition: A microscopically inflammatory, usually reversible, patchy hair loss occurring in sharply defined areas and usually involving the beard or scalp. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: baldness in defined areas ID#: D000506

alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency

Definition: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN, leading primarily to degradation of elastin of the alveolar walls, as well as other structural proteins of a variety of tissues. (From Scriver, Beaudet, Sly, & Valle, The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, 7th ed, p4125) Annotation: Pi or PiZZ goes here + PHENOTYPE; DF: ALPHA 1 ANTITRYPSIN DEFIC ID#: D019896


Definition: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D017085

Alphavirus Infections

Definition: Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE. Annotation: caused by a togavirus; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D018354

Altitude Sickness

Definition: A morbid condition of ANOXIA caused by the reduced available oxygen at high altitudes. Annotation: ID#: D000532

Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic

Definition: Conditions in which inhalation of organic dusts results in hypersensitivity reactions at the alveolar level, associated with the production of precipitins. Annotation: a type of resp hypersensitivity ID#: D000542

Amaurosis Fugax

Definition: Transient complete or partial monocular blindness due to retinal ischemia. This may be caused by EMBOLI from the CAROTID ARTERY (usually in association with CAROTID STENOSIS) and other locations that enter the central RETINAL ARTERY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p245) Annotation: ID#: D020757


Definition: A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications. Annotation: ID#: D000550


Definition: Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur. Annotation: caused by "any of various amebae"; /drug ther: consider also AMEBICIDES; note X ref ABSCESS, AMEBIC: LIVER ABSCESS, AMEBIC is also available ID#: D000562


Definition: An epithelial tumor of the jaw originating from the epithelial rests of Malassez or from other epithelial remnants of the developing period of the enamel. Annotation: benign or malignant; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with probably JAW NEOPLASMS (IM) or precoord jaw/neopl term (IM) ID#: D000564

Amelogenesis Imperfecta

Definition: An autosomal dominant or X-linked disorder in which there is faulty development of the dental enamel owing to agenesis, hypoplasia, or hypocalcification of the enamel. It is marked by enamel that is very thin and friable and frequently stained in various shades of brown. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a tooth abnorm; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D000567


Definition: Absence of menstruation. Annotation: "postpartum amenorrhea" is indexed under AMENORRHEA (IM) + PUERPERIUM (IM) & not LACTATION unless lactation is particularly discussed ID#: D000568

Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors

Definition: Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life. Annotation: coord IM with specific amino acid /metab (IM); DF: AA METAB INBORN ERR ID#: D000592

Amino Acid Transport Disorders, Inborn

Definition: Disorders characterized by defective transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These include deficits in transport across brush-border epithelial cell membranes of the small intestine (MICROVILLI) and KIDNEY TUBULES; transport across the basolateral membrane; and transport across the membranes of intracellular organelles. (From Nippon Rinsho 1992 Jul;50(7):1587-92) Annotation: DF: AA TRANSPORT DIS INBORN ID#: D020157

Aminoaciduria, Renal

Definition: Impairment of renal tubular transport of amino acids. Annotation: impairment of renal tubule transport of amino acids; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; coord IM with specific amino acid /urine (IM) ID#: D000608

Amniotic Band Syndrome

Definition: A disorder present in the newborn infant in which constriction rings or bands, causing soft tissue depressions, encircle digits, extremities, or limbs and sometimes the neck, thorax, or abdomen. They may be associated with intrauterine amputations. Annotation: constriction bands in newborn inf; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D000652

Amputation, Traumatic

Definition: Loss of a limb or other bodily appendage by accidental injury. Annotation: by accident or inj: do not confuse with AMPUTATION, a surg procedure; /surg: consider also REPLANTATION ID#: D000673

Amyloid Neuropathies

Definition: Disorders of the peripheral nervous system associated with the deposition of AMYLOID in nerve tissue. Familial, primary (nonfamilial), and secondary forms have been described. Some familial subtypes demonstrate an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Clinical manifestations include sensory loss, mild weakness, autonomic dysfunction, and CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1349) Annotation: coord IM with specific neurol dis (IM) or specific nerve (IM); /genet: consider also AMYLOID NEUROPATHIES, HEREDITARY ID#: D017772

Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial

Definition: Inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system associated with the deposition of AMYLOID in nerve tissue. The different clinical types based on symptoms correspond to the presence of a variety of mutations in several different proteins including transthyretin (PREALBUMIN); APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I; and GELSOLIN. Annotation: ID#: D028227


Definition: A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition. As the AMYLOID deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits. Annotation: coord IM with organ/dis precoord (IM); /genet: consider also AMYLOIDOSIS, HEREDITARY ID#: D000686

Amyloidosis, Familial

Definition: Diseases in which there is a familial pattern of AMYLOIDOSIS. Annotation: ID#: D028226

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Definition: A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94) Annotation: ID#: D000690

Anal Gland Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the anal gland. Annotation: animal only; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM); do not confuse with ANUS NEOPLASMS; coord with ANAL SACS for anal sac neoplasms; don't forget check tag ANIMAL ID#: D000694


Definition: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered antigen. The reaction may include rapidly progressing urticaria, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic shock, and death. Annotation: /chem ind permitted but not for anaphylactic reactions to toxins & similar biol prod ( = /etiol) ID#: D000707


Definition: Loss of structural differentiation and useful function of neoplastic cells. Annotation: IM GEN only; coord NIM with organ /pathol (IM); note CARCINOMA, ANAPLASTIC see CARCINOMA: do not coord with ANAPLASIA unless anaplasia is particularly discussed ID#: D000708

Anaplasmataceae Infections

Definition: Infections with bacteria of the family ANAPLASMATACEAE. Annotation: rickettsial infect ID#: D000711


Definition: A disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by bacteria of the genus ANAPLASMA. Annotation: tick-borne dis; usually animal; check tag ANIMAL ID#: D000712


Definition: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus ANCYLOSTOMA. Characteristics include anemia, dyspepsia, eosinophilia, and abdominal swelling. Annotation: hookworm infect; Ancylostoma americanum infection = NECATORIASIS, not ANCYLOSTOMIASIS ID#: D000724


