Index of Diseases



Definition: General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease. Annotation: WASTING SYNDROME is also available: do not make diagnosis, use words of text ID#: D002100


Definition: A dead body, usually a human body. Annotation: NIM for cadaveric organs in transpl; do not index here routinely for postmortem studies, article must be on cadavers as a corpse; AUTOPSY is available for the procedure and /pathol is available for postmortem pathol ID#: D002102

Cadmium Poisoning

Definition: Poisoning occurring after exposure to cadmium compounds or fumes. It may cause gastrointestinal syndromes, anemia, or pneumonitis. Annotation: occup cadmium pois: coord IM with OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES (IM) but not also ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE (see note there) ID#: D002105

Cafe-au-Lait Spots

Definition: Light brown pigmented macules associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS and Albright's syndrome (see FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, POLYOSTOTIC). Annotation: a pigmentation disord; spell in titles & translations with hyphens & accent: café-au-lait ID#: D019080


Definition: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues. Annotation: deposition of calcium salts in tissues; most texts will say "calcification"; coord IM with organ/diseases term (IM); for calcinosis of the heart, coord IM with MYOCARDIAL DISEASES (IM), not HEART DISEASES ID#: D002114


Definition: Condition of induced systemic hypersensitivity in which tissues respond to appropriate challenging agents with a sudden local calcification. Annotation: hypersensitivity with sudden local calcification ID#: D002115

Calcium Metabolism Disorders

Definition: Disorders in the processing of calcium in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; DF: CALCIUM METAB DIS ID#: D002128


Definition: An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones. Annotation: GEN or unspecified: prefer specifics; coord IM with organ/diseases term (IM); chem composition of calculi: use /chem; /ultrastruct permitted; chemolysis of calculi: coord dis with /ther, not /drug ther ID#: D002137

Caliciviridae Infections

Definition: Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D017250


Definition: Localized hyperplasia of the horny layer of the epidermis due to pressure or friction. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: callous goes here: do not confuse with BONY CALLUS, post-fract bone formation ID#: D002145

Campylobacter Infections

Definition: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER. Annotation: gram-neg bact infect ID#: D002169

Canavan Disease

Definition: A rare neurodegenerative condition of infancy or childhood characterized by white matter vacuolization and demeylination that gives rise to a spongy appearance. Aspartoacylase deficiency leads to an accumulation of N-acetylaspartate in astrocytes. Inheritance may be autosomal recessive or the illness may occur sporadically. This illness occurs more frequently in individuals of Ashkenazic Jewish descent. The neonatal form features the onset of hypotonia and lethargy at birth, rapidly progressing to coma and death. The infantile form features developmental delay, DYSKINESIAS, hypotonia, spasticity, blindness, and megalencephaly. The juvenile form is characterized by ATAXIA; OPTIC ATROPHY; and DEMENTIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p944; Am J Med Genet 1988 Feb;29(2):463-71) Annotation: do not confuse X ref CANAVAN-VAN BOGAERT-BERTRAN SYNDROME with VAN BOGAERT'S LEUKOENCEPHALITIS see SUBACUTE SCLEROSING PANENCEPHALITIS; DF: CANAVAN DIS ID#: D017825


Definition: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: fungus dis; do not bother to coord with CANDIDA or CANDIDA ALBICANS ID#: D002177

Candidiasis, Chronic Mucocutaneous

Definition: A clinical syndrome characterized by development, usually in infancy or childhood, of a chronic, often widespread candidiasis of skin, nails, and mucous membranes. It may be secondary to one of the immunodeficiency syndromes, inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, or associated with defects in cell-mediated immunity, endocrine disorders, dental stomatitis, or malignancy. Annotation: fungus dis of skin; do not bother to coord with CANDIDA or CANDIDA ALBICANS ID#: D002178

Candidiasis, Cutaneous

Definition: Candidiasis of the skin manifested as eczema-like lesions of the interdigital spaces, perleche, or chronic paronychia. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: fungus dis of skin; do not bother to coord with CANDIDA or CANDIDA ALBICANS ID#: D002179

Candidiasis, Oral

Definition: Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: fungus dis of mouth; do not bother to coord with CANDIDA or CANDIDA ALBICANS ID#: D002180

Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal

Definition: Infection of the vulva and vagina with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. Annotation: fungus dis; do not bother to coord with CANDIDA or CANDIDA ALBICANS ID#: D002181

Capillary Leak Syndrome

Definition: A rare and sometimes fatal disease characterized by recurring attacks of leakage of intravascular fluids into the extravascular space. This syndrome is observed in patients who demonstrate a state of generalized leaky capillaries following shock syndromes, low-flow states, ischemia-reperfusion injuries, toxemias, or poisoning. It can lead to generalized edema and MULTIPLE ORGAN FAILURE. (Zikria, et al. (eds.), Reperfusion Injuries and Clinical Capillary Leak Syndrome, pp. 470-72, 1994) Annotation: ID#: D019559

Caplan's Syndrome

Definition: Pneumoconiosis associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Annotation: "pneumoconiosis assoc with rheum arthritis"; do not coord with OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES ID#: D002205

Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase I Deficiency Disease

Definition: A urea cycle disorder manifesting in infancy as lethargy, emesis, seizures, alterations of muscle tone, abnormal eye movements, and an elevation of serum ammonia. The disorder is caused by a reduction in the activity of hepatic mitochondrial CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA). (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp50-1) Annotation: consider also CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA)/defic; DF: CP SYNTHASE I DEFIC DIS ID#: D020165

Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors

Definition: Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; coord IM with specific carbohydrate /metab (IM); FRUCTOSE METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS & PYRUVATE METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are also available; DF: CARB METAB INBORN ERR ID#: D002239

Carbohydrate-Deficient Glycoprotein Syndrome

Definition: An inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism manifesting as a genetic multisystem disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. A predominant feature is severe central and peripheral nervous system involvement resulting in psychomotor retardation, seizures, cerebellar ataxia, and other symptoms which include growth retardation, retinitis pigmentosa, hypothyroidism, and fatty liver. The notable biochemical feature is the deficiency of a large number of blood glycoproteins and decreased activities of various blood coagulation factors. Annotation: an inborn error of carbohydrate metab; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; DF: CARB DEFIC GLYCOPROTEIN SYNDROME ID#: D018981

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Definition: Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide. Annotation: ID#: D002249

Carbon Tetrachloride Poisoning

Definition: Annotation: DF: CCL4 POIS ID#: D002252


Definition: An infection of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue that consists of a cluster of boils. Commonly, the causative agent is STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS. Carbuncles produce fever, leukocytosis, extreme pain, and prostration. Annotation: usually caused by Staph; malignant carbuncle = ANTHRAX ID#: D002270

Carcinoid Heart Disease

Definition: Cardiac manifestation of MALIGNANT CARCINOID SYNDROME. It is a unique form of fibrosis involving the endocardium, primarily of the right heart. The fibrous deposits tend to cause constriction of the tricuspid and pulmonary valves. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1307) Annotation: do not use /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct ID#: D002275

Carcinoid Tumor

Definition: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM); consider also MALIGNANT CARCINOID SYNDROME or CARCINOID HEART DISEASE ID#: D002276


Definition: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: do not use for "cancer" routinely: use only for carcinoma as a histological type: Manual; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM); X ref CARCINOMA, ANAPLASTIC: do not coord with ANAPLASIA unless anaplasia is particularly discussed ID#: D002277

Carcinoma 256, Walker

Definition: A transplantable carcinoma of the rat that originally appeared spontaneously in the mammary gland of a pregnant albino rat, and which now resembles a carcinoma in young transplants and a sarcoma in older transplants. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: exper neopl; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; don't forget check tag ANIMAL ID#: D002279

Carcinoma in Situ

Definition: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane. Annotation: coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D002278

Carcinoma, Acinar Cell

Definition: A malignant tumor arising from secreting cells of a racemose gland, particularly the salivary glands. Racemose (Latin racemosus, full of clusters) refers, as does acinar (Latin acinus, grape), to small saclike dilatations in various glands. Acinar cell carcinomas are usually well differentiated and account for about 13% of the cancers arising in the parotid gland. Lymph node metastasis occurs in about 16% of cases. Local recurrences and distant metastases many years after treatment are common. This tumor appears in all age groups and is most common in women. (Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018267

Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic

Definition: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D003528

Carcinoma, Adenosquamous

Definition: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018196

Carcinoma, Adrenal Cortical

Definition: A malignant neoplasm of adrenal cortical cells demonstrating partial or complete histological and functional differentiation. They are rare, comprising between only 0.05% and 0.2% of all cancers. Women develop functional adrenal cortical carcinomas more commonly than men, but men develop nonfunctioning ones more often than women. Hypercortisolism is the most common presentation for this cancer. Virilism and Cushing's syndrome may also result. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1286) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with ADRENAL CORTEX NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018268

Carcinoma, Basal Cell

Definition: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). More than 95% of these carcinomas occur in patients over 40. They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with probably SKIN NEOPLASMS (IM); X ref RODENT ULCER: do not coord with ULCER ID#: D002280

Carcinoma, Basosquamous

Definition: A skin carcinoma that histologically exhibits both basal and squamous elements. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with probably SKIN NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D002281

Carcinoma, Bronchogenic

Definition: A cancer of the lung, so-called because it arises from the epithelium of the bronchial tree. It is not a histologic designation despite the name. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with LUNG NEOPLASMS (IM), not BRONCHIAL NEOPLASMS; do not confuse X ref CARCINOMA, BRONCHIAL with BRONCHIAL NEOPLASMS ID#: D002283

Carcinoma, Brown-Pearce

Definition: Annotation: exper neopl; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; don't forget check tag ANIMAL ID#: D002284

Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor

Definition: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms. Annotation: exper neopl; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; note X ref: do not also index under ASCITES; don't forget check tag ANIMAL ID#: D002286

Carcinoma, Embryonal

Definition: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with OVARIAN NEOPLASMS (IM) or TESTICULAR NEOPLASMS (IM) & appropriate check tags ID#: D018236

Carcinoma, Endometrioid

Definition: Ovarian carcinoma which resembles typical carcinoma of the endometrium and may be seen with a synchronous endometrial carcinoma. When they appear together, both tend to be of low stage. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1665) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with OVARIAN NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018269

Carcinoma, Giant Cell

Definition: An epithelial neoplasm characterized by unusually large anaplastic cells. It is highly malignant with fulminant clinical course, bizarre histologic appearance and poor prognosis. It is most common in the lung and thyroid. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018286

