Index of Diseases



Definition: Inflammation of the lacrimal sac. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: inflamm of lacrimal sac ID#: D003607

Dandy-Walker Syndrome

Definition: A congenital abnormality of the central nervous system marked by failure of the midline structures of the cerebellum to develop, dilation of the fourth ventricle, and upward displacement of the transverse sinuses, tentorium, and torcula. Clinical features include occipital bossing, progressive head enlargement, bulging of anterior fontanelle, papilledema, ataxia, gait disturbances, nystagmus, and intellectual compromise. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp294-5) Annotation: ID#: D003616

De Lange Syndrome

Definition: A syndrome characterized by growth retardation, severe MENTAL RETARDATION, short stature, a low-pitched growling cry, brachycephaly, low-set ears, webbed neck, carp mouth, depressed nasal bridge, bushy eyebrows meeting at the midline, hirsutism, and malformations of the hands. The condition may occur sporadically or be associated with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance or duplication of the long arm of chromosome 3. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p231) Annotation: ID#: D003635


Definition: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears. Deafness may result from EAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; or BRAIN DISEASES. Annotation: differentiate from HEARING LOSS, BILATERAL ( = partial hearing loss in both ears), from HEARING LOSS, PARTIAL ( = "partial deafness" or "hard of hearing") & from HEARING DISORDERS ( = general or unspecified); see various specific terms under DEAFNESS, at "hearing loss" & at various indentions in Cat C9 ID#: D003638

Deafness, Sudden

Definition: Sensorineural hearing loss which develops over a period of hours or a few days, varying in severity from mild to total. Annotation: ID#: D003639


Definition: Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions. Annotation: IM; /mortal is available with Cat C, F, E; do not confuse with MORTALITY, a statist concept: DEATH is the biol or physiol, psychol concept; for theory, doctrine & philosophy of death THANATOLOGY is available; for death as a result of a dis or ther or diag procedure, FATAL OUTCOME is available: see note there ID#: D003643

Death, Sudden

Definition: The abrupt cessation of all vital bodily functions, manifested by the permanent loss of total cerebral, respiratory, and cardiovascular functions. Annotation: DEATH, SUDDEN, CARDIAC is also available ID#: D003645

Death, Sudden, Cardiac

Definition: Sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN) that is due to HEART ARREST. Annotation: ID#: D016757

Decalcification, Pathologic

Definition: The loss of calcium salts from bones and teeth. Bacteria may be responsible for this occurrence in teeth. Old age may be a factor contributing to calcium loss, as is the presence of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Annotation: loss of calcium from bone & tooth but consider also TOOTH DEMINERALIZATION; DF: DECALCIFICATION PATHOL ID#: D003649

Decerebrate State

Definition: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358) Annotation: "brain-isolated", "encéphale isolé", "pithed", "spinal" as in "spinal cat", "cerveau isolé" go here ID#: D003655

Decompression Sickness

Definition: A condition occurring as a result of exposure to a rapid fall in ambient pressure. Gases, nitrogen in particular, come out of solution and form bubbles in body fluid and blood. These gas bubbles accumulate in joint spaces and the peripheral circulation impairing tissue oxygenation causing disorientation, severe pain, and potentially death. Annotation: ID#: D003665

Decubitus Ulcer

Definition: An ulceration caused by prolonged pressure in patients permitted to lie too still for a long period of time. The bony prominences of the body are the most frequently affected sites. The ulcer is caused by ischemia of the underlying structures of the skin, fat, and muscles as a result of the sustained and constant pressure. Annotation: skin ulcer from prolonged pressure lying in bed ID#: D003668

Deficiency Diseases

Definition: A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: GEN only: prefer /defic with specific Cat D terms: Manual 19.7+, 19.8.21; also Manual 23.25+; do not confuse with NUTRITION DISORDERS: DEFICIENCY DISEASES results from deficient intake; TN 194: as NIM & differentiation from METABOLIC DISEASES or METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS; DF: DEFIC DIS ID#: D003677

Deglutition Disorders

Definition: Annotation: ID#: D003680


Definition: The condition that results from excessive loss of body water. Annotation: note category: a disease caused by water-electrolyte imbalance; differentiate from DESICCATION, a technique for removing moisture from matter; /ther: consider also ORAL REHYDRATION THERAPY see FLUID THERAPY ID#: D003681

Deltaretrovirus Infections

Definition: Infections caused by the HTLV or BLV deltaretroviruses. They include human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED). Annotation: GEN or unspecified only: prefer specifics; do not confuse X ref BLV INFECTIONS with ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS (see MeSH definition); DF: HTLV INFECT ID#: D006800

Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS

Definition: Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens. Annotation: for central nervous system diseases only; for demyelinating diseases of the peripheral nervous system consider POLYRADICULONEURITIS, GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME, and CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY; for demyelinating autoimmune diseases of the brain or spinal cord not otherwise specified coord with BRAIN DISEASES or SPINAL CORD DISEASES; DF: DEMYELINATING AUTOIMMUNE DIS CNS ID#: D020278

Demyelinating Diseases

Definition: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system. Annotation: ID#: D003711


Definition: An acute infectious, eruptive, febrile disease caused by four antigenically related but distinct serotypes of the DENGUE VIRUS. It is transmitted by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes, especially A. aegypti. Classical dengue (dengue fever) is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER is a more virulent form of dengue virus infection and a separate clinical entity. (From Dorland, 28th ed) Annotation: a hemorrhagic fever caused by a flavivirus but note DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER ID#: D003715