Definition: A neoplasm arising from the ovarian stroma. It commonly causes defeminization. Annotation: coord IM with OVARIAN NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D001144

Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome

Definition: A familial form of PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait. These patients have a karyotype of 46,XY with end-organ resistance to androgen due to mutations in the androgen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANDROGEN; AR) gene. Severity of the defect in AR quantity or quality correlates with their phenotypes. The phenotype spectrum varies from those with normal female external genitalia in ANDROGEN-INSENSITIVITY SYNDROME, through those with genital ambiguity in Reifenstein Syndrome, to that of a normal male with INFERTILITY. Annotation: check the tag MALE ID#: D013734


Definition: A reduction in the number of circulating erythrocytes or in the quantity of hemoglobin. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D000740

Anemia, Aplastic

Definition: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements. Annotation: a bone marrow dis ID#: D000741

Anemia, Diamond-Blackfan

Definition: A rare congenital hypoplastic anemia that usually presents early in infancy. The disease is characterized by a moderate to severe macrocytic anemia, occasional neutropenia or thrombocytosis, a normocellular bone marrow with erythroid hypoplasia, and an increased risk of developing leukemia. (Curr Opin Hematol 2000 Mar;7(2):85-94) Annotation: ID#: D029503

Anemia, Dyserythropoietic, Congenital

Definition: A familial disorder characterized by anemia with multinuclear erythroblasts, karyorrhexis, asynchrony of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, and various nuclear abnormalities of bone marrow erythrocyte precursors. Type II is the most common of the 3 types of congenital dyserythropoietic anemia; it is often referred to as HEMPAS, based on the Hereditary Erythroblast Multinuclearity with Positive Acidified Serum test. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; DF: note short X ref (MeSH definition gives meaning) ID#: D000742

Anemia, Hemolytic

Definition: Anemia due to decreased life span of erythrocytes. Annotation: GEN or unspecified: prefer specifics ID#: D000743

Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune

Definition: Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of autoantibodies which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own red cells. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D000744

Anemia, Hemolytic, Congenital

Definition: Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte. Annotation: ID#: D000745

Anemia, Hemolytic, Congenital Nonspherocytic

Definition: Any one of a group of congenital hemolytic anemias in which there is no abnormal hemoglobin or spherocytosis and in which there is a defect of glycolysis in the erythrocyte. In some cases, pyruvate kinase deficiency has been demonstrated; in other cases, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency has been demonstrated. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; DF: ANEMIA HEMOL CONGEN NONSPHER ID#: D000746

Anemia, Hypochromic

Definition: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393) Annotation: note X ref; ANEMIA, IRON-DEFICIENCY is also available ID#: D000747

Anemia, Hypoplastic, Congenital

Definition: An inborn condition characterized by deficiencies of red cell precursors that sometimes also includes LEUKOPENIA and THROMBOCYTOPENIA. Annotation: ID#: D029502

Anemia, Iron-Deficiency

Definition: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased. Annotation: DF: ANEMIA IRON DEFIC ID#: D018798

Anemia, Macrocytic

Definition: Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). Annotation: ID#: D000748

Anemia, Megaloblastic

Definition: Anemia characterized by the presence of megaloblasts in the bone marrow. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a type of macrocytic anemia ID#: D000749

Anemia, Myelophthisic

Definition: Anemia characterized by appearance of immature myeloid and nucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral blood, resulting from infiltration of the bone marrow by foreign or abnormal tissue. Annotation: ID#: D000750

Anemia, Neonatal

Definition: The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; check the tag INFANT, NEWBORN ID#: D000751

Anemia, Pernicious

Definition: A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a type of megaloblastic anemia ID#: D000752

Anemia, Refractory

Definition: A severe sometimes chronic anemia, usually macrocytic in type, that does not respond to ordinary antianemic therapy. Annotation: ID#: D000753

Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts

Definition: Chronic refractory anemia with granulocytopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia. Myeloblasts and progranulocytes constitute 5 to 40 percent of the nucleated marrow cells. Annotation: ID#: D000754

Anemia, Sickle Cell

Definition: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S. Annotation: PL 92-294: Natl Sickle Cell Anemia Control Act; sickle cell dis goes here unless specifically HEMOGLOBIN SC DISEASE or HEMOGLOBIN C DISEASE or SICKLE CELL TRAIT or THALASSEMIA; /drug ther: consider also ANTISICKLING AGENTS ID#: D000755

Anemia, Sideroblastic

Definition: Anemia characterized by the presence of erythroblasts containing excessive deposits of iron in the marrow. Annotation: ID#: D000756


Definition: A malformation of the nervous system caused by failure of the anterior neuropore to close. Infants are born with intact spinal cords, cerebellums, and brainstems, but lack formation of neural structures above this level. The skull is only partially formed but the eyes are usually normal. This condition may be associated with folate deficiency. Affected infants are only capable of primitive (brain stem) reflexes and usually do not survive for more than two weeks. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p247) Annotation: ID#: D000757


Definition: A sac formed by the dilatation of the wall of an artery, a vein, or the heart. Annotation: IM; coord with specific vessel (IM) or precoord vasc dis if available (IM); also available are AORTIC ANEURYSM; INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM; CORONARY ANEURYSM; HEART ANEURYSM; ILIAC ANEURYSM; rupture = ANEURYSM, RUPTURED (see note there) ID#: D000783

Aneurysm, Dissecting

Definition: Splitting or dissection of an arterial wall by blood entering through an intimal tear or by interstitial hemorrhage. It is most common in the aorta. Annotation: most commonly of aortic aneurysms but when aortic coord IM with AORTIC ANEURYSM (IM); for other arteries, coord IM with specific artery or precoord artery/diseases term (IM) ID#: D000784

Aneurysm, False

Definition: An aneurysm in which the entire wall is injured and the blood is contained by the surrounding tissues, with eventual formation of a sac communicating with the artery or heart. (Dorland, 28th ed) Annotation: IM; coord with specific vessel (IM) or precoord vasc dis if available (IM) ID#: D017541