Carcinoma, Hepatocellular

Definition: Primary carcinoma of the liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor difficult to distinguish from normal hepatocytes to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic or may form giant cells. Several classification schemes have been suggested. Annotation: human & vet only: note X ref HEPATOMA: also available is HEPATOMA, EXPERIMENTAL see LIVER NEOPLASMS, EXPERIMENTAL for exper anim; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with LIVER NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D006528

Carcinoma, Infiltrating Duct

Definition: An invasive (infiltrating) carcinoma of the breast. This carcinoma in which no special histological feature is recognized is designated NOS or Not Otherwise Specified and is by far the most common ductal tumor, accounting for almost 70% of breast cancers. It is characterized by stony hardness upon palpation. It commonly metastasizes to the axillary lymph nodes and its prognosis is the poorest of the various ductal types. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205) Annotation: duct refers to mammary ducts only; do not confuse X ref CARCINOMA, DUCTAL with CARCINOMA, INTRADUCTAL see CARCINOMA, INTRADUCTAL, NONINFILTRATING; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with BREAST NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018270

Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating

Definition: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma. Annotation: intraductal refers to mammary ducts only; do not confuse X ref CARCINOMA, INTRADUCTAL with CARCINOMA, DUCTAL see CARCINOMA, INFILTRATING DUCT; coord IM with BREAST NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D002285

Carcinoma, Islet Cell

Definition: A carcinoma of the islets of Langerhans. Annotation: coord IM with PANCREATIC NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018273

Carcinoma, Krebs 2

Definition: Annotation: exper neopl; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; don't forget check tag ANIMAL ID#: D002287

Carcinoma, Large Cell

Definition: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term but probably LUNG NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018287

Carcinoma, Lewis Lung

Definition: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy. Annotation: exper neopl; do not confuse text ref LLC for Lewis Lung Carcinoma with LLC-PK1 CELLS where LLC stands for Lilly Laboratories Cell; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; don't forget check tag ANIMAL ID#: D018827

Carcinoma, Lobular

Definition: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with BREAST NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018275

Carcinoma, Medullary

Definition: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018276

Carcinoma, Merkel Cell

Definition: A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with SKIN NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D015266

Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid

Definition: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018277

Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine

Definition: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992) Annotation: blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018278

Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung

Definition: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. They are dealt with collectively because of the shared properties of poor response to conventional chemotherapy and the potential for cure with surgical resection in a fraction of patients. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with LUNG NEOPLASMS (IM); do not confuse with CARCINOMA, LARGE CELL or CARCINOMA, SMALL CELL; DF: NSCLC ID#: D002289

Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal

Definition: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS. Annotation: coord IM with PANCREATIC NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D021441

Carcinoma, Papillary

Definition: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D002291

Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular

Definition: A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with THYROID NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018265

Carcinoma, Renal Cell

Definition: Carcinoma of the renal parenchyma usually occurring in middle age or later and composed of tubular cells in varying arrangements. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with KIDNEY NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D002292

Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell

Definition: A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system. Annotation: coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018279

Carcinoma, Skin Appendage

Definition: A malignant tumor of the skin appendages, which include the hair, nails, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and the mammary glands. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with SKIN NEOPLASMS (IM) + SKIN APPENDAGE DISEASES (IM) or specific precoord skin appendage/neopl term (IM) or specific skin appendage (IM) ID#: D018280

Carcinoma, Small Cell

Definition: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. There are admixtures of small cell lung carcinoma with other types of lung cancer. Small cell carcinomas are distinguished by their distinctive biological features, response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and by their nearly universal tendency to develop overt or subclinical metastases, which frequently eliminates surgery in most patients. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with LUNG NEOPLASMS (IM); do not confuse with CARCINOMA, NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG; DF: SCLC ID#: D018288

Carcinoma, Squamous Cell

Definition: A carcinoma derived from stratified squamous epithelium. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D002294

Carcinoma, Transitional Cell

Definition: A malignant neoplasm derived from transitional epithelium, occurring chiefly in the urinary bladder, ureters or renal pelves (especially if well differentiated), frequently papillary. Transitional cell carcinomas are graded 1 to 3 or 4 according to the degree of anaplasia, grade 1 appearing histologically benign but being liable to recurrence. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D002295

Carcinoma, Verrucous

Definition: A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018289


Definition: A malignant neoplasm that contains elements of carcinoma and sarcoma so extensively intermixed as to indicate neoplasia of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D002296

Cardiac Complexes, Premature

Definition: A premature contraction of the heart that is initiated somewhere other than the sinoatrial node. Annotation: GEN or unspecified: atrial = ATRIAL PREMATURE COMPLEXES & ventric = VENTRICULAR PREMATURE COMPLEXES ID#: D005117

Cardiac Output, High

Definition: A state of elevated cardiac output. Conditions that lower peripheral vascular resistance, such as anemia, arteriovenous fistulas, thyrotoxicosis, and pregnancy, are among the most important factors augmenting the venous return and therefore elevating cardiac output. Increased cardiac output also occurs in muscular exercise, fever, and severe anoxia. Annotation: note category: do not confuse with CARDIAC OUTPUT, a physiol concept ID#: D016534

Cardiac Output, Low

Definition: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output, usually seen in patients with heart failure secondary to coronary artery, hypertensive, primary myocardial, valvular, or pericardial disease. Annotation: note category: do not confuse with CARDIAC OUTPUT, a physiol concept; note X ref LOW CARDIAC OUTPUT SYNDROME: do not add SYNDROME ID#: D002303

Cardiac Tamponade

Definition: Annotation: compression of heart from pericardial effusion or hemopericardium ID#: D002305


Definition: Hypertrophy or enlargement of the heart. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR or HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR; do not confuse with CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC: see note there ID#: D006332

Cardiomyopathy, Alcoholic

Definition: Cardiomyopathy resulting from: (1) a toxic effect of alcohol on the myocardium; (2) thiamine deficiency due to malnutrition in alcoholics; or (3) a toxic effect of cobalt additives in beer in heavy beer drinkers. This disease is usually manifested by dyspnea and palpitations with cardiomegaly and congestive heart failure. Annotation: ID#: D002310

Cardiomyopathy, Congestive

Definition: A syndrome characterized by cardiac enlargement and congestive heart failure. It probably represents the end result of many forms of myocardial damage produced by a variety of toxic, metabolic, or infectious agents. Annotation: heart enlargement with congestive heart failure; do not confuse with HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE ID#: D002311

Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic

Definition: A myocardial disease characterized by hypertrophy, involving mainly the interventricular septum, interfering with left ventricular emptying. Annotation: DF: SUBVALV STENOSIS ID#: D002312

Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic, Familial

Definition: An inherited form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. It is associated with mutations of genes coding for heart muscle proteins. Annotation: ID#: D024741

Cardiomyopathy, Restrictive

Definition: Myocardial disease in which the ventricular walls are excessively rigid, impeding ventricular filling; it is marked by abnormal diastolic function but by normal or nearly normal systolic function. Annotation: rigid ventricle walls of heart ID#: D002313

Cardiovascular Abnormalities

Definition: Congenital structural abnormalities of the cardiovascular system. Annotation: for congen struct abnorm only; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics or specific organ /abnorm but article is more likely to be on HEART DEFECTS, CONGENITAL: check text; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; DF: CARDIOVASC ABNORM ID#: D018376

Cardiovascular Diseases

Definition: Annotation: GEN: avoid; prefer specifics; /diag: consider also DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES, CARDIOVASCULAR; DF: CARDIOVASC DIS ID#: D002318

Cardiovirus Infections

Definition: Infections caused by viruses of the genus CARDIOVIRUS, family PICORNAVIRIDAE. Annotation: caused by a picornavirus ID#: D018188

Caroli's Disease

Definition: Congenital cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. It consists of 2 types: simple, with bile duct dilatation or ectasia alone, and complex, with associated extensive hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension. Benign renal tubular ectasia is associated with both types. Annotation: congen cystic dilat of intrahepatic bile ducts; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; DF: CAROLI DIS ID#: D016767

Carotid Artery Diseases

Definition: Diseases of the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and trauma are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; coord IM with CAROTID ARTERY, COMMON; CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL or CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL (IM) if pertinent ID#: D002340

Carotid Artery Injuries

Definition: Blunt and penetrating traumatic injuries of the common, internal, or external carotid arteries which may result from CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damage to the artery may lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and internal carotid artery dissection (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL, DISSECTION). Clinical manifestations (e.g., stroke, HORNER SYNDROME) may be immediate or delayed. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997 Sep;18(3):251-7; J Trauma 1994 Sep;37(3):473-9) Annotation: GEN or unspecified; coord (IM) with specific carotid artery/inj (IM) ID#: D020212

Carotid Artery Thrombosis

Definition: Blood clot formation in the common, internal, or external carotid artery which may produce stenosis or occlusion of the vessel, leading to ischemia or infarction of tissue supplied by these arteries. Thrombosis of the common and internal carotid arteries may result in ISCHEMIC ATTACKS, TRANSIENT; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX. Annotation: coord IM with specific carotid artery (IM) if pertinent ID#: D002341

Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection

Definition: A hemorrhage into the wall of the carotid artery, separating the intima from the media and leading to aneurysm formation. This process may occlude the carotid artery and result in thromboembolic complications, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Dissections may occur spontaneously or follow CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and rarely severe bouts of coughing. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p830) Annotation: ID#: D020215

Carotid Body Tumor

Definition: An invariably benign, encapsulated, firm round mass at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery, with nests of large polyhedral cells in alveolar or organoid arrangement. It is usually asymptomatic but large masses may encroach upon the parapharyngeal space and produce dysphagia, pain, and cranial nerve palsies. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp570-71) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; organ/neopl & histol coords not necessary ID#: D002345

Carotid Stenosis

Definition: Narrowing or stricture of the internal, common, or external carotid artery, most often as a result of atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce thrombus formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a transient ischemic attack (ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT) or CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT. Emboli which travel to the eye may manifest as AMAUROSIS FUGAX (temporary blindness). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp822-3) Annotation: coord IM with specific carotid artery (IM) ID#: D016893

Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula

Definition: Laceration of the intracavernous portion of the carotid artery or one of its intracavernous branches resulting in a direct communication between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Clinically, this produces a pulsatile exophthalamus and a marked limitation of extraocular motion in the affected eye. CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, especially basilar skull fractures (SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR) is the most common cause of this condition, but it may also occur spontaneously or in association with diseases featuring defective connective tissue, such as EHLERS-DANLOS SYNDROME. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p877) Annotation: ID#: D020216