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

Definition: A distinct and virulent form of DENGUE characterized by thrombocytopenia and hemoconcentration (grades I and II) and distinguished by a positive tourniquet test. When accompanied by circulatory failure and shock (grades III and IV), it is called dengue shock syndrome. (From Dorland, 28th ed) Annotation: a virulent form of dengue ID#: D019595

Dens in Dente

Definition: Anomaly of the tooth, found chiefly in upper lateral incisors. It is characterized by invagination of the enamel at the incisal edge. Annotation: a tooth abnorm; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D003719

Dental Calculus

Definition: Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses. Annotation: note categories; from Cat A /chem /ultrastruct permitted; DF: DENT CALCULUS ID#: D003728

Dental Caries

Definition: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp. The three most prominent theories used to explain the etiology of the disase are that acids produced by bacteria lead to decalcification; that micro-organisms destroy the enamel protein; or that keratolytic micro-organisms produce chelates that lead to decalcification. Annotation: /drug ther: consider also CARIOSTATIC AGENTS; /etiol: consider also CARIOGENIC AGENTS & DIET, CARIOGENIC; /epidemiol: consider also DMF INDEX; DF: DENT CARIES ID#: D003731

Dental Deposits

Definition: Annotation: note categories; from Cat A /chem /ultrastruct permitted; tartar = DENTAL CALCULUS; DF: DENT DEPOSITS ID#: D003741

Dental Enamel Hypoplasia

Definition: A form of AMELOGENESIS IMPERFECTA characterized by incomplete formation of the dental enamel and transmitted as an X-linked or autosomal dominant trait. It is also associated with vitamin A, C, or D deficiency, infectious disease, prematurity, birth injury, Rh incompatibility, trauma, or local infection. Small grooves, pits, and fissures are seen in mild cases, deep horizontal rows of pits in severe cases, or absence of enamel in extreme cases. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a congen or acquired tooth abnorm; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; DF: DENT ENAMEL HYPOPLASIA ID#: D003744

Dental Fissures

Definition: Deep grooves or clefts in the surface of teeth equivalent to class 1 cavities in Black's classification of dental caries. Annotation: a degree of dent caries; DF: DENT FISSURES ID#: D003750

Dental Fistula

Definition: An abnormal passage in the oral cavity on the gingiva. Annotation: fistula policy: Manual 23.19+; DF: DENT FISTULA ID#: D003751

Dental Leakage

Definition: The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration. Annotation: seepage of fluids, debris & micro-organisms into dental cavity restorations; DF: DENT LEAKAGE ID#: D003763

Dental Occlusion, Traumatic

Definition: An occlusion resulting in overstrain and injury to teeth, periodontal tissue, or other oral structures. Annotation: an occlusion injuring the teeth or other oral structures; DF: DENT OCCLUSION TRAUMATIC ID#: D003769

Dental Plaque

Definition: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms. Annotation: note categories; from Cat A /chem /ultrastruct permitted; DF: DENT PLAQUE ID#: D003773

Dental Pulp Calcification

Definition: Annotation: note category; DF: DENT PULP CALCIFICATION ID#: D003784

Dental Pulp Diseases

Definition: Annotation: inflamm dis = PULPITIS; DF: DENT PULP DIS ID#: D003788

Dental Pulp Exposure

Definition: The result of pathological changes in the hard tissue of a tooth caused by carious lesions, mechanical factors, or trauma, which render the pulp susceptible to bacterial invasion from the external environment. Annotation: note category: exposure from caries, trauma, etc; DF: DENT PULP EXPOSURE ID#: D003789

Dental Pulp Necrosis

Definition: Death of pulp tissue. When the necrosis is due to ischemia with superimposed bacterial infection, it is referred to as pulp gangrene. Annotation: ID#: D003790

Dentigerous Cyst

Definition: Most common follicular odontogenic cyst. Occurs in relation to a partially erupted or unerupted tooth with at least the crown of the tooth to which the cyst is attached protruding into the cystic cavity. May give rise to an ameloblastoma and, in rare instances, undergo malignant transformation. Annotation: non-neoplastic; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/dis term (IM) ID#: D003803

Dentin Dysplasia

Definition: An apparently hereditary disorder of dentin formation, marked by a normal appearance of coronal dentin associated with pulpal obliteration, faulty root formation, and a tendency for peripheral lesions without obvious cause. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a tooth abnorm; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D003805

Dentin Sensitivity

Definition: Annotation: note category ID#: D003807

Dentin, Secondary

Definition: Dentin formed by normal pulp after completion of root end formation. Annotation: ID#: D003809

Dentinogenesis Imperfecta

Definition: An autosomal dominant disorder of tooth development characterized by opalescent dentin resulting in discoloration of the teeth, ranging from dusky blue to brownish. The dentin is poorly formed with an abnormally low mineral content; the pulp canal is obliterated, but the enamel is normal. The teeth usually wear down rapidly, leaving short, brown stumps. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a dentin abnorm; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D003811

Denys-Drash Syndrome

Definition: A rare syndrome characterized by UROGENITAL ABNORMALITIES, PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM, and Wilms tumor (NEPHROBLASTOMA). Annotation: ID#: D030321