Aneurysm, Infected

Definition: Aneurysm due to growth of microorganisms in the arterial wall, or infection arising within preexisting arteriosclerotic aneurysms. Annotation: coord IM with specific bact or fungal infect (IM); note X refs ANEURYSM, BACTERIAL & ANEURYSM, MYCOTIC: do not coord with BACTERIAL INFECTIONS or MYCOSES if the specific bacterium or fungus is not specified ID#: D000785

Aneurysm, Ruptured

Definition: The tearing or herniation of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac. Annotation: IM; coord with specific vessel (IM) or precoord vasc dis if available (IM); if spontaneous, coord with RUPTURE, SPONTANEOUS (NIM) ID#: D017542

Angelman Syndrome

Definition: A syndrome characterized by multiple abnormalities, MENTAL RETARDATION, and movement disorders. Present usually are skull and other abnormalities, frequent infantile spasms (SPASMS, INFANTILE); easily provoked and prolonged paroxysms of laughter (hence "happy"); jerky puppetlike movements (hence "puppet"); continuous tongue protrusion; motor retardation; ATAXIA; MUSCLE HYPOTONIA; and a peculiar facies. It is associated with maternal deletions of chromosome 15q11-13 and other genetic abnormalities. (From Am J Med Genet 1998 Dec 4;80(4):385-90; Hum Mol Genet 1999 Jan;8(1):129-35) Annotation: ID#: D017204

Angina Pectoris

Definition: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION. Annotation: ID#: D000787

Angina Pectoris, Variant

Definition: A clinical syndrome characterized by the development of CHEST PAIN at rest with concomitant transient ST segment elevation in the electrocardiogram, but with preserved exercise capacity. Annotation: ID#: D000788

Angina, Unstable

Definition: Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. Annotation: ID#: D000789


Definition: Degenerative, acquired lesions consisting of distorted, dilated, thin-walled vessels lined by vascular endothelium. This pathological state is seen especially in the gastrointestinal tract and is frequently a cause of upper and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in the elderly. Annotation: acquired only: congen = ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; seen often in gastrointestinal tract ID#: D016888


Definition: A benign neoplasm of fibrous tissue in which there are numerous small and large, frequently dilated, vascular channels. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018322

Angioid Streaks

Definition: Small breaks in the elastin-filled tissue of the retina. Annotation: ID#: D000793


Definition: A vascular, horny neoplasm of the skin characterized by TELANGIECTASIS and secondary epithelial changes including acanthosis and hyperkeratosis. Annotation: coord IM with SKIN NEOPLASMS (IM) + site (IM or NIM) if relevant ID#: D000794


Definition: A benign neoplasm composed of a mixture of adipose tissue and blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018206

Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia

Definition: Solitary or multiple benign cutaneous nodules comprised of immature and mature vascular structures intermingled with endothelial cells and a varied infiltrate of eosinophils, histiocytes, lymphocytes, and mast cells. Annotation: DF: ALHE ID#: D000796


Definition: Annotation: non-neoplastic; coord IM with precoord organ/dis term (IM) ID#: D000798

Angiomatosis, Bacillary

Definition: An infectious bacterial disease characterized by cutaneous vascular lesions. It is caused by BARTONELLA HENSELAE and is seen in AIDS patients and other immunocompromised hosts. Annotation: gram-neg bact infect caused by Bartonella henselae; seen in AIDS & other immunocompromised states ID#: D016917


Definition: A benign tumor containing vascular, adipose, and muscle elements. It occurs most often in the kidney with smooth muscle elements (angiolipoleiomyoma) in association with tuberous sclerosis. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018207


Definition: A benign tumor consisting of vascular and smooth muscle elements. Annotation: coord IM with organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018229

Angioneurotic Edema

Definition: Recurring attacks of transient edema suddenly appearing in areas of the skin or mucous membranes and occasionally of the viscera, often associated with dermatographism, urticaria, erythema, and purpura. Annotation: a vasc dis, a form of urticaria ID#: D000799

Animal Diseases

Definition: Annotation: avoid: too general; IM general only for unspecified animal & unspecified disease; NIM with specific animal (IM) for which no precoord animal/diseases term exists; do not use at all when a specific dis /vet is used; do not forget also to check tag ANIMAL; policy: Manual 23.33+; animal neopl: Manual 24.6+; TN 136; TN 193 ID#: D000820


Definition: A congenital abnormality in which there is only a rudimentary iris. This is due to the failure of the optic cup to grow. Aniridia also occurs in a hereditary form, usually autosomal dominant. Annotation: rudimentary iris; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D015783


Definition: Infection with roundworms of the genus ANISAKIS. Human infection results from the consumption of fish harboring roundworm larvae. The worms may cause acute nausea and vomiting or may penetrate into the wall of the digestive tract, where they give rise to eosinophilic granulomas in the stomach, intestine, or the omentum. Annotation: roundworm infect of intestines ID#: D017129


Definition: A condition in which the ocular image of an object as seen by one eye differs in size and shape from that seen by the other. Annotation: refractive error in which each eye sees a different size & shape of an object ID#: D000839


Definition: Unequal pupil size, which may represent a benign physiologic variant or a manifestion of disease. Pathologic anisocoria reflects an abnormality in the musculature of the iris (IRIS DISEASES) or in the parasympathetic or sympathetic pathways that innervate the pupil. Physiologic anisocoria refers to an asymmetry of pupil diameter, usually less than 2mm, that is not associated with disease. Annotation: consider also PUPIL DISORDERS or MIOSIS ID#: D015875


Definition: A condition of an inequality of refractive power of the two eyes. Annotation: ID#: D015858

Ankle Injuries

Definition: Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source. Annotation: consider also TARSAL BONES /inj ID#: D016512


Definition: Fixation and immobility of a joint. Annotation: ID#: D000844


Definition: Congenital absence of the teeth; it may involve all (total anodontia) or only some of the teeth (partial anodontia, hypodontia), and both the deciduous and the permanent dentition, or only teeth of the permanent dentition. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: congen absence of teeth; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; congen absence of one or more teeth: do not confuse with JAW, EDENTULOUS (total lack of teeth in either jaw through disease or extraction), JAW, EDENTULOUS, PARTIALLY (partial lack in either jaw) or MOUTH, EDENTULOUS (total lack of teeth in both jaws through disease or extraction) ID#: D000848