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Definition: Entrapment of the MEDIAN NERVE in the carpal tunnel, which is formed by the flexor retinaculum and the CARPAL BONES. This syndrome may be associated with repetitive occupational trauma (CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS); wrist injuries; AMYLOID NEUROPATHIES; rheumatoid arthritis (see ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATOID); ACROMEGALY; PREGNANCY; and other conditions. Symptoms include burning pain and paresthesias involving the ventral surface of the hand and fingers which may radiate proximally. Impairment of sensation in the distribution of the median nerve and thenar muscle atrophy may occur. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p45) Annotation: ID#: D002349

Cartilage Diseases

Definition: Annotation: GEN; inflamm dis (chondritis) is likely to be OSTEOCHONDRITIS ID#: D002357

Cat Diseases

Definition: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used. Annotation: IM GEN or unspecified; coord IM with specific dis /vet (IM) or specific cat dis (IM); for abnormalities or injuries, index under CATS /abnorm or CATS /inj; does not include diseases of the so-called "big cats" (LIONS; CHEETAHS; tigers, panthers, etc.); don't forget also check tags CATS (NIM) & ANIMAL; DF: CAT DIS ID#: D002371

Cat-Scratch Disease

Definition: A self-limiting bacterial infection of the regional lymph nodes caused by AFIPIA felis, a gram-negative bacterium recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and by BARTONELLA HENSELAE. It usually arises one or more weeks following a feline scratch, with raised inflammatory nodules at the site of the scratch being the primary symptom. Annotation: coord IM with AFIPIA (IM) or BARTONELLA HENSELAE (IM) if appropriate ID#: D002372


Definition: A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions. Annotation: ID#: D002375


Definition: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: lens opacity; do not confuse X ref PSEUDOAPHAKIA (a synonym for membranous cataract) with PSEUDOPHAKIA, the presence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction ID#: D002386

Catastrophic Illness

Definition: An acute or prolonged illness usually considered to be life-threatening or with the threat of serious residual disability. Treatment may be radical and is frequently costly. Annotation: usually GEN & IM; if a specific catastrophic illiness, coord NIM with specific dis (IM) ID#: D002388

Cattle Diseases

Definition: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus. Annotation: IM GEN or unspecified; coord IM with specific dis /vet (IM) or specific cattle dis (IM); for abnormalities or injuries, index under CATTLE /abnorm or CATTLE /inj; includes diseases of yaks & zebus but does not include diseases of BISON or BUFFALOES; don't forget also check tags CATTLE (NIM) & ANIMAL; DF: CATTLE DIS ID#: D002418


Definition: A complex regional pain syndrome characterized by burning pain and marked sensitivity to touch (HYPERESTHESIA) in the distribution of an injured peripheral nerve. Autonomic dysfunction in the form of sudomotor (i.e., sympathetic innervation to sweat glands), vasomotor, and trophic skin changes may also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1359) Annotation: coord IM with specific nerve (IM) ID#: D002422

Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis

Definition: Formation of a blood clot composed of platelets and fibrin in the CAVERNOUS SINUS of the brain. Infections of the paranasal sinuses and adjacent structures, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, and THROMBOPHILIA are associated conditions. Clinical manifestations include dysfunction of cranial nerves III, IV, V, and VI, marked periorbital swelling, chemosis, fever, and visual loss. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p711) Annotation: ID#: D020226

Cecal Diseases

Definition: Annotation: GEN: prefer specifics; cecitis = CECAL DISEASES (IM) + INFLAMMATION (NIM) ID#: D002429

Cecal Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the cecum. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D002430

Celiac Disease

Definition: A disease characterized by intestinal malabsorption and precipitated by gluten-containing foods. The intestinal mucosa shows loss of villous structure. Annotation: intestinal malabsorpt in child or adult; non-tropical sprue: do not confuse X ref SPRUE with SPRUE, TROPICAL ID#: D002446

Cell Transformation, Neoplastic

Definition: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill. Annotation: do not confuse with CELL DIFFERENTIATION, a normal process in morphogenesis; Manual; DF: CELL TRANSFORM NEOPL ID#: D002471


Definition: An acute, diffuse, and suppurative inflammation of loose connective tissue, particularly the deep subcutaneous tissues, and sometimes muscle, which is most commonly seen as a result of infection of a wound, ulcer, or other skin lesions. Annotation: "cellulite" in Amer or Eng lit is indexed under OBESITY (IM) + ADIPOSE TISSUE (IM), in French lit "cellulite" can be "cellulite" or CELLULITIS ID#: D002481


Definition: An odontogenic fibroma in which cells have developed into cementoblasts and which consists largely of cementum. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D002485

Central Cord Syndrome

Definition: A syndrome associated with traumatic injury to the cervical or upper thoracic regions of the spinal cord characterized by weakness in the arms with relative sparing of the legs and variable sensory loss. This condition is associated with ischemia, hemorrhage, or necrosis involving the central portions of the spinal cord. Corticospinal fibers destined for the legs are spared due to their more external location in the spinal cord. This clinical pattern may emerge during recovery from spinal shock. Deficits may be transient or permanent. Annotation: coord IM with specific vertebrae (NIM) to locate site on spinal cord ID#: D020210

Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections

Definition: Bacterial infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges, including infections involving the perimeningeal spaces. Annotation: coord IM with precoord bacterial infection (IM) and specific site/dis term (IM) if pertinent; DF: CNS BACT INFECT ID#: D020806

Central Nervous System Cysts

Definition: Congenital or acquired cysts of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges which may remain stable in size or undergo progressive enlargement. Annotation: coord with organ neopl site ID#: D020863

Central Nervous System Diseases

Definition: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord. Annotation: GEN: prefer specifics; DF: CNS DIS ID#: D002493

Central Nervous System Fungal Infections

Definition: MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME). Annotation: coord IM with precoord fungal infection (IM) and specific site/dis term (IM) if pertinent; DF: CNS FUNGAL INFECT ID#: D020314

Central Nervous System Helminthiasis

Definition: Infections of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; or MENINGES caused by HELMINTHS (parasitic worms). Annotation: ID#: D020809

Central Nervous System Infections

Definition: Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; coord IM with specific site/dis term (IM) if pertinent; DF: CNS INFECT ID#: D002494

Central Nervous System Neoplasms

Definition: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges. Annotation: GEN or unspecified, prefer specifics; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM); DF: CNS NEOPL ID#: D016543

Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections

Definition: Infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges caused by parasites, primarily PROTOZOA and HELMINTHS. Annotation: coord IM with precoord parasitic infection (IM) and site/dis term (IM) if pertinent; DF: CNS PARASITIC INFECT ID#: D020807

Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections

Definition: Infections of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges by single celled organisms of the subkingdom PROTOZOA. The central nervous system may be the primary or secondary site of protozoal infection. Examples of primary infections include cerebral amebiasis, granulomatous amebic encephalitis, primary amebic meningoencephalitis, and TRYPANOSOMIASIS, AFRICAN. Cerebral malaria, cerebral babesiosis, and chagasic meningoencephalitis are examples of secondary infections. These diseases may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp37-47) Annotation: coord IM with specific protozoan infection (IM) and specific site/dis term (IM) if pertinent; DF: CNS PROTOZOAL INFECT ID#: D020808

Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations

Definition: Congenital or acquired malformations involving arteries, veins, or venous sinuses of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. Annotation: do not confuse x-refs CAPILLARY TELANGIECTASIA, BRAIN and PONTINE CAPILLARY TELANGIECTASIAS with TELEANGIECTASIS ID#: D020785

Central Nervous System Venous Angioma

Definition: A congenital anomaly characterized by clusters of dilated hypertrophic veins surrounded by normal nervous system tissue. The blood vessels have thin walls composed of a single layer of fibromuscular tissue lined by epithelium. These lesions may occur in the brain, but are more frequent in the spinal cord and spinal meninges. The incidence of hemorrhage is relatively low, but when it occurs it may be associated with venous infarctions of the nervous system. (From Davis et al., Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp628-9) Annotation: ID#: D020787

Central Nervous System Viral Diseases

Definition: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces. Annotation: coord IM with specific virus disease (IM) and specific site/dis term if pertinent; DF: CNS VIRAL DIS ID#: D020805

Cerebellar Ataxia

Definition: Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of rapidly alternating movements (adiadochokinesis), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90) Annotation: dentate cerebellar ataxia = MYOCLONIC CEREBELLAR DYSSYNERGIA; familial: consider also SPINOCEREBELLAR DEGENERATION ID#: D002524

Cerebellar Diseases

Definition: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA. Annotation: GEN: prefer specifics ID#: D002526

Cerebellar Neoplasms

Definition: Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141) Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D002528

Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

Definition: A heterogeneous group of disorders that includes sporadic and familial forms, characterized clinically by cerebral ischemia (see BRAIN ISCHEMIA), CEREBRAL INFARCTION, and CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE. Pathologically the condition is marked by the deposition of AMYLOID in the walls of small blood vessels in the cerebral cortex and meninges. The sporadic form is associated with lobar cerebral hemorrhage in the elderly and ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (From Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 1996 Jun;22(3):216-227; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p852) Annotation: /genet:consider also CEREBRAL AMYLOID ANGIOPATHY, FAMILIAL ID#: D016657

Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Familial

Definition: A familial condition marked by the deposition of AMYLOID in the walls of small blood vessels in the cerebral cortex and meninges and characterized clinically by cerebral ischemia (see BRAIN ISCHEMIA), CEREBRAL INFARCTION, and CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE.. Annotation: ID#: D028243

Cerebral Arterial Diseases

Definition: Diseases of intracranial arteries which supply the cerebrum of the brain, including the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY. Included in this category are atherosclerotic, congenital, traumatic, infectious, inflammatory, and other conditions. Annotation: coord IM with specific artery (IM); see note under CEREBRAL ARTERIES for scope of "cerebral arteries" ID#: D002539

Cerebral Hemorrhage

Definition: Bleeding into a cerebral hemisphere of the brain, including lobar, subcortical white matter, and basal ganglia hemorrhages. Commonly associated conditions include HYPERTENSION; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS; INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; CEREBRAL AMYLOID ANGIOPATHY; and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Annotation: ID#: D002543

Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic

Definition: Bleeding into the CEREBRAL CORTEX; CORPUS CALLOSUM; BASAL GANGLIA, or subcortical white matter following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY, cerebral edema, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION are frequently associated conditions. Relatively frequent clinical manifestations include SEIZURES; APHASIA; VISION DISORDERS; MOVEMENT DISORDERS; PARALYSIS, and COMA. Annotation: coord with specific site ID#: D020202

