Index of Diseases


Gait Ataxia

Definition: Impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal ambulation which may result from impairments of motor function or sensory feedback. This condition may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES (including CEREBELLAR DISEASES and BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES); SPINAL CORD DISEASES; or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Annotation: ID#: D020234

Gait Disorders, Neurologic

Definition: Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES. Annotation: LAMENESS, ANIMAL is also available ID#: D020233


Definition: Excessive or spontaneous flow of milk. The milk secretion persists irrespective of nursing. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: persistent secretion of milk in both sexes & not necessarily related to pregn; usually check tags PREGNANCY & FEMALE also ID#: D005687


Definition: A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (OVARIAN FAILURE, PREMATURE); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3) Annotation: ID#: D005693

Gallbladder Diseases

Definition: Annotation: inflamm dis = CHOLECYSTITIS ID#: D005705

Gallbladder Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D005706


Definition: Rare indolent tumors comprised of neoplastic glial and neuronal cells which occur primarily in children and young adults. Benign lesions tend to be associated with long survival unless the tumor degenerates into a histologically malignant form. They tend to occur in the optic nerve and white matter of the brain and spinal cord. Annotation: coord IM with probably BRAIN NEOPLASMS (IM) + site (IM) ID#: D018303


Definition: A moderately malignant neoplasm composed of primitive neuroectodermal cells dispersed in myxomatous or fibrous stroma intermixed with mature ganglion cells. It may undergo transformation into a neuroblastoma. It arises from the sympathetic trunk or less frequently from the adrenal medulla, cerebral cortex, and other locations. Cervical ganglioneuroblastomas may be associated with HORNER SYNDROME and the tumor may occasionally secrete vasoactive intestinal peptide, resulting in chronic diarrhea. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018305


Definition: A benign neoplasm that usually arises from the sympathetic trunk in the mediastinum. Histologic features include spindle cell proliferation (resembling a neurofibroma) and the presence of large ganglion cells. The tumor may present clinically with HORNER SYNDROME or diarrhea due to ectopic production of vasoactive intestinal peptide. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p966) Annotation: coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D005729


Definition: A group of often fatal inherited diseases marked by the accumulation of GANGLIOSIDES in LYSOSOMES secondary to enzymatic deficiency states. Gangliosidoses include TAY-SACHS DISEASE; GANGLIOSIDOSIS GM1; GANGLIOSIDOSES GM2; and SANDHOFF DISEASE; which share the infantile or childhood onset of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM deterioration. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp89-97) Annotation: coord IM with specific ganglioside (IM) but GANGLIOSIDOSIS GM1 and GANGLIOSIDOSIS GM2 are available ID#: D005733

Gangliosidoses GM2

Definition: Inherited diseases characterized by the accumulation of G(M2) GANGLIOSIDE in central nervous system lysosomes and variably in other tissues. Subtypes include TAY-SACHS DISEASE and SANDHOFF DISEASE, as well as an AB variant of BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASE deficiency and an adult onset form of GM2 Gangliosidosis. Annotation: ID#: D020143

Gangliosidosis GM1

Definition: A form of gangliosidosis characterized by accumulation of G(M1) GANGLIOSIDE and oligosaccharides in lysosomes caused by an absence or severe deficiency of the enzyme BETA-GALACTOSIDASE (type A1). The three phenotypes of this disorder are infantile (generalized), juvenile, and adult. The infantile form is characterized by skeletal abnormalities, hypotonia, poor psychomotor development, hirsutism, hepatosplenomegaly, and facial abnormalities. The juvenile form features hyperacusis, seizures, and psychomotor retardation. The adult form features progressive intellectual deterioration, involuntary movements, ataxia, and spasticity. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp96-7) Annotation: ID#: D016537


Definition: Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply. Annotation: IM for general or for gangrene process; coord NIM with tissue/pathol (IM) ID#: D005734

Gardner Syndrome

Definition: A phenotypic variant of ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI featuring multiple colonic polyposis with malignant tendency, subcutaneous fibromata and lipomata, exostoses and osteomas of the skull and facial bones, and epidermal inclusion cysts. Annotation: ID#: D005736

Gas Gangrene

Definition: A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. noyvi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases. Annotation: usually caused by Clostridium perfringens but all C. perfringens infections need not be gas gangrene ID#: D005738

Gas Poisoning

Definition: Annotation: GEN or unspecified gas; prefer /pois with specific gas term ID#: D005739

Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia

Definition: A capillary ectasia of the gastric antrum mucosa characterized by thickened, red vascular folds radiating longitudinally from the pylorus to the antrum and resembling, upon endoscopic examination, the stripes on the skin of a ripened watermelon. Histological characteristics include dilated mucosal capillaries, focal thrombosis, and fibromuscular hypertrophy of the lamina propria. It is a cause of chronic upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Annotation: ID#: D020252

Gastric Fistula

Definition: Abnormal passage communicating with the stomach. Annotation: fistula policy: Manual 23.19+ ID#: D005747