Definition: A language dysfunction characterized by the inability to name people and objects that are correctly perceived. The individual is able to describe the object in question, but cannot provide the name. This condition is associated with lesions of the dominant hemisphere involving the language areas, in particular the TEMPORAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p484) Annotation: inability to name objects: do not confuse with ANOMIE ("state of social disorganization & demoralization in society...", often called "anomia") ID#: D000849


Definition: Congenital absence of the eye or eyes. Annotation: absence of one or both eyes; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D000853


Definition: Clinical manifestation of respiratory distress consisting of relatively complete absence of oxygen in arterial blood. Annotation: differentiate from ANOXIA ID#: D000859


Definition: Clinical manifestation of respiratory distress consisting of a relatively complete absence of oxygen. Annotation: differentiate from ANOXEMIA; do not confuse X ref HYPOXIA with HYPEROXIA; fetal anoxia = FETAL ANOXIA; CEREBRAL ANOXIA see HYPOXIA, BRAIN; restrict to dis or clin state in human & higher animals: do not confuse with anoxic or hypoxic state in lower animals or micro-organisms ( = OXYGEN or ANAEROBIOSIS); TN 145: ANOXIA & HYPOXIA see ANOXIA as clin entities in C23 & not for decrease of oxygen in tissues & cells ( = CELL HYPOXIA) ID#: D000860

Anterior Compartment Syndrome

Definition: Rapid swelling, increased tension, pain, and ischemic necrosis of the muscles of the anterior tibial compartment of the leg, often following excessive exertion. Annotation: in tibia; note X ref: restricted to anterior muscle ID#: D000868

Anterior Spinal Artery Syndrome

Definition: Ischemia or infarction of the spinal cord in the distribution of the anterior spinal artery, which supplies the ventral two-thirds of the spinal cord. This condition is usually associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS of the aorta and may result from dissection of an AORTIC ANEURYSM or rarely dissection of the anterior spinal artery. Clinical features include weakness and loss of pain and temperature sensation below the level of injury, with relative sparing of position and vibratory sensation. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1249-50) Annotation: ID#: D020759


Definition: A mixed condition of anthracosis and silicosis. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: anthracosis with silicosis; do not coord with OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES ID#: D000874


Definition: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics. Annotation: Bacillus infect; human & animal; /vet permitted ID#: D000881

Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease

Definition: Glomerulonephritis, usually of a generalized proliferative crescent-forming histologic type with a rapidly progressive course, marked by circulating anti-GBM antibodies and linear deposits of immunoglobulin and complement along the glomerular basement membrane. When associated with pulmonary hemorrhage the condition is called GOODPASTURE SYNDROME. (Dorland, 28th ed) Annotation: a type of glomerulonephritis; DF: note short X ref ID#: D019867

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Definition: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR). Annotation: an autoimmune dis, not a metab dis ID#: D016736

Antithrombin III Deficiency

Definition: An absence or reduced level of Antithrombin III leading to an increased risk for thrombosis. Annotation: ID#: D020152


Definition: Inability to form or excrete urine. Annotation: do not confuse with OLIGURIA, diminished amount ID#: D001002

Anus Diseases

Definition: Annotation: inflamm dis = PROCTITIS ID#: D001004

Anus Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the ANUS. Annotation: do not confuse with ANAL GLAND NEOPLASMS (in animals only); coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D001005

Anus, Imperforate

Definition: Persistence of the anal membrane, so that the anus is closed. The defect is not always complete; sometimes a narrow opening permits the passage of the bowel contents. When completely imperforate, the anus is seen as a dimple (the proctodeal pit) in the skin of the perineum. The latter condition is often associated with atresia of the lower rectum. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D001006

Aortic Aneurysm

Definition: Aneurysm of the aorta. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specific sites; ruptured aortic aneurysm = AORTIC RUPTURE; for dissecting aneurysm of aorta, coord IM with ANEURYSM, DISSECTING (IM) ID#: D001014

Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal

Definition: An aneurysm in that part of the aorta continuing from the thoracic region and giving rise to the inferior phrenic, lumbar, median sacral, mesenteric, renal, and ovarian or testicular arteries. Annotation: dissecting aneurysm: coord IM with ANEURYSM, DISSECTING (IM); rupture: coord IM with AORTIC RUPTURE (IM) ID#: D017544

Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic

Definition: An aneurysm in the proximal portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and giving rise to the bronchial, esophageal, pericardiac, and mediastinal branches. Annotation: dissecting aneurysm, coord IM with ANEURYSM, DISSECTING (IM); rupture: coord IM with AORTIC RUPTURE (IM) ID#: D017545

Aortic Arch Syndromes

Definition: Any of a group of disorders leading to occlusion of the arteries arising from the aortic arch. Such occlusion may be caused by atherosclerosis, arterial embolism, syphilitic or tuberculous arteritis, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: occlusion of aortic arch from various causes ID#: D001015

Aortic Coarctation

Definition: Narrowing of the lumen of the aorta, caused by deformity of the aortic media. Annotation: narrowing of the aorta lumen; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D001017

Aortic Diseases

Definition: Annotation: locate as AORTA, ABDOMINAL or AORTA, THORACIC (NIM); inflamm dis = AORTITIS but note AORTITIS, SYPHILITIC see SYPHILIS, CARDIOVASCULAR ID#: D001018

Aortic Rupture

Definition: Tearing of aortic tissue. It may be rupture of an aneurysm or it may be due to trauma. Annotation: do not coord with RUPTURE, SPONTANEOUS unless particularly discussed & then only NIM ID#: D001019

Aortic Stenosis, Subvalvular

Definition: A narrowing of the aorta in the region below the aortic valve. Annotation: ID#: D001020

Aortic Stenosis, Supravalvular

Definition: A narrowing of the aorta in the region above the aortic valve. Annotation: ID#: D021921