Cerebral Infarction

Definition: The formation of an area of necrosis in the cerebrum caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction). Annotation: DF: CEREBRAL INFARCT ID#: D002544

Cerebral Palsy

Definition: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7) Annotation: do not index under MUSCLE SPASTICITY unless especially discussed & then only NIM ID#: D002547

Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms

Definition: Neoplasms located in the brain ventricles, including the two lateral, the third, and the fourth ventricle. Ventricular tumors may be primary (e.g., CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS and GLIOMA, SUBEPENDYMAL), metastasize from distant organs, or occur as extensions of locally invasive tumors from adjacent brain structures. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D002551

Cerebrospinal Fluid Otorrhea

Definition: Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the external auditory meatus or through the eustachian tube into the nasopharynx. This is usually associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE involving the TEMPORAL BONE), NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES, or other conditions, but may rarely occur spontaneously. (From Am J Otol 1995 Nov;16(6):765-71) Annotation: DF: CSF OTORRHEA ID#: D002558

Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea

Definition: Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose. Common etiologies include trauma, neoplasms, and prior surgery, although the condition may occur spontaneously. (Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997 Apr;116(4):442-9) Annotation: DF: CSF RHINORRHEA ID#: D002559

Cerebrovascular Accident

Definition: A sudden, nonconvulsive loss of neurologic function due to an ischemic or hemorrhagic intracranial vascular event. In general, cerebrovascular accidents are classified by anatomic location in the brain, vascular distribution, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. nonhemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810) Annotation: note X ref APOPLEXY but PITUITARY APOPLEXY is available ID#: D020521

Cerebrovascular Disorders

Definition: A broad category of disorders characterized by impairment of blood flow in the arteries and veins which supply the brain. These include CEREBRAL INFARCTION; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; HYPOXIA, BRAIN; INTRACRANIAL EMBOLISM AND THROMBOSIS; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; and VASCULITIS, CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. In common usage, the term cerebrovascular disorders is not limited to conditions that affect the cerebrum, but refers to vascular disorders of the entire brain including the DIENCEPHALON; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM. Annotation: GEN ID#: D002561

Cerebrovascular Trauma

Definition: Penetrating and nonpenetrating traumatic injuries to an extracranial or intracranial blood vessel that supplies the brain. This includes the CAROTID ARTERIES, vertebral arteries (VERTEBRAL ARTERY), and intracranial arteries, veins, and venous sinuses. Annotation: GEN or unspecified only: prefer specific vessel/inj ID#: D020214

Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Definition: A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with CERVIX NEOPLASMS (IM); DF: CIN ID#: D018290

Cervical Rib Syndrome

Definition: A condition associated with compression of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS; SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY; and SUBCLAVIAN VEIN at the thoracic outlet and caused by a complete or incomplete anomalous cervical rib or fascial band connecting the tip of a cervical rib with the first thoracic rib. Clinical manifestations may include pain in the neck and shoulder which radiates into the upper extremity, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of brachial plexus innervated muscles; sensory loss; PARESTHESIAS; ISCHEMIA; and EDEMA. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p214) Annotation: ID#: D002573


Definition: Inflammation of the cervix uteri. (Dorland 27th ed) Annotation: inflamm of cervix uteri ID#: D002575

Cervix Diseases

Definition: Annotation: inflamm dis = CERVICITIS ID#: D002577

Cervix Dysplasia

Definition: A spectrum of histologic changes in the epithelium of the cervix uteri which may begin as a superficial lesion and progress to invasive carcinoma. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted ID#: D002578

Cervix Erosion

Definition: Annotation: ID#: D002579

Cervix Incompetence

Definition: Habitual abortion in which painless bloodless dilatation of the cervix in the second trimester of pregnancy is followed by rupture of membranes and expulsion of a fetus so immature that it usually dies. Annotation: leads to habitual abortion; check tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY ID#: D002581

Cervix Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the uterine cervix. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D002583

Cestode Infections

Definition: Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA. Annotation: helminth infect; GEN only; prefer specifics; /drug ther: consider also ANTICESTODAL AGENTS ID#: D002590

Chagas Cardiomyopathy

Definition: Cardiomyopathy with conduction defects and cardiac enlargement characteristic of the last phase of CHAGAS DISEASE. Annotation: a cardiac form of trypanosomiasis; coord IM with specific heart disease (NIM) ID#: D002598

Chagas Disease

Definition: A form of trypanosomiasis endemic in Central and South America, caused by TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI. It may follow either an acute or chronic course, the former commonly in children. Annotation: protozoan infect caused by TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI so do not coord with TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI for trypanosomiasis cruzi; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY is also available: see note there ID#: D014355


Definition: A non-neoplastic cyst of the MEIBOMIAN GLANDS of the eyelid. Annotation: ID#: D017043


Definition: The primary sore of syphilis, a painless indurated, eroded papule, occurring at the site of entry of the infection. Annotation: primary lesion of syphilis: do not confuse with CHANCROID (caused by Haemophilus ducreyi) ID#: D002601


Definition: Acute, localized autoinoculable infectious disease usually acquired through sexual contact. Caused by HAEMOPHILUS DUCREYI, it occurs endemically almost worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical countries and more commonly in seaports and urban areas than in rural areas. Annotation: caused by Haemophilus ducreyi; do not confuse with CHANCRE, the primary lesion of syphilis ID#: D002602

Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

Definition: A hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy transmitted most often as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by progressive distal wasting and loss of reflexes in the muscles of the legs (and occasionally involving the arms). Onset is usually in the second to fourth decade of life. This condition has been divided into two subtypes, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) types I and II. HMSN I is associated with abnormal nerve conduction velocities and nerve hypertrophy, features not seen in HMSN II. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343) Annotation: ID#: D002607

Chediak-Higashi Syndrome

Definition: A form of phagocyte bactericidal dysfunction characterized by unusual oculocutaneous albinism, high incidence of lymphoreticular neoplasms, and recurrent pyogenic infections. In many cell types, abnormal lysosomes are present leading to defective pigment distribution and abnormal neutrophil functions. The disease is transmitted by autosomal recessive inheritance and a similar disorder occurs in the beige mouse, the Aleutian mink, and albino Hereford cattle. Annotation: "a form of phagocyte bactericidal dysfunct" ID#: D002609


Definition: Inflammation of the lips. It is of various etiologies and degrees of pathology. Annotation: inflamm of the lips ID#: D002613


Definition: A fibro-osseous hereditary disease of the jaws. The swollen jaws and raised eyes give a cherubic appearance; multiple radiolucencies are evident upon radiographic examination. Annotation: ID#: D002636

Chest Pain

Definition: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest. Annotation: cardiac = probably ANGINA PECTORIS ID#: D002637

Cheyne-Stokes Respiration

Definition: An abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by alternating periods of apnea and deep, rapid breathing. The cycle begins with slow, shallow breaths that gradually increase in depth and rate and is then followed by a period of apnea. The period of apnea can last 5 to 30 seconds, then the cycle repeats every 45 seconds to 3 minutes. Annotation: ID#: D002639

Chiari-Frommel Syndrome

Definition: Persistent lactation and amenorrhea following pregnancy. Annotation: persistent lactation & amenorrhea after pregn ID#: D002640


Definition: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It usually affects children, is spread by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei, and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: caused by a herpesvirus ID#: D002644


Definition: Recurrent localized itching, swelling and painful erythema on the fingers, toes or ears, produced by exposure to cold. It is also called pernio. Annotation: a form of frostbite ID#: D002647

Child Nutrition Disorders

Definition: Malnutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years, which is due to insufficient intake of food, dietary nutrients, or a pathophysiologic condition which prevents the absorption and utilization of food. Growth and development are markedly affected. Annotation: check the tag CHILD or specific age group ID#: D015362


Definition: The sudden sensation of being cold. It may be accompanied by SHIVERING. Annotation: ID#: D023341

Chlamydia Infections

Definition: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA. Annotation: infect by genus Chlamydia: do not confuse with CHLAMYDIACEAE INFECTIONS (family); Chlamydophila psittaci infect = ORNITHOSIS; Chlamydia trachomatis infect: see note under CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS; DF: CHLAMYDIA INFECT ID#: D002690

Chlamydiaceae Infections

Definition: Infections with bacteria of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE. Annotation: rickettsial infect ID#: D002694

Chlamydophila Infections

Definition: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDOPHILA. Annotation: ID#: D023521

Choanal Atresia

Definition: Congenital bony or membranous occlusion of one or both choanae, due to failure of the embryonic bucconasal membrane to rupture. Annotation: nose abnorm; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D002754


Definition: A malignant tumor arising from the intrahepatic bile duct epithelium. It is composed of ducts lined by cuboidal or columnar cells that do not contain bile, with abundant stroma. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1455; Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with BILE DUCT NEOPLASMS (IM) + BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC (IM) ID#: D018281


Definition: Inflammation of a bile duct. Annotation: inflamm of a bile duct ID#: D002761

Cholangitis, Sclerosing

Definition: Chronic, nonbacterial inflammatory narrowing of the bile ducts. About 50% of the cases are associated with ulcerative colitis. Treatment is to relieve the obstruction by balloon dilatation or surgery. Annotation: inflamm narrowing of a bile duct ID#: D015209


Definition: Inflammation of the gallbladder. Annotation: inflamm of gallbladder; X ref EMPYEMA, GALLBLADDER: restrict to gallbladder; "biliary empyema": unless of gallbladder, index under EMPYEMA (IM) + BILIARY TRACT DISEASES (IM) or specific biliary precoord ID#: D002764

Choledochal Cyst

Definition: A congenital cystic dilatation of the common bile duct; this condition may be asymptomatic, or cause vomiting, fever, jaundice, or pain in the right upper quadrant. Annotation: non-neoplastic; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted ID#: D015529


Definition: Presence or formation of gallstones. Annotation: calculi of gallbladder or bile ducts; assume to be of gallbladder & do not coord with GALLBLADDER DISEASES; calculi of bile ducts: coord IM with BILE DUCT DISEASES (NIM) but calculi of specific bile duct, coord IM with specific duct (IM); chem composition of calculi: use /chem; /ultrastruct permitted; note COMMON BILE DUCT CALCULI is available ID#: D002769


Definition: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated. Annotation: caused by Vibrio cholerae ID#: D002771

Cholera Morbus

Definition: A once popular name for an acute severe gastroenteritis of unknown etiology, with diarrhea, cramps, and vomiting, occurring in summer or autumn. It should be differentiated from classical CHOLERA which is also characterized by severe gastrointestinal and metabolic manifestations but is caused by a powerful enterotoxin produced by Vibrio cholerae. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: an old name for a type of gastroenteritis: do not confuse with classical CHOLERA ID#: D017688