Definition: Any inflammation of the skin. Annotation: any skin inflamm; /chem ind = DERMATITIS MEDICAMENTOSA see DRUG ERUPTIONS or DERMATITIS, CONTACT ID#: D003872

Dermatitis Herpetiformis

Definition: Rare, chronic, papulo-vesicular disease characterized by an intensely pruritic eruption consisting of various combinations of symmetrical, erythematous, papular, vesicular, or bullous lesions. The disease is strongly associated with the presence of HLA-B8 and HLA-DR3 antigens. A variety of different autoantibodies has been detected in small numbers in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis. Annotation: a bullous skin dis: nothing to do with herpes ID#: D003874

Dermatitis, Allergic Contact

Definition: A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure. Annotation: ID#: D017449

Dermatitis, Atopic

Definition: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema. Annotation: a type of immediate hypersensitivity ID#: D003876

Dermatitis, Contact

Definition: A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms. Annotation: unspecified as allergic or non-allergic but DERMATITIS, ALLERGIC CONTACT is available ID#: D003877

Dermatitis, Exfoliative

Definition: The widespread involvement of the skin by a scaly, erythematous dermatitis occurring either as a secondary or reactive process to an underlying cutaneous disorder (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, etc.), or as a primary or idiopathic disease. It is often associated with the loss of hair and nails, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, and pruritus. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: ID#: D003873

Dermatitis, Irritant

Definition: A non-allergic contact dermatitis caused by prolonged exposure to irritants and not explained by delayed hypersensitivity mechanisms. Annotation: "a non-allergic contact dermatitis caused by prolonged exposure to irritants" ID#: D017453

Dermatitis, Occupational

Definition: A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place. Annotation: do not restrict to -itis: use as if "dermatoses"; coord with specific skin dis with /chem ind; includes housewives' dermatoses caused by housekeeping agents; DF: DERMATITIS OCCUP ID#: D009783

Dermatitis, Perioral

Definition: A papular eruption of unknown etiology that progresses to residual papular erythema and scaling usually confined to the area of the mouth, and almost exclusively occurring in young women. It may also be localized or extend to involve the eyelids and adjacent glabella area of the forehead (periocular dermatitis). (Dorland, 28th ed) Annotation: note X ref DERMATITIS, PERIOCULAR: can extend to this area ID#: D019557

Dermatitis, Photoallergic

Definition: A delayed hypersensitivity involving the reaction between sunlight or other radiant energy source and a chemical substance to which the individual has been previously exposed and sensitized. It manifests as a papulovesicular, eczematous, or exudative dermatitis occurring chiefly on the light-exposed areas of the skin. Annotation: a delayed hypersensitivity ID#: D017454

Dermatitis, Phototoxic

Definition: A nonimmunologic, chemically induced type of photosensitivity producing a sometimes vesiculating dermatitis. It results in hyperpigmentation and desquamation of the light-exposed areas of the skin. Annotation: non-immunol irritant dermatitis; DF: DERMATITIS PHOTOTOX ID#: D017484

Dermatitis, Seborrheic

Definition: A chronic inflammatory disease of the skin of unknown etiology. It is characterized by moderate erythema, dry, moist, or greasy scaling, and yellow crusted patches on various areas, especially the scalp. On the scalp, it generally appears first as small patches of scales, progressing to involve the entire scalp with exfoliation of excessive amounts of dry scales (dandruff). Annotation: ID#: D012628

Dermatitis, Toxicodendron

Definition: An allergic contact dermatitis caused by exposure to plants of the genus Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus). These include poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac, all plants that contain the substance urushiol, a potent skin sensitizing agent. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: Toxicodendron or Rhus is the genus name for poison ivy; includes poison oak & poison sumac ID#: D011040


Definition: A slowly growing benign skin nodule consisting of poorly demarcated cellular fibrous tissue enclosing collapsed capillaries with scattered hemosiderin-pigmented and lipid macrophages. They are common, usually about 1 cm in diameter and occur in the dermis. Simple excision is always curative. (From Stedman, 25th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1356) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with SKIN NEOPLASMS (IM); note X ref HISTIOCYTOMA: HISTIOCYTOMA, FIBROUS is also available ID#: D000797


Definition: A fibrosarcoma of the skin, beginning most often as an indurated nodule that grows slowly and hence is often ignored until it grows large. Dermatofibrosarcomas show an extremely aggressive tendency to invade local surrounding tissue. They do not metastasize, however, even after multiple recurrences. About 50% will recur after simple incision; hence wide excision should be resorted to. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1356) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with SKIN NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018223


Definition: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi. Annotation: fungus dis of skin; coord IM with specific fungus or fungal dis (IM) ID#: D003881


Definition: A subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of muscle and skin, marked by proximal muscle weakness and a characteristic skin rash. The illness occurs with approximately equal frequency in children and adults. The skin lesions usually take the form of a purplish rash (or less often an exfoliative dermatitis) involving the nose, cheeks, forehead, upper trunk, and arms. The disease is associated with a complement mediated intramuscular microangiopathy, leading to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle-fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. The childhood form of this disease tends to evolve into a systemic vasculitis. Dermatomyositis may occur in association with malignant neoplasms. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1405-6) Annotation: coord IM with PARANEOPLASTIC SYNDROMES (IM) if pertinent ID#: D003882