Aortic Valve Insufficiency

Definition: Backflow of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle, owing to imperfect functioning of the aortic semilunar valve. Annotation: imperfect closing of valve ID#: D001022

Aortic Valve Prolapse

Definition: The downward displacement of the cuspal material (misalignment of the cusps) below a line joining points of attachment of the aortic valve leaflets. The prolapsed cusp may occlude the ventricular septal defect during ventricular diastole. Annotation: ID#: D001023

Aortic Valve Stenosis

Definition: Constriction in the opening of the aortic valve or of the supravalvular or subvalvular regions. Annotation: aortic valve atresia = AORTIC VALVE /abnorm ID#: D001024


Definition: Inflammation of the wall of the aorta. Annotation: inflamm of aorta ID#: D001025

Aortopulmonary Septal Defect

Definition: A congenital anomaly in which there is abnormal communication between the ascending aorta and pulmonary artery just above the semilunar valves. Annotation: abnorm commun between aorta & pulm artery; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; DF: AORTOPULM SEPTAL DEFECT ID#: D001028

Ape Diseases

Definition: Diseases of apes (PONGIDAE). This term includes diseases of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. Annotation: dis of apes, gorillas, chimpanzees & orangutans; coord IM with specific animal (IM) + specific dis /vet (IM); for abnormalities or injuries, index under specific ape heading /abnorm or /inj; don't forget also PONGIDAE (NIM) if no specific ape is indexed; also check tag ANIMAL; DF: APE DIS ID#: D018420


Definition: Absence of crystalline lens totally or partially from field of vision, from any cause except after cataract extraction. Aphakia is mainly congenital or as result of LENS DISLOCATION AND SUBLUXATION. Annotation: absence of lens from any cause (congen, inj, dis); /congen permitted; after cataract extract = APHAKIA, POSTCATARACT; "aphakic eye" is probably APHAKIA, POSTCATARACT but PSEUDOPHAKIA is available for the postcataract eye fitted with an intraocular lens ID#: D001035

Aphakia, Postcataract

Definition: Absence of the crystalline lens resulting from cataract extraction. Annotation: "aphakic eye" probably goes here unless truly congen ( = APHAKIA /congen); do not coord with CATARACT EXTRACTION unless particularly discussed; PSEUDOPHAKIA is available for the postcataract eye with an intraocular lens ID#: D001036


Definition: A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D001037

Aphasia, Broca

Definition: An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive language (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the frontal lobe (Broca's area and adjacent cortical and white matter regions). The deficits range from almost complete muteness to a reduction in the fluency and rate of speech. CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS (in particular INFARCTION, MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY) are a relatively common cause of this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp478-9) Annotation: subject understands language but cannot express it; do not confuse with APHASIA, WERNICKE where subject does not understand language ID#: D001039

Aphasia, Conduction

Definition: A type of fluent aphasia characterized by an impaired ability to repeat one and two word phrases, despite retained comprehension. This condition is associated with dominant hemisphere lesions involving the arcuate fasciculus (a white matter projection between Broca's and Wernicke's areas) and adjacent structures. Like patients with Wernicke aphasia (APHASIA, WERNICKE), patients with conduction aphasia are fluent but commit paraphasic errors during attempts at written and oral forms of communication. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p482; Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p142; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p848) Annotation: ID#: D018886

Aphasia, Wernicke

Definition: Impairment in the comprehension of speech and meaning of words, both spoken and written, and of the meanings conveyed by their grammatical relationships in sentences. It is caused by lesions that primarily affect Wernicke's area, which lies in the posterior perisylvian region of the temporal lobe of the dominant hemisphere. (From Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p141; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p846) Annotation: do not confuse with APHASIA, BROCA where subject understands language but cannot express it ID#: D001041


Definition: Complete loss of phonation due to organic disease of the larynx or to nonorganic (i.e., psychogenic) causes. Annotation: ID#: D001044


Definition: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration. Annotation: do not confuse APNEA with other resp disord: use only when text uses APNEA; apnea neonatorum = APNEA + check tags INFANT, NEWBORN + HUMAN ID#: D001049

Appendiceal Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the appendix. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D001063


Definition: Acute inflammation of the vermiform appendix. Annotation: ruptured or perforated appendix goes here (IM) + INTESTINAL PERFORATION (IM) + RUPTURE, SPONTANEOUS (NIM) ID#: D001064


Definition: A general term collectively applied to tumors associated with the APUD cell series irrespective of their specific identification. Annotation: for derivation of word see note on APUD; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with organ /neopl term (IM) ID#: D001079


Definition: The effects, both local and systemic, caused by a venomous spider, scorpion, mite, or tick bite. Annotation: from bite of poisonous spider; includes scorpion stings; coord with biting organism ID#: D001098

Arachnoid Cysts

Definition: Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. They are most often developmental or related to trauma. Intracranial arachnoid cysts usually occur adjacent to arachnoidal cistern and may present with HYDROCEPHALUS; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and focal neurologic signs. Spinal arachnoid cysts may be extradural, intradural, or perineural and tend to present with signs and symptoms indicative of a RADICULOPATHY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch44, pp105-115) Annotation: non-neoplastic ID#: D016080


Definition: Acute or chronic inflammation of the arachnoid membrane of the meninges most often involving the spinal cord or base of the brain. This term generally refers to a persistent inflammatory process characterized by thickening of the ARACHNOID membrane and dural adhesions. Associated conditions include prior surgery, infections, trauma, SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, and chemical irritation. Clinical features vary with the site of inflammation, but include cranial neuropathies, radiculopathies, and myelopathies. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch48, p25) Annotation: ID#: D001100

Arbovirus Infections

Definition: Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified. Annotation: GEN; consider also 2 major groups, BUNYAVIRUS INFECTIONS & TOGAVIRUS INFECTIONS or specifics ID#: D001102

Arcus Senilis

Definition: A corneal disease in which there is a deposition of phospholipid and cholesterol in the corneal stroma and anterior sclera. Annotation: cholesterol or hyalin deposits in cornea causing opacity; frequent in those over 50 ID#: D001112

Arenaviridae Infections

Definition: Virus diseases caused by the ARENAVIRIDAE. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D001117