Definition: Impairment of biliary flow at any level from the hepatocyte to Vater's ampulla. Annotation: ID#: D002779

Cholestasis, Intrahepatic

Definition: Intrahepatic impairment of bile flow. It is usually due to liver cell damage, but may be due to obstruction of intrahepatic bile ducts. It is also called hepatocellular jaundice and medical jaundice. Annotation: ID#: D002780


Definition: A non-neoplastic keratinizing mass with stratified squamous epithelium, frequently occurring in the meninges, central nervous system, bones of the skull, and most commonly in the middle ear and mastoid region. Annotation: non-neoplastic: coord IM with organ/dis (IM) but CHOLESTEATOMA, MIDDLE EAR is available ID#: D002781

Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear

Definition: Cholesteatoma of the middle ear, usually associated with chronic infection, and commonly affecting the tympanum, epitympanum, and antrum. Annotation: ID#: D018424

Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease

Definition: A rare benign adult form of inherited lysosomal lipid storage disease that is due to deficiency of acid lipase. It results in an accumulation of neutral lipids, particularly cholesterol esters, within cells (particularly leukocytes, fibroblasts, and liver cells). It is an allelic variant of WOLMAN DISEASE. Annotation: a lysosomal storage dis; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D015217

Choline Deficiency

Definition: A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984) Annotation: a vitamin B defic in animals; DF: CHOLINE DEFIC ID#: D002796


Definition: A usually benign tumor composed of cells which arise from chondroblasts or their precursors and which tend to differentiate into cartilage cells. It occurs primarily in the epiphyses of adolescents. It is relatively rare and represents less than 2% of all primary bone tumors. The peak incidence is in the second decade of life; it is about twice as common in males as in females. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1846) Annotation: benign or malignant; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with BONE NEOPLASMS or precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D002804


Definition: Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a form of arthritis; note X ref: do not index under CALCIUM PYROPHOSPHATE unless particularly discussed ID#: D002805

Chondrodysplasia Punctata

Definition: A heterogeneous group of bone dysplasias, the common character of which is stippling of the epiphyses in infancy. The group includes a severe autosomal recessive form (CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA, RHIZOMELIC), an autosomal dominant form (Conradi-Hunermann syndrome), and a milder X-linked form. Metabolic defects associated with impaired peroxisomes are present only in the rhizomelic form. Annotation: a form of osteochondrodysplasia with stippled epiphyses; spell X ref name HUNERMANN with an umlaut in titles & translations: Hunermann; CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA, RHIZOMELIC is also available ID#: D002806

Chondrodysplasia Punctata, Rhizomelic

Definition: An autosomal recessive form of CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA characterized by defective plasmalogen biosynthesis and impaired peroxisomes. Patients have shortened proximal limbs and severely disturbed endochondrial bone formation. The metabolic defects associated with the impaired peroxisomes are present only in the rhizomelic form of chondrodysplasia punctata. (From Scriver et al, Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease, 6th ed, p1497) Annotation: a form of osteochondrodysplasia with stippled epiphyses; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D018902


Definition: A benign neoplasm derived from mesodermal cells that form cartilage. It may remain within the substance of a cartilage or bone (true chondroma or enchondroma) or may develop on the surface of a cartilage (ecchondroma or ecchondrosis). (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: solitary; multiple = CHONDROMATOSIS; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM); do not confuse X ref ENCHONDROMA with ENCHONDROMATOSIS ID#: D002812


Definition: Multiple formation of chondromas. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: multiple; solitary = CHONDROMA; do not use /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct ID#: D018210

Chondromatosis, Synovial

Definition: Rare, benign, chronic, progressive metaplasia in which cartilage is formed in the synovial membranes of joints, tendon sheaths, or bursae. Some of the metaplastic foci can become detached producing loose bodies. When the loose bodies undergo secondary calcification, the condition is called synovial osteochondromatosis. Annotation: non-neoplastic progressive joint metaplasia ID#: D015838


Definition: A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with BONE NEOPLASMS (IM) or specific precoord bone/neopl term (IM) or specific bone (IM) + BONE NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D002813

Chondrosarcoma, Mesenchymal

Definition: A rare aggressive variant of chondrosarcoma, characterized by a biphasic histologic pattern of small compact cells intermixed with islands of cartilaginous matrix. Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas have a predilection for flat bones; long tubular bones are rarely affected. They tend to occur in the younger age group and are highly metastatic. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1456) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with BONE NEOPLASMS (IM) or specific precoord bone/neopl term (IM) or specific bone (IM) + BONE NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018211


Definition: A malignant tumor arising from the embryonic remains of the notochord. It is also called chordocarcinoma, chordoepithelioma, and notochordoma. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D002817


Definition: Involuntary, forcible, rapid, jerky movements that may be subtle or become confluent, markedly altering normal patterns of movement. Hypotonia and pendular reflexes are often associated. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of chorea as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as CHOREATIC DISORDERS. Chorea is also a frequent manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. Annotation: choreoathetosis = CHOREA (IM) + ATHETOSIS (IM); MORVAN'S CHOREA see MYOKYMIA and CHOREATIC DISORDERS are also available ID#: D002819

Chorea Gravidarum

Definition: A rare disorder characterized by the development of chorea, athetosis, and/or hemiballismus during pregnancy. RHEUMATIC FEVER and collagen vascular disorders are frequently associated with this disease. Chorea may vary from mild to severe and occurs in approximately 1 per 2,000 to 3,000 pregnancies. (From Md Med J 1997 Sep;46(8):436-9) Annotation: ID#: D020150

Choreatic Disorders

Definition: Acquired and hereditary conditions which feature CHOREA as a primary manifestation of the disease process. Annotation: CHOREA is also available ID#: D020822


Definition: An inflammatory process involving the chorion, its fetal blood vessels, the umbilical cord, and the amnion by extension of the inflammation, as the amnion itself has no blood supply. This inflammatory process is potentially fatal to mother and fetus. Annotation: inflamm of chorion & amnion; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D002821


Definition: A malignant tumor of trophoblastic epithelium characterized by secretion of large amounts of chorionic gonadotropin. It usually originates from chorionic products of conception (i.e., hydatidiform mole, normal pregnancy, or following abortion), but can originate in a teratoma of the testis, mediastinum, or pineal gland. Annotation: coord IM with UTERINE NEOPLASMS (IM) + FEMALE + PREGNANCY if in the female or TESTICULAR NEOPLASMS (IM) + MALE if in the male or other organ/neopl term applicable ID#: D002822


Definition: Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body. Annotation: inflamm of choroid & retina ID#: D002825


Definition: A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location. Annotation: coord aberrant or heterotopic tissue of an organ under the organ without qualif, e.g., heterotopic pancreatic tissue in the duodenum = CHORISTOMA (IM) + DUODENAL DISEASES (IM) + PANCREAS (no qualif) (IM) ID#: D002828

Choroid Diseases

Definition: Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea. Annotation: of the eye, not of the choroid plexus ID#: D015862

Choroid Hemorrhage

Definition: Hemorrhage from the vessels of the choroid. Annotation: of the eye, not of the choroid plexus ID#: D002832

Choroid Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi). Annotation: of the eye: do not confuse with neopl of CHOROID PLEXUS ( = CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS); /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D002830

Choroid Plexus Neoplasms

Definition: Benign or malignant tumors which arise from the choroid plexus of the ventricles of the brain. Papillomas (see PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS) and carcinomas are the most common histologic subtypes, and tend to seed throughout the ventricular and subarachnoid spaces. Clinical features include headaches, ataxia and alterations of consciousness, primarily resulting from associated HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2072; J Neurosurg 1998 Mar;88(3):521-8) Annotation: in the brain: do not confuse with CHOROID NEOPLASMS (in the eye); coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D016545

Choroidal Neovascularization

Definition: A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID. Annotation: ID#: D020256


Definition: An X chromosome-linked abnormality characterized by atrophy of the choroid and degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium causing night blindness. Annotation: of the eye, not of the choroid plexus: progressive degen in male, nonprogressive in female ID#: D015794


Definition: Inflammation of the choroid. Annotation: of the eye, not of the choroid plexus; consider also CHORIORETINITIS ID#: D002833


Definition: Scaly papule or warty growth, caused by five fungi, that spreads as a result of satellite lesions affecting the foot or leg. The extremity may become swollen and, at its distal portion, covered with various nodular, tumorous, verrucous lesions that resemble cauliflower. In rare instances, the disease may begin on the hand or wrist and involve the entire upper extremity. (Arnold, Odom, and James, Andrew's Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p362) Annotation: fungus dis of skin; coord IM with causative agent (IM) ID#: D002862

Chromosome Disorders

Definition: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429) Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; coord IM with specific numbered chromosome (IM) ID#: D025063

Chronic Disease

Definition: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed) Annotation: IM GEN only; usually NIM with specific dis IM; no qualif when NIM; Manual 23.16+ ID#: D002908

Chronobiology Disorders

Definition: Disruptions of the rhythmic cycle of bodily functions or activities. Annotation: ID#: D021081

Churg-Strauss Syndrome

Definition: Widespread necrotizing angiitis with granulomas. Pulmonary involvement is frequent. Asthma or other respiratory infection may precede evidence of vasculitis. Eosinophilia and lung involvement differentiate this disease from POLYARTERITIS NODOSA. Annotation: ID#: D015267


Definition: The presence of effused chyle in the peritoneal cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: chyle in the peritoneal cavity ID#: D002915


Definition: The presence of chyle in the thoracic cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: chyle in thoracic cavity ID#: D002916


Definition: The formation of new tissue in the process of wound healing. Annotation: only Cat C qualif; CICATRIX, HYPERTROPHIC is also available ID#: D002921

Cicatrix, Hypertrophic

Definition: An elevated scar, resembling a KELOID, but which does not spread into surrounding tissues. It is formed by enlargement and overgrowth of cicatricial tissue and regresses spontaneously. Annotation: does not spread to surrounding tissue: do not confuse with KELOID which does; follow text of author ID#: D017439

Ciliary Motility Disorders

Definition: Disorders characterized by abnormal ciliary movement in the nose, paranasal sinuses, respiratory tract, and spermatozoa. Electron microscopy of the CILIA shows that dynein arms are missing. The disorders manifest as KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic sinusitis, and/or chronic otitis. Annotation: ID#: D002925

Ciliophora Infections

Definition: Infections with protozoa of the phylum CILIOPHORA. Annotation: protozoan infect; GEN or unspecified; most common infect is BALANTIDIASIS ID#: D016770