Dermoid Cyst

Definition: A tumor consisting of displaced ectodermal structures along the lines of embryonic fusion, the wall being formed of epithelium-lined connective tissue, including skin appendages, and containing keratin, sebum, and hair. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: neoplastic; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM);DERMOID CYST, CNS see CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is also available ID#: D003884


Definition: Location of the heart in the right hemithorax, with the apex directed to the right. Annotation: heart in right hemithorax; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D003914

Diabetes Insipidus

Definition: A metabolic disorder due to disorders in the production or release of vasopressin. It is characterized by the chronic excretion of large amounts of low specific gravity urine and great thirst. Annotation: caused by hypopituitarism ID#: D003919

Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic

Definition: A polyuric disorder characterized by normal rates of renal filtration and solute excretion, but a persistent hypotonic urine. This condition is due to the failure of renal tubules to respond to antidiuretic hormones, such as vasopressin, to reduce urine volume. Tubular insensitivity to vasopressin can result from genetic defects, diseases, drug effects, or may occur with pregnancy. Annotation: do not confuse with DIABETIC NEPHROPATHIES which refers to diabetes mellitus or with DIABETES INSIPIDUS, NEUROGENIC ID#: D018500

Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic

Definition: Deficiency of vasopressin secretion from the posterior pituitary gland. Clinical manifestations include extreme thirst, polydipsia, and reduced serum osmolality. Potential etiologies include CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; post-neurosurgical states; HYPOTHALAMIC NEOPLASMS; PITUITARY NEOPLASMS; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; PITUITARY APOPLEXY; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; granulomatous diseases (including SARCOIDOSIS); and other conditions. The disorder may also be inherited as an autosomal or recessive trait. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch 36, pp55-8) Annotation: do not confuse with DIABETES INSIPIDUS, NEPHROGENIC ID#: D020790

Diabetes Mellitus

Definition: A heterogeneous group of disorders that share glucose intolerance in common. Annotation: caused by insufficient secretion of insulin; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; in pregnancy = PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS but do not confuse with DIABETES, GESTATIONAL: see note there; diabetes & obesity = OBESITY IN DIABETES; PREDIABETIC STATE is also available & includes subclinical diabetes; /diet ther: consider also DIABETIC DIET but see note there; alloxan- & streptozocin-induced diabetes: see note on DIABETES MELLITUS, EXPERIMENTAL ID#: D003920

Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental

Definition: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by pancreatectomy. Annotation: index alloxan or streptozocin diabetes as DIABETES MELLITUS, EXPERIMENTAL (IM) + ALLOXAN or STREPTOZOCIN (NIM) only if the chem are particularly discussed; probably in animal so do not use /vet but don't forget check tag ANIMAL; DF: DIABETES MELLITUS EXPER ID#: D003921

Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent

Definition: Diabetes mellitus characterized by insulin deficiency, sudden onset, severe hyperglycemia, rapid progression to ketoacidosis, and death unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence. Annotation: despite X ref with "juvenile", this dis "may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence": check age in text for correct check tag; MICE, INBRED NOD are a common model for this disease; DF: note short X ref ID#: D003922

Diabetes Mellitus, Lipoatrophic

Definition: A disorder characterized by complete absence of subcutaneous adipose tissue, insulin-resistant diabetes with little tendency to ketoacidosis, hyperlipidemia with subcutaneous xanthomatosis, hepatomegaly, and an elevated basal metabolic rate. Annotation: diabetes with absence of subcutaneous adipose tissue ID#: D003923

Diabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent

Definition: Diabetes characterized by the ability to survive without ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is usually of slow onset and patients exhibit a tendency to obesity. Annotation: DF: note short X refs ID#: D003924

Diabetes, Gestational

Definition: Either symptomatic diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance induced by pregnancy but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Annotation: refers to DIABETES MELLITUS, not DIABETES INSIPIDUS; diabetes induced by pregn: do not confuse with PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS where a diabetic becomes pregnant ID#: D016640

Diabetic Angiopathies

Definition: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. Annotation: coord IM with specific vascular dis (IM) + specific type of diabetes ID#: D003925

Diabetic Coma

Definition: Annotation: ID#: D003926

Diabetic Foot

Definition: Ulcers of the foot as a complication of diabetes. Diabetic foot, often with infection, is a common serious complication of diabetes and may require hospitalization and disfiguring surgery. The foot ulcers are probably secondary to neuropathies and vascular problems. Annotation: foot ulcers in diabetes ID#: D017719

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Definition: Complication of diabetes resulting from severe insulin deficiency coupled with an absolute or relative increase in glucagon concentration. The metabolic acidosis is caused by the breakdown of adipose stores and resulting increased levels of free fatty acids. Glucagon accelerates the oxidation of the free fatty acids producing excess ketone bodies (ketosis). Annotation: ID#: D016883

Diabetic Nephropathies

Definition: Includes renal arteriosclerosis, renal arteriolosclerosis, Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome (intercapillary glomerulosclerosis), acute and chronic pyelonephritis, and kidney papillary necrosis in individuals with diabetes mellitus. Annotation: coord IM with specific kidney dis (IM); Kimmelstiel-Wilson Syndrome indexed here; do not confuse with DIABETES INSIPIDUS, NEPHROGENIC, a form of diabetes insipidus ID#: D003928