Definition: A permanent ashen-gray discoloration of the skin, conjunctiva, and internal organs resulting from long-continued use of silver salts. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: caused by prolonged use of silver salts ID#: D001129

Arm Injuries

Definition: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; consider also /inj with specific bones of arm; also available are FOREARM INJURIES; HAND INJURIES; FINGER INJURIES; WRIST INJURIES & many specific organ/fract precoords ID#: D001134

Arnold-Chiari Malformation

Definition: A group of congenital malformations involving the brainstem, cerebellum, upper spinal cord, and surrounding bony structures. Type II is the most common, and features compression of the medulla and cerebellar tonsils into the upper cervical spinal canal and an associated MENINGOMYELOCELE. Type I features similar, but less severe malformations and is without an associated meningomyelocele. Type III has the features of type II with an additional herniation of the entire cerebellum through the bony defect involving the foramen magnum, forming an ENCEPHALOCELE. Type IV is a form a cerebellar hypoplasia. Clinical manifestations of types I-III include TORTICOLLIS; opisthotonus; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS; APNEA; NYSTAGMUS; swallowing difficulties; and ATAXIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p261; Davis, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp236-46) Annotation: do not confuse with CHIARI'S SYNDROME see HEPATIC VEIN THROMBOSIS ID#: D001139


Definition: Any variation from the normal rhythm or rate of the heart beat. Annotation: GEN: prefer specifics; /drug ther: consider also ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS ID#: D001145

Arrhythmia, Sinus

Definition: Irregularity of the heart rate related to functioning of the sinoatrial node. Annotation: sinus refers to sinoatrial node; sinus parasystole: coord IM with PARASYSTOLE (IM) ID#: D001146

Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia

Definition: A congenital cardiomyopathy in which transmural infiltration of adipose tissue results in weakness and aneurysmal bulging of the infundibulum, apex, and posterior basilar region of the right ventricle and leads to ventricular tachycardia arising in the right ventricle. (Dorland, 28th ed) Annotation: a congen myocardial dis; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; DF: ARVD ID#: D019571

Arsenic Poisoning

Definition: Disorders associated with acute or chronic exposure to compounds containing ARSENIC (ARSENICALS) which may be fatal. Acute oral ingestion is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and an encephalopathy which may manifest as SEIZURES, mental status changes, and COMA. Chronic exposure is associated with mucosal irritation, desquamating rash, myalgias, peripheral neuropathy, and white transverse (Mees) lines in the fingernails. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1212) Annotation: coord IM with specific arsenic cpd (IM) if given ID#: D020261

Arterial Occlusive Diseases

Definition: Diseases in which arterial vessels are partially or completely obstructed or in which the blood flow through the vessels is impeded. Annotation: IM for general or specific artery occlusion (as POPLITEAL ARTERY (IM) + ARTERIAL OCCLUSIVE DISEASES (IM)) ID#: D001157

Arterio-Arterial Fistula

Definition: Abnormal communication between two arteries that may result from injury or occur as a congenital abnormality. Annotation: coord IM with specific arteries (IM) or precoord artery/dis term (IM); if congenital use /abnorm on the arteries and /congen on the artery/dis term and fistula ID#: D001159


Definition: Thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls. Atherosclerosis is the most common form of arteriosclerosis and involves lipid deposition and thickening of the intimal cell layers within arteries. Additional forms of arteriosclerosis involve calcification of the media of muscular arteries (Monkeberg medial calcific sclerosis) and thickening of the walls of small arteries or arterioles due to cell proliferation or hyaline deposition (arteriolosclerosis). Annotation: CORONARY ARTERIOSCLEROSIS & INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS are also available; ID#: D001161

Arteriosclerosis Obliterans

Definition: Arteriosclerosis in which proliferation of the intima leads to occlusion of the lumen of the arteries. Annotation: TN 11: relation to other obliterative arterial dis ID#: D001162

Arteriovenous Fistula

Definition: An abnormal communication between an artery and a vein. Annotation: do not confuse with ARTERIOVENOUS ANASTOMOSIS (Cat A); coord IM with specific artery /abnorm + specific vein /abnorm (IM) or precoord vessel/dis headings (IM); Manual 23.19.6+; congen cerebral arteriovenous fistula = INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS (IM) + ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA /congen (IM); surgically created arteriovenous fistula = ARTERIOVENOUS SHUNT, SURGICAL ID#: D001164

Arteriovenous Malformations

Definition: Abnormal, tangled collections of dilated blood vessels that result from congenitally malformed vascular structures in which arterial afferents flow directly into venous efferents without the usual resistance of an intervening capillary bed. A common type is the congenital arteriovenous fistula (ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA /congenital). For arteriovenous malformations in the brain, INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS is available. (From Merck Manual, 15th ed) Annotation: GEN or unspecified; coord IM with specific artery /abnorm (IM) + specific vein /abnorm (IM) or specific available precoord arterial or venous abnorm (IM); do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D001165


Definition: Inflammation of an artery. Annotation: GEN on unspecified inflamm of an artery; coord IM with specific artery (IM) ID#: D001167

Arterivirus Infections

Definition: Infections caused by viruses of the genus ARTERIVIRUS. Annotation: caused by an RNA virus ID#: D018174


Definition: Annotation: inflamm: do not confuse with ARTHRALGIA which is non-inflamm; note X ref POLYARTHRITIS but polyarthrite chronique évolutive (PCE) = ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATOID; septic arthritis = ARTHRITIS, INFECTIOUS; tends to be chronic so do not coord with CHRONIC DISEASE; degenerative arthritis = OSTEOARTHRITIS; ARTHRITIS, PSORIATIC is also available ID#: D001168

Arthritis, Experimental

Definition: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN. Annotation: coord with specific type of arthritis if pertinent ID#: D001169

Arthritis, Gouty

Definition: Arthritis, especially of the great toe, as a result of gout. Acute gouty arthritis often is precipitated by trauma, infection, surgery, etc. The initial attacks are usually monoarticular but later attacks are often polyarticular. Annotation: arthritis caused by gout ID#: D015210