Circoviridae Infections

Definition: Virus diseases caused by the CIRCOVIRIDAE. Annotation: GEN or unspecified ID#: D018173


Definition: A group of diseases related to a deficiency of the enzyme ARGININOSUCCINATE SYNTHASE which causes an elevation of serum levels of CITRULLINE. In neonates, clinical manifestations include lethargy, hypotonia, and SEIZURES. Milder forms also occur. Childhood and adult forms may present with recurrent episodes of intermittent weakness, lethargy, ATAXIA, behavioral changes, and DYSARTHRIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p49) Annotation: ID#: D020159

Classic Migraine

Definition: A condition characterized by throbbing headaches which are preceded or accompanied by reversible symptoms that reflect cortical or brain stem dysfunction. The most common type of aura consists of a positive visual phenomenon, usually in the form of a scintillating scotoma. An aura may also take the form of other focal neurologic symptoms or signs, including loss of sensation or weakness in an extremity. In general, the aura precedes the headache by less than 60 minutes, develops over 4 minutes or longer, and has a duration of less than one hour. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p172; Cephalalgia 1988;8:Suppl 7:1-96) Annotation: ID#: D020325

Classical Swine Fever

Definition: An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality. Annotation: do not confuse X ref SWINE FEVER with AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; don't forget also SWINE (NIM) ID#: D006691

Cleft Lip

Definition: Congenital defect in the upper lip where the maxillary prominence fails to merge with the merged medial nasal prominences. It is thought to be caused by faulty migration of the mesoderm in the head region. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; when with CLEFT PALATE, do not also use ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE ID#: D002971

Cleft Palate

Definition: Congenital fissure of the soft and/or hard palate, due to faulty fusion. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; when with CLEFT LIP, do not also use ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE ID#: D002972

Cleidocranial Dysplasia

Definition: A rare autosomal dominant condition in which there is defective ossification of the cranial bones with large fontanels and delayed closing of the sutures, complete or partial absence of the clavicles, wide pubic symphysis, short middle phalanges of the fifth fingers, and dental and vertebral anomalies. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D002973


Definition: Infection of the biliary passages with CLONORCHIS SINENSIS, also called Opisthorchis sinensis. It may lead to inflammation of the biliary tract, proliferation of biliary epithelium, progressive portal fibrosis, and sometimes bile duct carcinoma. Extension to the liver may lead to fatty changes and cirrhosis. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: trematode infect caused by CLONORCHIS SINENSIS; OPISTHORCHIS SINENSIS infection = CLONORCHIASIS, not OPISTHORCHIASIS which is Opisthorchis infect by Opisthorchis species other than O. sinensis ID#: D003003

Clostridium Infections

Definition: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. Annotation: gram-pos bact infect; GEN: prefer specifics ID#: D003015


Definition: A deformed foot in which the foot is plantarflexed, inverted and adducted. Annotation: X ref EQUINOVARUS: do not confuse with EQUINUS DEFORMITY; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D003025

Cluster Headache

Definition: A syndrome characterized by daily episodes of intense periorbital pain that recur over a period of 6-12 weeks that may be followed by a period of remission of months to years. The pain is non-throbbing, has a duration of 30-60 minutes and tends to occur at night or at regular intervals during the day. Unilateral rhinorrhea, conjunctival injection, lacrimation, facial flushing, and miosis frequently accompany the headaches, which primarily affect young adult males. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p181) Annotation: ID#: D003027

Coagulation Protein Disorders

Definition: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders resulting from abnormalities or deficiencies of coagulation proteins. Annotation: GEN: prefer specifics; coord IM with coag factor (IM) ID#: D020147


Definition: The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer. Annotation: do not confuse with NEOPLASMS, MULTIPLE, PRIMARY; Manual ID#: D003043


Definition: Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, species C. immitis. The primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection due to inhalation of spores and varying in severity. The secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: fungus dis caused by COCCIDIOIDES, not COCCIDIA ID#: D003047


Definition: Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA. Annotation: protozoan infect caused by COCCIDIA, not COCCIDIOIDES; /drug ther: consider also COCCIDIOSTATS ID#: D003048

Cochlear Diseases

Definition: Diseases of the cochlea, the part of the inner ear that is concerned with hearing. Annotation: ID#: D015834

Cockayne Syndrome

Definition: An inherited syndrome phenotypically characterized by unusual facies (large ears and sunken eyes), growth failure, intellectual deterioration, loss of subcutaneous fat, pigmentary retinal degeneration, neural deafness, dwarfism, photosensitivity, optic atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, and cataracts. Pathologic examination reveals a patchy loss of central myelin and white matter atrophy. Cockayne syndrome may be divided into two or more distinct genetic subtypes. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p197) Annotation: a form of dwarfism & premature senility ID#: D003057

Coin Lesion, Pulmonary

Definition: Solitary, round, circumscribed shadows found in the lungs in x-ray examinations. Common causes are tuberculosis, neoplasms, cysts, or vascular anomalies. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: if neopl, coord IM with LUNG NEOPLASMS (NIM); if non-neopl, do not coord with LUNG DISEASES; DF: COIN LESION PULM ID#: D003074


Definition: Paroxysms of pain. This condition usually occurs in the abdominal region but may occur in other body regions as well. Annotation: paroxysms of pain, usually abdom; coord IM with organ/diseases (IM), as renal colic = COLIC (IM) + KIDNEY DISEASES (IM), biliary colic = COLIC (IM) + BILIARY TRACT DISEASES or specific (IM) ID#: D003085


Definition: Inflammation of the colon. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: inflamm of the colon; ENTEROCOLITIS (small & large intestinal inflamm) is also available ID#: D003092

Colitis, Ischemic

Definition: Inflammation of the colon resulting from acute ischemic changes. Annotation: ID#: D017091

Colitis, Ulcerative

Definition: Inflammatory disease of unknown cause which involves the mucosa of the colon. Onset may be acute and fulminant, and its course often continues chronically in an intermittent or continuous form. Diarrhea is a common symptom and bleeding an almost constant concomitant symptom. Annotation: usually chronic so do not coord with CHRONIC DISEASE; note X refs below: these terms are common in European literature: do not confuse with RECTOCOLITIS see PROCTOCOLITIS ID#: D003093

Collagen Diseases

Definition: Historically, a heterogeneous group of acute and chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, etc. This classification was based on the notion that "collagen" was equivalent to "connective tissue", but with the present recognition of the different types of collagen and the aggregates derived from them as distinct entities, the term "collagen diseases" now pertains exclusively to those inherited conditions in which the primary defect is at the gene level and affects collagen biosynthesis, post-translational modification, or extracellular processing directly. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1494) Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D003095

Colles' Fracture

Definition: Fracture of the lower end of the radius in which the lower fragment is displaced posteriorly. Annotation: a distal radius fracture ID#: D003100


Definition: Congenital anomaly in which some of the structures of the eye are absent due to incomplete fusion of the fetal intraocular fissure during gestation. Annotation: eye abnorm; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; coord IM with specific site in eye /abnorm (IM) ID#: D003103

Colonic Diseases

Definition: Annotation: inflamm dis = COLITIS ID#: D003108

Colonic Diseases, Functional

Definition: Annotation: ID#: D003109

Colonic Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the COLON. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM); note SIGMOID NEOPLASMS is available; familial: consider also ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI & COLORECTAL NEOPLASMS, HEREDITARY NONPOLYPOSIS ID#: D003110

Colonic Polyps

Definition: Pedunculated or sessile growths arising from the mucous membrane of the COLON. Annotation: neoplastic; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted ID#: D003111

Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction

Definition: Functional obstruction of the colon. Annotation: functional obstruct of colon ID#: D003112

Color Vision Defects

Definition: Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the OPSIN genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3, HUMAN) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue. Annotation: ID#: D003117

Colorado Tick Fever

Definition: A febrile illness characterized by chills, aches, vomiting, leukopenia, and sometimes encephalitis. It is caused by the COLORADO TICK FEVER VIRUS, a reovirus transmitted by the tick Dermacentor andersoni. Annotation: caused by a tick-transm reovirus ID#: D003121

Colorectal Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the either the COLON or RECTUM or both. The most frequent malignant tumor in the United States. Etiological factors which increase the risk of colorectal cancer include chronic ulcerative colitis, familial polyposis of the colon, exposure to asbestos, irradiation of the cervix. Annotation: a clinical entity: not a synonym for COLONIC NEOPLASMS + RECTAL NEOPLASMS; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM); GENES, DCC (for "Deleted in Colorectal Cancer") & GENES, MCC (for "Mutated in Colorectal Cancer") are available: see MeSH scope notes and annotations there ID#: D015179

Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis

Definition: A syndrome characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, a low mean age (41 years) for occurrence of colon cancer, and a marked increase in the proportion of tumors in the proximal colon. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; DF: HNPCC ID#: D003123


Definition: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION. Annotation: check MeSH for specific coma terms ID#: D003128

Coma, Post-Head Injury

Definition: Prolonged unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused, associated with traumatic injuries to the BRAIN. This may be defined as unconsciousness persisting for 6 hours or longer. Coma results from injury to both cerebral hemispheres or the RETICULAR FORMATION of the BRAIN STEM. Contributing mechanisms include DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY and BRAIN EDEMA. (From J Neurotrauma 1997 Oct;14(10):699-713) Annotation: ID#: D020207

Common Bile Duct Calculi

Definition: Gallstones that are present in the common bile duct, but are usually formed in the gallbladder. Annotation: chem composition of calculi: use /chem; /ultrastruct permitted ID#: D003136

Common Bile Duct Diseases

Definition: Diseases of the common bile duct, Vater's ampulla, or Oddi's sphincter. Annotation: inflamm dis: index as COMMON BILE DUCT (IM) + CHOLANGITIS (IM) ID#: D003137

Common Bile Duct Neoplasms

Definition: Neoplasms of the common bile duct including Vater's ampulla and Oddi's sphincter. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D003138

Common Cold

Definition: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral, a mixed infection, or an allergic reaction. It is marked by acute coryza, slight rise in temperature, chilly sensations, and general indisposition. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: often caused by a picornavirus ID#: D003139

Common Migraine

Definition: Recurrent vascular headaches not preceded or accompanied by an aura. In general, episodes have the following characteristics: duration of 4-72 hours, moderate to severe intensity, throbbing quality, unilateral cranial distribution, and aggravation by physical activity. Nausea, emesis, photophobia, or phonophobia accompanies the pain. (From Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society. Classification and diagnostic criteria for headache disorders, cranial neuralgias and facial pain. Cephalalgia 1988;8:Suppl 7:1-96) Annotation: ID#: D020326