Diabetic Neuropathies

Definition: Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325) Annotation: coord IM with specific neurol dis (IM) but do not coord with PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES for "diabetic peripheral neuropathy" ID#: D003929

Diabetic Retinopathy

Definition: Retinopathy associated with diabetes mellitus, which may be of the background type, progressively characterized by microaneurysms, interretinal punctuate macular edema, or of the proliferative type, characterized by neovascularization of the retina and optic disk, which may project into the vitreous, proliferation of fibrous tissue, vitreous hemorrhage, and retinal detachment. Annotation: diabetic retinitis; do not coord with RETINITIS ID#: D003930

Diaper Rash

Definition: A type of irritant dermatitis localized to the area in contact with a diaper and occurring most often as a reaction to prolonged contact with urine, feces, or retained soap or detergent. Annotation: an irritant dermatitis ID#: D003963

Diaphragmatic Eventration

Definition: Elevation of the dome of the diaphragm, usually the result of paralysis of a phrenic nerve. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a diaphragmatic abnorm; includes "relaxatio"; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D003965

Diaphyseal Dysplasia, Progressive

Definition: Progressive thickening of diaphyseal cortex of long bones. Annotation: ID#: D003966


Definition: Passage of excessively liquid or excessively frequent stools. Annotation: /drug ther: consider also ANTIDIARRHEALS; in infants = DIARRHEA, INFANTILE + appropriate check tags ID#: D003967

Diarrhea, Infantile

Definition: Annotation: human only; restrict "infantile" to newborn inf & inf & don't forget infant check tags as pertinent ID#: D003968


Definition: An abnormal opening or fissure between two adjacent teeth. Annotation: ID#: D003970


Definition: Infection with flukes of the genus Dicrocoelium. Annotation: trematode infect ID#: D004011

Dictyocaulus Infections

Definition: Infection with nematodes of the genus DICTYOCAULUS. In deer, cattle, sheep, and horses the bronchi are the site of infestation. Annotation: nematode infect; usually animal; check tag ANIMAL ID#: D004022


Definition: Infection with protozoa of the genus DIENTAMOEBA. Annotation: protozoan infect of intestines ID#: D004030

Diffuse Axonal Injury

Definition: A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders. Annotation: ID#: D020833

Diffuse Cerebral Sclerosis of Schilder

Definition: A rare central nervous system demyelinating condition affecting children and young adults. Pathologic findings include a large, sharply defined, asymmetric focus of myelin destruction that may involve an entire lobe or cerebral hemisphere. The clinical course tends to be progressive and includes dementia, cortical blindness, cortical deafness, spastic hemiplegia, and pseudobulbar palsy. Concentric sclerosis of Balo is differentiated from diffuse cerebral sclerosis of Schilder by the pathologic finding of alternating bands of destruction and preservation of myelin in concentric rings. Alpers' Syndrome refers to a heterogeneous group of diseases that feature progressive cerebral deterioration and liver disease. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p914; Dev Neurosci 1991;13(4-5):267-73) Annotation: ID#: D002549

DiGeorge Syndrome

Definition: Congenital syndrome with the absence of the thymus and parathyroids causing impairment of cellular immunity. Immunoglobulin levels are normal. Annotation: an immunodefic syndrome; also called thymic dysplasia, thymic aplasia & thymic agenesis ID#: D004062

Digestive System Abnormalities

Definition: Congenital structural abnormalities of the digestive system. Annotation: for congen struct abnorm only; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics or specific organ /abnorm; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; DF: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM ABNORM ID#: D004065

Digestive System Diseases

Definition: Annotation: GEN or unspecified; refers to all organs of digestive tract: do not confuse with GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES (stomach & intestines only); /diag: consider also DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES, DIGESTIVE SYSTEM ID#: D004066

Digestive System Fistula

Definition: An abnormal passage communicating between any components of the digestive system, or between any part of the digestive system and surrounding organ(s). Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; fistula policy: Manual 23.19+ ID#: D016154

Digestive System Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the digestive system. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; refers to all organs of digestive tract: do not confuse with GASTROINTESTINAL NEOPLASMS (stomach & intestines only); coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D004067

Dilatation, Pathologic

Definition: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions. Annotation: never IM; DF: DILATATION PATHOL ID#: D004108

Dipetalonema Infections

Definition: Infections with nematodes of the genus DIPETALONEMA. Annotation: /drug ther: consider FILARICIDES ID#: D004154


Definition: A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects. Annotation: caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae ID#: D004165


Definition: Infection with tapeworms of the genus Diphyllobothrium. Annotation: tapeworm infect; consider also SPARGANOSIS (infection at larval stage) ID#: D004169


Definition: A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE. Annotation: ID#: D004172


Definition: Infection with nematodes of the genus DIROFILARIA, usually in animals, especially dogs, but occasionally in man. Annotation: usually in animals, espec dogs; coord IM with precoord animal/dis term (IM) + specific animal (NIM); check also tag ANIMAL; drug ther: consider FILARICIDES ID#: D004184


Definition: Inflammation of an intervertebral disk or disk space which may lead to disk erosion. Until recently, discitis has been defined as a nonbacterial inflammation and has been attributed to aseptic processes (e.g., chemical reaction to an injected substance). However, recent studies provide evidence that infection may be the initial cause, but perhaps not the promoter, of most cases of discitis. Discitis has been diagnosed in patients following discography, myelography, lumbar puncture, paravertebral injection, and obstetrical epidural anesthesia. Discitis following chemonucleolysis (especially with chymopapain) is attributed to chemical reaction by some and to introduction of microorganisms by others. Annotation: coord IM with specific vertebrae (IM) ID#: D015299