Arthritis, Infectious

Definition: Arthritis caused by bacteria, rickettsiae, mycoplasmas, viruses, fungi, or parasites. Bacterial arthritis is frequently caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Viral arthritis is less common than bacterial arthritis and may be a manifestation of such viral diseases as mumps, rubella, hepatitis, etc. Annotation: not restricted to bact infect; coord IM with specific infection (IM) & site (IM) ID#: D001170

Arthritis, Juvenile Rheumatoid

Definition: Rheumatoid arthritis of children occurring in three major subtypes defined by the symptoms present during the first six months following onset: systemic-onset (Still's Disease, Juvenile-Onset) polyarticular-onset, and pauciarticular-onset. Adult-onset cases of Still's disease (STILL'S DISEASE, ADULT-ONSET) are also known. Only one subtype of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent. Annotation: for subtypes read MeSH definition; do not confuse X ref STILL'S DISEASE, JUVENILE-ONSET with STILL'S DISEASE, ADULT-ONSET ID#: D001171

Arthritis, Psoriatic

Definition: Syndrome in which psoriasis is associated with arthritis, often involving inflammation in terminal interphalangeal joints. A rheumatoid factor is not usually present in the sera of affected individuals. Annotation: ID#: D015535

Arthritis, Reactive

Definition: An abacterial form of arthritis developing after infection at a site distant from the affected joint or joints. The causative bacteria cannot be cultured from synovial specimens but bacterial antigens have been demonstrated in cells from the synovial fluid and membrane. It often follows Yersinia infection. Annotation: coord IM with specific infect or organism/infect precoord (IM) ID#: D016918

Arthritis, Rheumatoid

Definition: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated. Annotation: in children = ARTHRITIS, JUVENILE RHEUMATOID; includes PCE: polyarthrite chronique évolutive; tends to be chronic so do not coord with CHRONIC DISEASE ID#: D001172


Definition: Persistent flexure or contracture of a joint. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: "persistent flexure or contracture of a joint"; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D001176

Arthropathy, Neurogenic

Definition: Chronic progressive degeneration of the stress-bearing portion of a joint, with bizarre hypertrophic changes at the periphery. It is probably a complication of a variety of neurologic disorders, particularly TABES DORSALIS, involving loss of sensation, which leads to relaxation of supporting structures and chronic instability of the joint. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: ID#: D001177

Arthus Reaction

Definition: A dermal inflammatory reaction produced under conditions of antibody excess, when a second injection of antigen produces intravascular antigen-antibody complexes which bind complement, causing cell clumping, endothelial damage, and vascular necrosis. Annotation: note category; an inflamm skin reaction to antibody excess ID#: D001183

Articulation Disorders

Definition: Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes. Annotation: note categories: "articulation" refers to speech, not to joints ID#: D001184


Definition: A form of lung disease (pneumoconiosis) caused by inhaling fibers of asbestos and marked by interstitial fibrosis of the lung varying in extent from minor involvement of the basal areas to extensive scarring. It is associated with pleural mesothelioma and bronchogenic carcinoma. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: pneumoconiosis from asbestos fibers; do not coord with OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES; for emphasis on presence of asbestos fibers, MINERAL FIBERS is available: see note there ID#: D001195


Definition: Infection by nematodes of the genus ASCARIS. Ingestion of infective eggs causes diarrhea and pneumonitis. Its distribution is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation and where human feces are used for fertilizer. Annotation: nematode infect caused by ASCARIS; do not confuse with ACARIASIS, mite infestation or ASCARIDIASIS, infection with ASCARIDIA; coord IM with species (IM) ID#: D001196


Definition: Infection with nematodes of the genus ASCARIDIA. This condition usually occurs in fowl, often manifesting diarrhea. Annotation: nematode infect caused by ASCARIDIA; do not confuse with ASCARIASIS (caused by ASCARIS) or ACARIASIS (caused by ACARI or ACARUS) or with ASCARIDIDA INFECTIONS ID#: D001198

Ascaridida Infections

Definition: Infections with nematodes of the order ASCARIDIDA. Annotation: nematoda infect caused by ASCARIDIDA; do not confuse with ASCARIDIASIS (caused by ASCARIDIA) ID#: D017191


Definition: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity. Annotation: do not index here for routine liver cirrhosis or Ehrlich ascites tumor; text must discuss ascites especially; chylous ascites: index CHYLOPERITONEUM ID#: D001201

Ascorbic Acid Deficiency

Definition: A condition due to a dietary deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), characterized by malaise, lethargy, and weakness. As the disease progresses, joints, muscles, and subcutaneous tissues may become the sites of hemorrhage. Ascorbic acid deficiency frequently develops into SCURVY in young children fed unsupplemented cow's milk exclusively during their first year. It develops also commonly in chronic alcoholism. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1177) Annotation: note X ref; DF: ASCORBIC ACID DEFIC ID#: D001206


Definition: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS. Annotation: fungus dis; specify species (IM) if pertinent; coord IM with precoord organ/dis term (IM); of lung = ASPERGILLOSIS (IM) + LUNG DISEASES, FUNGAL (IM) for non-allergic pulm aspergillosis but ASPERGILLOSIS, ALLERGIC BRONCHOPULMONARY for allergic pulm aspergillosis ID#: D001228

Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary

Definition: Aspergillosis of the lung occurring in an individual with long-standing bronchial asthma. It is characterized by pulmonary infiltrates, eosinophilia, elevated serum IgE and immediate type skin reactivity to aspergillus antigen. Annotation: fungus dis; do not coord with BRONCHIAL DISEASES nor with LUNG DISEASES, FUNGAL; note "allergic": non-allergic pulm aspergillosis = ASPERGILLOSIS (IM) + LUNG DISEASES, FUNGAL (IM); DF: ABPA or BRONCHOPULM ASPERG ID#: D001229


Definition: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life. Annotation: in newborn inf = ASPHYXIA NEONATORUM + tag INFANT, NEWBORN; choking: use AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION ID#: D001237

Asphyxia Neonatorum

Definition: Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; tag INFANT, NEWBORN ID#: D001238