Common Variable Immunodeficiency

Definition: Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections. Annotation: an immunodefic syndrome with hypogammaglobulinemia ID#: D017074

Communicable Diseases

Definition: Annotation: /prev = COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL for GEN only; do not confuse X ref INFECTIOUS DISEASES with INFECTION: see note there ID#: D003141

Communicable Diseases, Emerging

Definition: Reporting of new and reemerging infectious diseases and studies that seek to improve the understanding of factors involved in disease emergence, prevention, and elimination. Annotation: ID#: D021821

Community-Acquired Infections

Definition: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility. Annotation: contrasted with hospital- or other health facil-acquired ( = CROSS INFECTION); IM GEN only; coord NIM with specific community-acquired infect (IM), if discussed ID#: D017714

Compartment Syndromes

Definition: Conditions in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of tissue within that space. Compartmentation involves mainly the leg but also involved are the forearm, arm, thigh, shoulder, and buttock. Some of the causes of increased pressure are trauma, tight dressings, hemorrhage, and exercise. Sequelae include nerve compression, paralysis, and contracture. Annotation: increased pressure within a space causing various disord of circ & funct ID#: D003161

Complex Regional Pain Syndromes

Definition: Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33) Annotation: ID#: D020918

Condylomata Acuminata

Definition: Sexually transmitted form of anogenital warty growth caused by the human papillomaviruses. Annotation: a non-neoplastic tumor virus infect; coord IM with precoord organ/dis term (IM) ID#: D003218

Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities

Definition: Diseases existing at birth and often before birth, or that develop during the first month of life (INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES), regardless of causation. Of these diseases, those characterized by structural deformities are termed ABNORMALITIES. Annotation: not used for indexing CATALOG: do not use ID#: D009358

Conjunctival Diseases

Definition: Annotation: ID#: D003229

Conjunctival Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the CONJUNCTIVA. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D003230


Definition: Annotation: ID#: D003231

Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic

Definition: A highly contagious disease characterized by subconjunctival hemorrhage, sudden swelling of the eyelids and congestion, redness, and pain in the eye. Epidemic conjunctivitis caused by Enterovirus 70 (EV-70) was first described in Africa in 1969. It is caused also by Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v). Epidemics by this organism have appeared most frequently in Asia. Annotation: coord IM with precoord virus infect (IM) + specific virus (IM) ID#: D003232

Conjunctivitis, Allergic

Definition: Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens. Annotation: coord IM with etiol of the allergy (IM) if specified ID#: D003233

Conjunctivitis, Bacterial

Definition: Purulent infections of the conjunctiva by several species of gram-negative, gram-positive, or acid-fast organisms. Some of the more commonly found genera causing conjunctival infections are Haemophilus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, and Chlamydia. Annotation: coord IM with specific bact/infect heading (IM); DF: CONJUNCTIVITIS BACT ID#: D003234

Conjunctivitis, Inclusion

Definition: An infection of the eyes characterized by the presence in conjunctival epithelial cells of inclusion bodies indistinguishable from those of trachoma. It is acquired by infants during birth and by adults from swimming pools. The etiological agent is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS whose natural habitat appears to be the genito-urinary tract. Inclusion conjunctivitis is a less severe disease than trachoma and usually clears up spontaneously. Annotation: caused by Chlamydia trachomatis ID#: D003235

Conjunctivitis, Viral

Definition: Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection. Annotation: coord IM with specific virus/infect heading (IM) ID#: D003236

Connective Tissue Diseases

Definition: A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides. Annotation: GEN or unspecified: prefer specifics; note & do not confuse with MIXED CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE, a specific connective tissue dis entity ID#: D003240


Definition: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of feces. Annotation: ID#: D003248

Constriction, Pathologic

Definition: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions. Annotation: never IM; when NIM use any Cat C qualif pertinent; includes "stenosis"; DF: CONSTRICTION PATHOL ID#: D003251


Definition: Annotation: IM; coord with specific muscle or other tissue or site (IM) but not with MUSCLES; also available are DUPUYTREN'S CONTRACTURE; HIP CONTRACTURE & VOLKMANN CONTRACTURE see COMPARTMENT SYNDROMES ID#: D003286


Definition: Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin. Annotation: differentiate from ECCHYMOSIS: use term in the text; brain contusion: index under BRAIN INJURIES ID#: D003288


Definition: The period of recovery following an illness. Annotation: coord IM with specific dis (IM) ID#: D003289


Definition: A general term referring to sudden and often violent motor activity of cerebral or brainstem origin. Convulsions may also occur in the absence of an electrical cerebral discharge (e.g., in response to hypotension). Annotation: /chem ind: consider also CONVULSANTS; /drug ther: consider also ANTICONVULSANTS; electroconvulsive shock = ELECTROCONVULSIVE SHOCK see ELECTROSHOCK: do not coord with CONVULSIONS; audiogenic seizures = REFLEX EPILEPSY, AUDIOGENIC ID#: D003293

Cor Triatriatum

Definition: A congenital anomaly characterized by the presence in the atrium of a perforated muscular membrane which separates the atrium into upper and lower chambers. Annotation: a heart with 3 atrial chambers; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D003310

Corneal Diseases

Definition: Diseases of the cornea. Annotation: inflamm dis = KERATITIS & specific ID#: D003316

Corneal Dystrophies, Hereditary

Definition: Bilateral hereditary disorders of the cornea, usually autosomal dominant, which may be present at birth but more frequently develop during adolescence and progress slowly throughout life. Central macular dystrophy is transmitted as an autosomal recessive defect. Annotation: ID#: D003317

Corneal Edema

Definition: An excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity. Annotation: ID#: D015715

Corneal Neovascularization

Definition: New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent corneal stroma. These vessels may lie in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma. Neovascularization is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, including trachoma, viral interstitial keratitis, microbial keratoconjunctivitis, and the immune response elicited by corneal transplantation. Annotation: DF: CORNEAL NEOVASC ID#: D016510

Corneal Opacity

Definition: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque. Annotation: ID#: D003318

Corneal Ulcer

Definition: Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection. Annotation: a form of keratitis ID#: D003320

Coronary Aneurysm

Definition: Aneurysm of a coronary vessel. A coronary artery aneurysm is rarely congenital; it is usually due to atherosclerosis, inflammatory processes, or a coronary fistula. (From Stedman, 26th ed) Annotation: ID#: D003323

Coronary Arteriosclerosis

Definition: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the coronary arteries, leading to progressive insufficiency of the arteries (CORONARY DISEASE). Annotation: ID#: D003324

Coronary Disease

Definition: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the coronary vessels to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specific; /surg: coord with specific surgical procedure if pertinent ID#: D003327

Coronary Restenosis

Definition: Recurrent narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery following surgical procedures performed to alleviate a prior obstruction. Annotation: ID#: D023903

Coronary Stenosis

Definition: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery. Annotation: ID#: D023921

Coronary Thrombosis

Definition: Presence of a thrombus in a coronary artery, often causing a myocardial infarction. Annotation: do not confuse "mural thrombus" with "coronary thrombosis": index under HEART DISEASES + THROMBOSIS ID#: D003328

Coronary Vasospasm

Definition: Spasm of the large- or medium-sized coronary arteries. Annotation: ID#: D003329

Coronary Vessel Anomalies

Definition: Defects of coronary arteries or veins including anomalous origin, arteriovenous fistula or aneurysm, myocardial bridging, or other abnormalities of structure or development. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D003330

Coronaviridae Infections

Definition: Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE. Annotation: caused by members of the Coronaviridae family: do not confuse with CORONAVIRUS INFECTIONS caused by members of the Coronavirus genus; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D003333

Coronavirus Infections

Definition: Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE). Annotation: caused by members of the Coronavirus genus: do not confuse with CORONAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS caused by members of the Coronaviridae family; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D018352

Corynebacterium Infections

Definition: Infections with bacteria of the genus CORYNEBACTERIUM. Annotation: gram-pos bact infect; note C. diphtheriae infection in man = DIPHTHERIA; Corynebacterium equi infection = RHODOCOCCUS EQUI (IM) + ACTINOMYCETALES INFECTIONS (IM); DF: CORYNEBACT INFECT ID#: D003354


Definition: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs. Annotation: /drug ther: consider also ANTITUSSIVE AGENTS ID#: D003371


Definition: A mild, eruptive skin disease of milk cows caused by COWPOX VIRUS, with lesions occurring principally on the udder and teats. Human infection may occur while milking an infected animal. Annotation: caused by a poxvirus; in man or animal; in animal use /vet and check tag ANIMAL ID#: D015605

Coxsackievirus Infections

Definition: A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS. Annotation: ID#: D003384

Cracked Tooth Syndrome

Definition: Incomplete fracture of any part of a tooth, characterized by pain during mastication and sensitivity to heat, cold, sweet or sour tastes, and alcohol; it is often undiagnosed because the tooth is usually X-ray negative and normal to pulp vitality tests. Annotation: incomplete tooth fracture causing sensitivity to heat, cold, sweet, sour, alcohol ID#: D003387

Cranial Nerve Diseases

Definition: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate. Annotation: GEN: prefer specifics ID#: D003389

Cranial Nerve Injuries

Definition: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries. Annotation: coordinate with specific cranial nerve; gen prefer specifics ID#: D020209

Cranial Nerve Neoplasms

Definition: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. Annotation: coord IM with specific cranial nerve dis (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D003390

Craniocerebral Trauma

Definition: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage. Annotation: general or unspecified; do not consider a substitute for /inj with various bones or other portions of the head; do not confuse with BRAIN INJURIES; DF: HEAD INJ ID#: D006259

Craniofacial Abnormalities

Definition: Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; DF: CRANIOFACIAL ABNORM ID#: D019465

Craniofacial Dysostosis

Definition: An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by acrocephaly, exophthalmos, hypertelorism, strabismus, parrot-beaked nose, and hypoplastic maxilla with relative mandibular prognathism. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; "craniofacial dysmorphism" does not go here: index under FACIAL BONES /abnorm + SKULL /abnorm but not also under ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE ID#: D003394

Craniomandibular Disorders

Definition: Diseases or disorders of the muscles of the head and neck, with special reference to the masticatory muscles. The most notable examples are TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISORDERS and TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; usually called this or CMD by authors; DF: CMD ID#: D017271


Definition: A benign pituitary-region neoplasm that originates from Rathke's pouch. The two major histologic and clinical subtypes are adamantinous (or classical) craniopharyngioma and papillary craniopharyngioma. The adamantinous form presents in children and adolescents as an expanding cystic lesion in the pituitary region. The cystic cavity is filled with a black viscous substance and histologically the tumor is composed of adamantinomatous epithelium and areas of calcification and necrosis. Papillary craniopharyngiomas occur in adults, and histologically feature a squamous epithelium with papillations. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch14, p50) Annotation: coord IM with PITUITARY NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D003397