Discrete Subaortic Stenosis

Definition: An anatomic alteration in the mitral valve apparatus and interventricular septum leading to obstruction of left ventricular outflow. (from Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1998;14(3):296-303) Annotation: ID#: D021922


Definition: A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown. Annotation: GEN only as a physiol, pathol, philosophical concept, opposite "health"; Manual 23.5+; /transm = DISEASE TRANSMISSION but consider COMMUNICABLE DISEASES as probably better or DISEASE TRANSMISSION, PATIENT-TO-PROFESSIONAL or DISEASE TRANSMISSION, PROFESSIONAL-TO-PATIENT; /vet = VETERINARY MEDICINE or ANIMAL DISEASES; /econ permitted but consider also economic aspects of disease as ECONOMICS, MEDICAL; /psychol permitted but consider also psychogenic origin of disease as PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGIC DISORDERS; use remaining qualif discreetly ID#: D004194

Disease Attributes

Definition: Clinical characteristics of disease or illness. Annotation: not used for indexing or cataloging ID#: D020969

Disease Models, Animal

Definition: Animal disease whose pathologic mechanisms are sufficiently similar to those of a different human disease for the animal disease to serve as a model. The animal disease may be either induced or naturally occurring. Annotation: article must be on an anim dis as a model: not all articles on anim dis or exper dis are "disease models"; when the model is the point of the article, coord IM with specific dis (IM) + specific animal term if pertinent (IM) ID#: D004195

Disease Models, Autoimmune, Nervous System

Definition: Animal disease models that simulate human autoimmune disorders of the central or peripheral nervous system. Disease models have been established for the study of GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME (see NEURITIS, EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC); MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (see MYASTHENIA GRAVIS, EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE); and MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (see ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE). Annotation: coord with specific disease modeled but note examples in scope note ID#: D020721

Disease Progression

Definition: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis. Annotation: almost never IM; coord NIM with specific disease (IM); since most dis "progress" unless arrested spontaneously, by med intervention or death, do not index here at all unless particularly discussed as a stage in determ of progn or ther; no qualif; DF: DIS PROGRESSION ID#: D018450

Diseases in Twins

Definition: Disorders affecting twins, one or both, at any age. Annotation: IM; human only; the disease may be in only one or in both twins; Manual 34.14; DF: DIS IN TWINS ID#: D004200


Definition: Annotation: bones & joints only: not for lens ( = LENS DISLOCATION AND SUBLUXATION), testis, etc.; IM; luxation & subluxation go here; coord IM with joint (IM), not bone ID#: D004204

Disorders of Environmental Origin

Definition: Disorders representing collectively the results of assault by external forces, rather than by organic or physiologic dysfunction or by pathogens. Annotation: not used for indexing CATALOG: do not use ID#: D007280

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

Definition: A disorder characterized by reduction in the elements involved in blood coagulation due to their utilization in widespread blood clotting within the vessels. The activation of the clotting mechanism may arise from any of a number of disorders. In the late stages, it is marked by profuse hemorrhaging. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: do not confuse with ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION, INTRAVASCULAR; DF: DISSEM INTRAVASC COAG ID#: D004211


Definition: A name for several highly contagious viral diseases of animals, especially canine distemper. In dogs, it is caused by the canine distemper virus (DISTEMPER VIRUS, CANINE). It is characterized by a diphasic fever, leukopenia, gastrointestinal and respiratory inflammation and sometimes, neurologic complications. In cats it is known as FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA. Annotation: don't forget also DOGS (NIM) or other animal + check tag ANIMAL but in cats = FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA (IM) + CATS (NIM) + check tag ANIMAL ID#: D004216


Definition: Inflammation of a DIVERTICULUM or diverticula. Annotation: coord IM with precoord organ/dis terms (IM) or specific diverticulum (IM) ID#: D004238

Diverticulitis, Colonic

Definition: Inflammatory complications of colonic diverticulosis in which diverticula may undergo perforation with abscess formation. Annotation: do not confuse with DIVERTICULUM, COLON ID#: D004239


Definition: A pathological condition manifested as a pouch or sac opening from a tubular or sacular organ. Annotation: coord IM with precoord organ/dis term (IM) but note specifics are available ID#: D004240

Diverticulum, Colon

Definition: Presence of multiple herniations of the mucosa and submucosa of the colon through the circular muscle layer. Annotation: do not confuse with DIVERTICULITIS, COLONIC ID#: D004241

Diverticulum, Esophageal

Definition: Saccular, outward protrusion of all or a portion of the esophageal wall from the lumen of the esophagus. Annotation: inflamm divertic or diverticulitis: coord IM with DIVERTICULITIS (IM) ID#: D004936

Diverticulum, Stomach

Definition: Saccular, outward protrusion of a portion of the mucous membrane of the stomach wall. Annotation: inflamm divertic or diverticulitis: coord IM with DIVERTICULITIS (IM) ID#: D013273


Definition: An imprecise term which may refer to a sense of spatial disorientation, motion of the environment, or lightheadedness. Annotation: differentiate from VERTIGO, illusion of revolution in space, but use word of text ID#: D004244