Definition: Clinical sign or symptom manifested as debility, or lack or loss of strength and energy. Annotation: NEUROCIRCULATORY ASTHENIA is also available ID#: D001247


Definition: Term generally used to describe complaints related to refractive error, ocular muscle imbalance, including pain or aching around the eyes, burning and itchiness of the eyelids, ocular fatigue, and headaches. Annotation: ocular fatigue ID#: D001248


Definition: A form of bronchial disorder associated with airway obstruction, marked by recurrent attacks of paroxysmal dyspnea, with wheezing due to spasmodic contraction of the bronchi. Annotation: do not coord with BRONCHIAL DIS for X ref ASTHMA, BRONCHIAL; /drug ther: consider also ANTI-ASTHMATIC AGENTS; ASTHMA, CARDIAC see DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL is available ID#: D001249

Asthma, Exercise-Induced

Definition: Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it). Annotation: ID#: D001250


Definition: Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: refractive error ID#: D001251


Definition: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082) Annotation: coord IM with precoord CNS/neopl term (IM) + site (IM); Grades I-III go here, with pathol; for ASTROCYTOMA, GRADE IV see GLIOBLASTOMA; for SUBEPENDYMAL ASTROCYTOMA see GLIOMA, SUBEPENDYMAL; for MIXED OLIGODENDROGLIOMA-ASTROCYTOMA see OLIGODENDROGLIOMA ID#: D001254

Astroviridae Infections

Definition: Infections with ASTROVIRUS, causing gastroenteritis in human infants, calves, lambs, and piglets. Annotation: caused by Astrovirus ID#: D019350


Definition: Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharnyx, larnyx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions. Annotation: note specifics; coord other ataxias with organ/diseases term; enzootic = SWAYBACK; familial: consider also SPINOCEREBELLAR DEGENERATIONS ID#: D001259

Ataxia Telangiectasia

Definition: An autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by choreoathetosis beginning in childhood, progressive cerebellar ataxia, telangiectasis of conjunctiva and skin, dysarthria, B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, and sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Affected individuals are prone to recurrent sinobronchopulmonary infections, lymphoreticular neoplasms, and other malignancies. Serum ALPHA-FETOPROTEINS are usually elevated. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p688) The gene for this disorder has been mapped to the long arm of chromosome 11 (11q22.3). Annotation: ID#: D001260


Definition: Annotation: = lung collapse, any part of the lung ID#: D001261


Definition: A dyskinesia characterized by an inability to maintain the fingers, toes, tongue, or other body parts in a stable position, resulting in continuous slow, sinusoidal, and flowing involuntary movements. This condition is frequently accompanied by CHOREA, where it is referred to as choreoathetosis. Athetosis may occur as a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES or DRUG TOXICITY, NERVOUS SYSTEM. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p76) Annotation: choreoathetosis = CHOREA (IM) + ATHETOSIS (IM) ID#: D001264

Athletic Injuries

Definition: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports. Annotation: GEN only: prefer specific sport /inj; when GEN, coord IM with specific inj (IM); Manual 30.15.1: relation to SPORTS MEDICINE; consider also TENNIS ELBOW but see note there ID#: D001265

Atrial Fibrillation

Definition: Disorder of cardiac rhythm characterized by rapid, irregular atrial impulses and ineffective atrial contractions. Annotation: do not confuse with ATRIAL FLUTTER ID#: D001281

Atrial Flutter

Definition: Rapid, irregular atrial contractions due to an abnormality of atrial excitation. Annotation: do not confuse with ATRIAL FIBRILLATION ID#: D001282

Atrial Premature Complexes

Definition: Premature contractions of the heart arising from an ectopic atrial focus. With ventricular premature complexes, they represent one of the most common causes of irregular pulse. They are more apt to occur if there is atrial or conduction system disease such as left atrial enlargement in mitral stenosis. In community prospective studies, atrial premature complexes are not related to sudden death, as are ventricular premature beats in coronary disease. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed, p679; Sokolow, et al., Clinical Cardiology, 5th ed, p472) Annotation: a type of arrhythmia ID#: D018880


Definition: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes. Annotation: NIM; coord with organ/pathol (IM) ID#: D001284

Auditory Diseases, Central

Definition: Disorders of hearing or auditory perception resulting from disease of the central auditory pathways or auditory association cortical areas. These include HEARING LOSS, CENTRAL; cortical deafness; and AUDITORY PERCEPTUAL DISORDERS. Above the level of the pons, bilateral lesions are usually required to produce auditory dysfunction. Annotation: Coord IM with site (IM) ID#: D001304

Autoimmune Diseases

Definition: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides. Annotation: AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM is available ID#: D001327

Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System

Definition: Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME). Annotation: DF: AUTOIMMUNE DIS NERVOUS SYSTEM ID#: D020274


Definition: The spontaneous disintegration of tissues or cells by the action of their own autogenous enzymes. Annotation: restrict to humans and higher animals; BACTERIOLYSIS is also available ID#: D001329

Autonomic Dysreflexia

Definition: A syndrome associated with damage to the spinal cord above the mid thoracic level (see SPINAL CORD INJURIES) characterized by a marked increase in the sympathetic response to minor stimuli such as bladder or rectal distention. Manifestations include HYPERTENSION; TACHYCARDIA (or reflex bradycardia); FEVER; FLUSHING; and HYPERHIDROSIS. Extreme hypertension may be associated with a CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp538 and 1232; J Spinal Cord Med 1997;20(3):355-60) Annotation: ID#: D020211

Autonomic Nervous System Diseases

Definition: Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION. Annotation: do not confuse X ref DYSAUTONOMIA with DYSAUTONOMIA, FAMILIAL ID#: D001342

Avian Leukosis

Definition: A group of transmissible viral diseases of chickens and turkeys. Liver tumors are found in most forms, but tumors can be found elsewhere. Annotation: don't forget also BIRDS (NIM) or specific bird (IM) & check tag ANIMAL ID#: D001353


Definition: A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: includes hypovitaminosis; GEN: prefer specifics: avitaminosis A = VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY, etc. ID#: D001361