Definition: Premature closure of one or more sutures of the skull. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D003398

CREST Syndrome

Definition: A form of systemic scleroderma usually less severe than other forms, consisting of calcinosis cutis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasis. That in which esophageal function is not prominent is known as CRST syndrome. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: Calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, Esophageal dysfunction, Sclerodactyly, Telangiectasis ID#: D017675


Definition: A condition due to congenital lack of thyroid hormone, marked by arrested physical and mental development, dystrophy of the bones and soft parts, and lowered basal metabolism. It is the congenital form of thyroid deficiency, while MYXEDEMA is the acquired form. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: ID#: D003409

Cri-du-Chat Syndrome

Definition: An infantile syndrome characterized by a cat-like cry, failure to thrive, microcephaly, MENTAL RETARDATION, spastic quadriparesis, micro- and retrognathia, glossoptosis, bilateral epicanthus, hypertelorism, and tiny external genitalia. It is caused by a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-). Annotation: ID#: D003410

Crigler-Najjar Syndrome

Definition: A familial form of congenital hyperbilirubinemia transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. It is characterized by icterus and brain damage caused by a glucuronyl transferase deficiency in the liver and faulty bilirubin conjugation. Annotation: ID#: D003414

Crisscross Heart

Definition: Cardiac malformation characterized by an atrioventricular spatial relation that places or appears to place each ventricle in a contralateral position relative to its associated atrium. Annotation: a congen atrioventric defect; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D003420

Critical Illness

Definition: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent. Annotation: IM GEN only; do not index with specific dis of critically ill patient unless particularly discussed & then NIM with no qualif; /ther: consider also CRITICAL CARE ID#: D016638

Crohn Disease

Definition: Gastrointestinal disorder characterized by chronic inflammatory infiltrates, fibrosis affecting all layers of the serosa, and development of noncaseating granulomas. The most common site of involvement is the terminal ileum with the colon as the second most common. Annotation: inflamm bowel dis; affects ileum & colon most frequently; coord IM with ILEITIS (NIM) or COLITIS (NIM) only if site is particularly discussed; usually chronic so do not coord with CHRONIC DISEASE ID#: D003424

Cross Infection

Definition: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution. Annotation: restricted to any infect from one patient to another or from health care worker to patient "in a health-care institution"; also available for dis from patient to health care worker is DISEASE TRANSMISSION, PATIENT-TO-PROFESSIONAL and for health care worker to patient is DISEASE TRANSMISSION, PROFESSIONAL-TO-PATIENT ID#: D003428


Definition: A condition characterized by resonant barking cough, hoarseness and persistant stridor and caused by allergy, foreign body, infection, or neoplasm. It occurs chiefly in infants and children. Annotation: a form of laryngitis in inf & child ID#: D003440

Crush Syndrome

Definition: Severe systemic manifestation of trauma and ischemia involving soft tissues, principally skeletal muscle, due to prolonged severe crushing. It leads to increased permeability of the cell membrane and to the release of potassium, enzymes, and myoglobin from within cells. Ischemic renal dysfunction secondary to hypotension and diminished renal perfusion results in acute tubular necrosis and uremia. Annotation: ID#: D003444


Definition: A condition characterized by the presence of abnormal or abnormal quantities of cryoglobulins in the blood. They are precipitated into the microvasculature on exposure to cold and cause restricted blood flow in exposed areas. Annotation: a blood protein disord ID#: D003449


Definition: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS. Annotation: fungus dis ID#: D003453


Definition: A developmental defect characterized by failure of the testes to descend into the scrotum. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D003456


Definition: Parasitic intestinal infection with severe diarrhea caused by a protozoan, CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Annotation: /drug ther: consider also COCCIDIOSTATS ID#: D003457

Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

Definition: Compression of the ULNAR NERVE in the cubital tunnel, which is formed by the two heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, humeral-ulnar aponeurosis, and medial ligaments of the elbow. This condition may follow trauma or occur in association with processes which produce nerve enlargement or narrowing of the canal. Manifestations include elbow pain and PARESTHESIA radiating distally, weakness of ulnar innervated intrinsic hand muscles, and loss of sensation over the hypothenar region, fifth finger, and ulnar aspect of the ring finger. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p43) Annotation: ID#: D020430

Cumulative Trauma Disorders

Definition: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves. Annotation: painful conditions from overuse or overexertion of any activity; DF: CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DIS ID#: D012090

Cushing Syndrome

Definition: A condition, more commonly seen in females, due to hyperadrenocorticism resulting from neoplasms of the adrenal cortex or the anterior lobe of the pituitary, or to prolonged excessive intake of glucocorticoids for therapeutic purposes. The symptoms and signs may include rapidly developing adiposity of the face, neck, and trunk, kyphosis caused by osteoporosis of the spine, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, amenorrhea, hypertrichosis in females, impotence in males, dusky complexion with purple markings, polycythemia, pain in the abdomen and back, and muscular wasting and weakness. When secondary to excessive pituitary secretion of adrenocorticotropin, it is known as Cushing's disease. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: ID#: D003480

Cutaneous Fistula

Definition: An abnormal passage or communication leading from an internal organ to the surface of the body. Annotation: fistula policy: Manual 23.19+; anal fistula (one opening on the cutaneous surface near the anus) is indexed as ANAL FISTULA see RECTAL FISTULA ID#: D017577

Cutis Laxa

Definition: A group of connective tissue diseases in which skin hangs in loose pendulous folds. It is believed to be associated with decreased elastic tissue formation as well as an abnormality in elastin formation. Cutis laxa is usually a genetic disease, but acquired cases have been reported. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: loose pendulous skin ID#: D003483


Definition: A bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an increase in the amount of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the hemoglobin molecule. Annotation: do not use for cyanotic heart disease unless particularly discussed (=probably HEART DEFECTS, CONGENITAL) ID#: D003490


Definition: Infection with parasitic protozoa of the genus CYCLOSPORA. It is distributed globally and causes a diarrheal illness. Transmission is waterborne. Annotation: /drug ther: consider also COCCIDIOSTATS ID#: D021866


Definition: A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D003536

Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous

Definition: A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018282

Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary

Definition: An adenocarcinoma in which the tumor elements are arranged as finger-like processes or as a solid spherical nodule projecting from an epithelial surface. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018283

Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous

Definition: A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018284


Definition: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D003537

Cystadenoma, Mucinous

Definition: A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential. Annotation: coord IM with OVARIAN NEOPLASMS (IM) or other organ/neoplasm term (IM) if applicable ID#: D018291

Cystadenoma, Papillary

Definition: A benign neoplasm of the ovary. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with probably OVARIAN NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018292

Cystadenoma, Serous

Definition: A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma (CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS). It can be unilocular, parvilocular, or multilocular. It is often bilateral and papillary. The cysts may vary greatly in size. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with probably OVARIAN NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018293

Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of Lung, Congenital

Definition: A developmental anomaly that usually becomes apparent in the neonatal period with progressive respiratory distress. This malformation is a focal pulmonary dysplasia characterized by a multicystic mass of terminal bronchiolar structures. CCAM is classified into 3 separate types (I, II, III) depending on cyst size. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; DF: CCAM ID#: D015615

Cystic Fibrosis

Definition: An inherited disease of exocrine glands, affecting most characteristically the pancreas, respiratory system, and sweat glands, usually beginning in infancy and typified by chronic respiratory infections, pancreatic insufficiency, and susceptibility to heat prostration. Cirrhosis of liver occurring in childhood is common and may produce portal hypertension, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism. Annotation: a specific disease entity: do not use for fibrocystic states of various organs ID#: D003550


Definition: Infection with CYSTICERCUS, a larval form of the various tapeworms of the genus Taenia (usually T. solium in man). In humans they penetrate the intestinal wall and invade subcutaneous tissue, brain, eye, muscle, heart, liver, lung, and peritoneum. Brain involvement results in NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS. (From Dorland, 28th ed) Annotation: NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS is available ID#: D003551


Definition: Lysosomal storage disorders of unknown molecular defect, characterized by widespread deposition of cystine crystals in reticuloendothelial cells. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a lysosomal storage dis; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES inf ID#: D003554


Definition: An inherited abnormality of renal tubular transport of dibasic amino acids leading to massive urinary excretion of cystine, lysine, arginine, and ornithine. Annotation: a form of aminoaciduria; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D003555


Definition: Inflammation of the urinary bladder. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: inflamm of bladder ID#: D003556

Cystitis, Interstitial

Definition: A condition of the bladder occurring predominantly in women, with an inflammatory lesion, usually in the vertex, and involving the entire thickness of the wall, appearing as a small patch of brownish red mucosa, surrounded by a network of radiating vessels. The lesions, known as Fenwick-Hunner or Hunner ulcers, may heal superficially, and are notoriously difficult to detect. Typically, there is urinary frequency and pain on bladder filling and at the end of micturition. It is also called chronic interstitial cystitis. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: note X ref: usually chronic so do not coord with CHRONIC DISEASE ID#: D018856


Definition: Any closed cavity or sac, normal or abnormal, lined by epithelium, and especially one that contains a liquid or semisolid material. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: non-neoplastic; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord with organ/diseases term; specific terms indented under CYSTS are either neoplastic or non-neopl: check under each; intestinal gas cysts = PNEUMATOSIS CYSTOIDES INTESTINALIS; CYSTIC ADENOMATOID MALFORMATION OF LUNG, CONGENITAL is also available ID#: D003560

Cytochrome-c Oxidase Deficiency

Definition: A disease that results from a congenital defect in CYTOCHROME-C OXIDASE. Defects in cytochrome-c oxidase can be caused by mutations in the SURF1, SCO2, COX10, or SCO1 genes. Cytochrome-c oxidase deficiency caused by mutation in SURF1 manifests itself as LEIGH DISEASE; that caused by mutation in SCO2 as fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy; that caused by mutation in COX10 as tubulopathy and leukodystrophy; and that caused by mutation in SCO1 as early-onset hepatic failure and neurologic disorder. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man,, MIM#220110, May 17, 2001) Annotation: ID#: D030401

Cytomegalovirus Infections

Definition: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults. Annotation: caused by a herpesvirus; GEN or unspecified; DF: note short X ref ID#: D003586

Cytomegalovirus Retinitis

Definition: Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness. Annotation: often an opportunistic infect in AIDS ID#: D017726