DNA Virus Infections

Definition: Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; DF: DNA VIRUS INFECT ID#: D004266

Dog Diseases

Definition: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used. Annotation: IM GEN or unspecified; coord IM with specific dis /vet (IM) or specific dog dis (IM); for abnormalities or injuries, index under DOGS /abnorm or DOGS /inj; don't forget also DOGS (NIM) & check tag ANIMAL; DF: DOG DIS ID#: D004283

Double Outlet Right Ventricle

Definition: Incomplete transposition of the great vessels in which both the aorta and the pulmonary artery arise from the right ventricle, often associated with a subaortic ventricular septal defect. Annotation: incomplete transposition of great vessels; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D004310


Definition: A disease of horses and donkeys caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum. The disease occurs in Africa, the Americas, and Asia. Annotation: trypanosome infect in horses; coord IM with HORSE DISEASES (IM) + HORSES (NIM); if in donkeys, coord IM with PERISSODACTYLA (IM); check tag ANIMAL ID#: D004313

Down Syndrome

Definition: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe MENTAL RETARDATION. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213) Annotation: ID#: D004314


Definition: Infection with nematodes of the genus DRACUNCULUS. One or more worms may be seen at a time, with the legs and feet being the most commonly infected areas. Symptoms include pruritus, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or asthmatic attacks. Annotation: nematode infect ID#: D004320

Drug Eruptions

Definition: Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions. Annotation: for any skin dis caused by ther agent whether prescribed by MD or not, or through any route of admin ID#: D003875

Drug Hypersensitivity

Definition: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally. Annotation: use in conventional sense and not for allergy to every category D term; allergy to non-drug chemical substance=substance /ad eff + HYPERSENSITIVITY or its specifics /etiol; manual 23.24+ ID#: D004342

Drug Toxicity

Definition: Manifestations of the adverse effects of drugs administered therapeutically or in the course of diagnostic techniques. It does not include accidental or intentional poisoning for which specific headings are available. Annotation: note category: TOXICOLOGY is the specialty; GEN or unspecified; prefer specific indentions or Cat D term with /adv eff-pois-tox or Cat C term with /chem ind; DF: DRUG TOX ID#: D004362

Dry Eye Syndromes

Definition: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur. Annotation: defic tear production; GEN or unspecified: prefer specifics; do not confuse with XEROPHTHALMIA: read MeSH definitions ID#: D015352

Dry Socket

Definition: A condition sometimes occurring after tooth extraction, particularly after traumatic extraction, resulting in a dry appearance of the exposed bone in the socket, due to disintegration or loss of the blood clot. It is basically a focal osteomyelitis without suppuration and is accompanied by severe pain (alveolalgia) and foul odor. (Dorland, 28th ed) Annotation: note category: after surg or traumatic tooth extraction ID#: D004368

Duane Retraction Syndrome

Definition: A syndrome characterized by marked limitation of abduction of the eye, variable limitation of adduction and retraction of the globe, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction. The condition is caused by aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by fibers of the oculomotor nerve. There are three subtypes: type 1 (associated with loss of abduction), type 2 (associated with loss of adduction), and type 3 (loss of abduction and adduction). Two loci for Duane retraction syndrome have been located, one at chromosome 8q13 (DURS1) and another at chromosome 2q31(DURS2). It is usually caused by congenital hypoplasia of the abducens nerve or nucleus, but may rarely represent an acquired syndrome. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p271; Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p691) Annotation: ID#: D004370

Ductus Arteriosus, Patent

Definition: Abnormal persistence of an open lumen in the ductus arteriosus after birth, the direction of flow being from the aorta to the pulmonary artery, resulting in recirculation of arterial blood through the lungs. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: abnormal: normal anat structure is DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D004374

Dumping Syndrome

Definition: Gastrointestinal symptoms resulting from an absent or nonfunctioning pylorus. Annotation: ID#: D004377

Duodenal Diseases

Definition: Annotation: GEN; prefer specifics; inflamm dis = DUODENITIS; duodenal atresia = DUODENAL OBSTRUCTION /congen (IM) + INTESTINAL ATRESIA (IM) ID#: D004378

Duodenal Neoplasms

Definition: Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D004379

Duodenal Obstruction

Definition: Annotation: obstruct of external or internal origin; duodenal compression by superior mesenteric artery = SUPERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY SYNDROME; duodenal atresia = DUODENAL OBSTRUCTION /congen (IM) + INTESTINAL ATRESIA (IM) ID#: D004380

Duodenal Ulcer

Definition: A peptic ulcer situated in the duodenum. (Dorland, 28th ed) Annotation: perforation = DUODENAL ULCER /compl (IM) + PEPTIC ULCER PERFORATION (IM); hemorrhage = DUODENAL ULCER /compl (IM) + PEPTIC ULCER HEMORRHAGE (IM) ID#: D004381


Definition: Annotation: ID#: D004382

Duodenogastric Reflux

Definition: Reflux of duodenal contents into the stomach. Annotation: note category; "reflux of duodenal contents into stomach" ID#: D004383

Dupuytren's Contracture

Definition: A fibromatosis of the palmar fascia characterized by thickening and contracture of the fibrous bands on the palmar surfaces of the hand and fingers. It arises most commonly in men between the ages of 30 and 50. Annotation: contracture of fingers ID#: D004387


Definition: The condition of being undersized as a result of premature arrest of skeletal growth. It may be caused by insufficient secretion of growth hormone (DWARFISM, PITUITARY). Annotation: X ref MULIBREY NANISM: spell in titles & translations with lowercase m: mulibrey (stands for MUscle, LIver, BRain, EYes) ID#: D004392

Dwarfism, Pituitary

Definition: A form of dwarfism due to deficient release of SOMATOTROPIN which may result from dysfunction of the hypothalamus or anterior pituitary gland. Annotation: ID#: D004393


Definition: Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharnyx, larnyx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489) Annotation: ID#: D004401

Dysautonomia, Familial

Definition: An autosomal disorder of the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems limited to individuals of Ashkenazic Jewish descent. Clinical manifestations are present at birth and include diminished lacrimation, defective thermoregulation, orthostatic hypotension (HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC), fixed pupils, excessive SWEATING, loss of pain and temperature sensation, and absent reflexes. Pathologic features include reduced numbers of small diameter peripheral nerve fibers and autonomic ganglion neurons. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1348; Nat Genet 1993;4(2):160-4) Annotation: do not confuse with DYSAUTONOMIA see AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES ID#: D004402


Definition: Any of various disorders marked by inflammation of the intestines, especially of the colon, and attended by pain in the abdomen, tenesmus, and frequent stools containing blood and mucus. Causes include chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasitic worms. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a form of diarrhea resulting from intestinal inflamm of various origins ID#: D004403

Dysentery, Amebic

Definition: Dysentery resulting from ulcerative inflammation of the bowel, caused chiefly by infection with ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA. This condition may be associated with amebic infection of the liver and other distant sites. Annotation: amebic intestinal infect caused by Entamoeba histolytica ID#: D004404

Dysentery, Bacillary

Definition: An infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus SHIGELLA. This condition is characterized by intestinal pain and diarrhea. Annotation: coord IM with specific Shigella species if pertinent (IM) ID#: D004405


Definition: An immunologic deficiency state characterized by selective deficiencies of one or more, but not all, classes of immunoglobulins. Annotation: an immunol defic dis; coord IM with specific immunoglobulin /defic (IM) but note that IGA DEFICIENCY & IGG DEFICIENCY are available; TN 225: relation to AGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA ID#: D004406


Definition: A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646 Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with probably OVARIAN NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D004407


Definition: A condition characterized by alterations of the sense of taste which may range from mild to severe, including gross distortions of taste quality. Annotation: do not confuse with AGEUSIA, loss of sense of taste ID#: D004408

Dyskeratosis Congenita

Definition: A predominantly X-linked recessive syndrome characterized by a triad of reticular skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and leukoplakia of mucous membranes. Oral and dental abnormalities may also be present. Complications are a predisposition to malignancy and bone marrow involvement with pancytopenia. (from Int J Paediatr Dent 2000 Dec;10(4):328-34) The X-linked form is also known as Zinsser-Cole-Engman syndrome and involves the gene which encodes a highly conserved protein called dyskerin. Annotation: ID#: D019871

Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced

Definition: Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199) Annotation: do not confuse with AKATHISIA, DRUG-INDUCED which shows "anxiety, restlessness & agitation" ID#: D004409


Definition: Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. Annotation: DYSKINESIA SYNDROMES see MOVEMENT DISORDERS is also available ID#: D020820


Definition: Painful menstruation. Annotation: ID#: D004412


Definition: Defective bone formation involving individual bones, singly or in combination. Annotation: defective bone formation ID#: D004413


Definition: Impaired digestion, especially after eating. Annotation: ID#: D004415

Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome

Definition: Clinically atypical nevi (usually exceeding 5 mm in diameter and having variable pigmentation and ill defined borders) with an increased risk for development of non-familial cutaneous malignant melanoma. Biopsies show melanocytic dysplasia. Nevi are clinically and histologically identical to the precursor lesions for melanoma in the B-K mole syndrome. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: do not use /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct ID#: D004416


Definition: Difficult or labored breathing. Annotation: do not confuse with APNEA or other resp disord; use only when text uses DYSPNEA ID#: D004417

Dyspnea, Paroxysmal

Definition: A disorder characterized by episodes of respiratory distress, usually occurring after several hours of sleep in a reclining position. It is most commonly caused by pulmonary edema resulting from congestive heart failure. The episodes may be accompanied by coughing, a feeling of suffocation, a cold sweat, and tachycardia. Annotation: ID#: D004418


Definition: Difficult childbirth or labor. Annotation: difficult childbirth ID#: D004420


Definition: A persistent attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77) Annotation: do not confuse with MUSCLE HYPERTONIA or MUSCLE HYPOTONIA; DYSTONIC DISORDERS is available ID#: D004421

Dystonia Musculorum Deformans

Definition: A condition characterized by focal DYSTONIA that progresses to involuntary spasmodic contractions of the muscles of the legs, trunk, arms, and face. The hands are often spared, however, sustained axial and limb contractions may lead to a state where the body is grossly contorted. Onset is usually in the first or second decade. Familial patterns of inheritance, primarily autosomal dominant with incomplete pentrance, have been identified. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1078) Annotation: ID#: D004422

Dystonic Disorders

Definition: Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset. Annotation: DYSTONIA is also available ID#: D020821