Gastric Outlet Obstruction

Definition: The hindering of output from the stomach to the small intestine. The source varies: peptic ulcer, foreign bodies, aging, neoplasms, etc. Annotation: hindered output from stomach to intestine; coord IM with cause of obstruct (IM) ID#: D017219


Definition: A gastrin-secreting tumor of the non-beta islet cells. It is usually located in the pancreas but is also found at other sites, as in the antrum of the stomach, hilus of the spleen, and regional lymph nodes. The presence of gastrinoma is one of three requirements to be met for identification of ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME, which sometimes occurs in families with MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 1; (MEN-1). Gastrinomas in patients with MEN-1 are usually diffuse in nature. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with PANCREATIC NEOPLASMS (IM) or other precoord organ/neopl term (IM) if not in pancreas ID#: D015408


Definition: Annotation: ID#: D005756

Gastritis, Atrophic

Definition: Chronic gastritis with mucosal atrophy. Annotation: a chronic dis: do not coord with CHRONIC DISEASE ID#: D005757

Gastritis, Hypertrophic

Definition: Gastritis with hypertrophy of gastric mucosa folds. Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, excessive mucus secretion, and hypoproteinemia. Annotation: ID#: D005758


Definition: Annotation: ID#: D005759

Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine

Definition: A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS. Annotation: caused by a coronavirus; don't forget also SWINE (NIM) & check tag ANIMAL; DF: GASTROENTERITIS TRANSM SWINE ID#: D005761

Gastroesophageal Reflux

Definition: Reflux of gastric juice and/or duodenal contents (bile acids, pancreatic juice) into the distal esophagus, commonly due to incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter. Gastric regurgitation is an extension of this process with entry of fluid into the pharynx or mouth. Annotation: note ESOPHAGITIS, REFLUX see ESOPHAGITIS, PEPTIC ID#: D005764

Gastrointestinal Diseases

Definition: Annotation: GEN: prefer specifics; inflamm dis = GASTROENTERITIS ID#: D005767

Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

Definition: Bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. Annotation: coord IM with specific intestinal dis (IM), as colonic hemorrhage = GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE (IM) + COLONIC DISEASES (IM); rectal bleeding: see note under RECTUM; X ref HEMATOCHEZIA is red blood in the feces when bleeding is from the lower bowel: do not coord with FECES unless feces are particularly discussed ID#: D006471

Gastrointestinal Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the gastrointestinal system. Annotation: GEN: prefer specific precoord; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D005770


Definition: Paralysis of the muscular coat of the stomach. It is most often seen as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: paralysis of stomach muscles ID#: D018589


Definition: A congenital fissure of the abdominal wall not involving the site of insertion of the umbilical cord, and usually accompanied by protrusion of the small and part of the large intestine. (Dorland, 28th ed) Annotation: do not confuse with HERNIA, UMBILICAL; do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D020139

Gaucher Disease

Definition: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (see GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) featuring the pathological storage of glycosylceramide in mononuclear PHAGOCYTES (Gaucher Cells). The most common subtype is the non-neuronopathic form, a slowly progressive condition characterized by hepatosplenomegaly and skeletal deformities. The neuronopathic forms are divided into infantile and juvenile forms. The infantile form presents at 4-5 months of age with anemia, loss of cognitive gains, neck retraction, dysphagia, and hepatosplenomegaly. The juvenile form features a slowly progressive loss of intellect, hepatosplenomegaly, ATAXIA, myoclonic SEIZURES, and spasticity. The neuronopathic forms are characterized by neuronal loss with neuronophagia, and accumulation of glucocerebroside in neurons. (From Baillieres Clin Haematol 1997 Dec;10(4):711-23; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p97) Annotation: ID#: D005776

Genetic Diseases, Inborn

Definition: Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero. Annotation: GEN only: prefer /genet with specific diseases; Manual 23.22+; Manual 19.8.34; X-linked diseases in general = GENETIC DISEASES, INBORN (IM) + X CHROMOSOME (IM) + LINKAGE (NIM), a specific X-linked dis = disease (IM) + X CHROMOSOME (NIM) + LINKAGE (NIM) ID#: D030342

Genital Diseases, Female

Definition: Annotation: human & animal; GEN: prefer specifics ID#: D005831

Genital Diseases, Male

Definition: Annotation: human & animal; GEN: prefer specifics ID#: D005832

Genital Neoplasms, Female

Definition: Annotation: human & animal; GEN or unspecified only: prefer specifics; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM); /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; /vet: consider also VENEREAL TUMORS, VETERINARY ID#: D005833

Genital Neoplasms, Male

Definition: Neoplasms of the male genitalia. Annotation: human & animal; GEN or unspecified only: prefer specifics PENILE NEOPLASMS; PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS; TESTICULAR NEOPLASMS; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM); /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; /vet: consider also VENEREAL TUMORS, VETERINARY ID#: D005834


Definition: Infection due to the fungus Geotrichum. Annotation: fungus dis ID#: D005847


Definition: A malignant neoplasm of the germinal tissue of the gonads, mediastinum, or pineal region such as seminomas. The degree of differentiation to form adult cell types varies. The germ cell tumors of infants and children reflect the transformation of primordial cells that have failed to migrate to their predestined location. Germinomas are uniform in appearance, consisting of large, round cells with vesicular nuclei and clear or finely granular eosinophilic-staining cytoplasm. (Stedman, 265th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1642-3) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018237

Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker Disease

Definition: An autosomal dominant familial prion disease with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations including ATAXIA, spastic paraparesis, extrapyramidal signs, and DEMENTIA. Clinical onset is in the third to sixth decade of life and the mean duration of illness prior to death is five years. Several kindreds with variable clinical and pathologic features have been described. Pathologic features include cerebral prion protein amyloidosis, and spongiform or neurofibrillary degeneration. (From Brain Pathol 1998 Jul;8(3):499-513; Brain Pathol 1995 Jan;5(1):61-75) Annotation: a prion dis: do not confuse with GERSTMANN SYNDROME, a type of agnosia ID#: D016098

Gestosis, EPH

Definition: Hypertensive state associated with edema and proteinuria which develops during pregnancy up to the 20th week of gestation, after which it is classified as pre-eclampsia. Annotation: EPH stands for Edema, Proteinuria, Hypertension; check tags HUMAN & FEMALE & PREGNANCY ID#: D015184

Giant Cell Tumor of Bone

Definition: A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with BONE NEOPLASMS (IM) or specific precoord bone/neopl term (IM) or specific bone (IM) + BONE NEOPLASMS (IM); osteoblastoclastoma: coord IM with OSTEOBLASTOMA (IM) + organ/neopl coords (IM) ID#: D018212

Giant Cell Tumors

Definition: Tumors of bone tissue or synovial or other soft tissue characterized by the presence of giant cells. The most common are giant cell tumor of tendon sheath and GIANT CELL TUMOR OF BONE. Annotation: benign or malignant; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) but GIANT CELL TUMOR OF BONE is available ID#: D005870

Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia

Definition: Large benign, hyperplastic lymph nodes. The more common hyaline vascular subtype is characterized by small hyaline vascular follicles and interfollicular capillary proliferations. Plasma cells are often present and represent another subtype with the plasma cells containing IgM and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. Annotation: DF: note short X ref ID#: D005871


Definition: An infection of the small intestine caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact. Annotation: protozoan infect of intestines ID#: D005873


Definition: The condition of abnormal overgrowth or excessive size of the whole body or any of its parts. Annotation: manifest of hyperpituitarism ID#: D005877

Gilbert Disease

Definition: A benign familial disorder, transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. It is characterized by low-grade chronic hyperbilirubinemia with considerable daily fluctuations of the bilirubin level. Annotation: ID#: D005878

Gingival Diseases

Definition: Annotation: inflamm dis = GINGIVITIS or PERICORONITIS; note X ref EPULIS: EPULIS /congen = EPULIS, CONGENITAL see GINGIVAL NEOPLASMS & is indexed GINGIVAL NEOPLASMS /congen ID#: D005882

Gingival Hemorrhage

Definition: The flowing of blood from the marginal gingival area, particularly the sulcus, seen in such conditions as GINGIVITIS, marginal PERIODONTITIS, injury, and ASCORBIC ACID DEFICIENCY. Annotation: do not confuse with BLEEDING ON PROBING, GINGIVAL see PERIDONTAL INDEX ID#: D005884

Gingival Hyperplasia

Definition: Non-inflammatory enlargement of the gingivae produced by factors other than local irritation. It is characteristically due to an increase in the number of cells. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p400) Annotation: differentiate from GINGIVAL HYPERTROPHY ID#: D005885

Gingival Hypertrophy

Definition: Abnormal enlargement or overgrowth of the gingivae brought about by enlargement of existing cells. Annotation: differentiate from GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA ID#: D005886

Gingival Neoplasms

Definition: Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM); note X ref EPULIS, CONGENITAL: do not confuse with EPULIS see GINGIVAL DISEASES; index EPULIS, CONGENITAL under GINGIVAL NEOPLASMS /congen ID#: D005887

Gingival Overgrowth

Definition: Excessive growth of the gingiva either by an increase in the size of the constituent cells (GINGIVAL HYPERTROPHY) or by an increase in their number (GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA). (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p574) Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer GINGIVAL HYPERTROPHY or GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA ID#: D019214

Gingival Pocket

Definition: An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus not accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment. Annotation: do not confuse with PERIODONTAL POCKET: read MeSH definition ID#: D005888

Gingival Recession

Definition: The exposure of root surface by an apical shift in the position of the gingiva. Annotation: exposure of root surface ID#: D005889


Definition: Annotation: ID#: D005891

Gingivitis, Necrotizing Ulcerative

Definition: An acute or chronic gingival infection characterized by redness and swelling, necrosis extending from the interdental papillae along the gingival margins, pain, hemorrhage, necrotic odor, and often a pseudomembrane. The condition may extend to the oral mucosa, tongue, palate, or pharynx. Annotation: ID#: D005892


Definition: A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by Pseudomonas mallei and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin. Annotation: Pseudomonas infect; usually animal; check tag ANIMAL; don't forget also HORSES (NIM) but do not index under HORSE DISEASES ID#: D005896


Definition: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed) Annotation: pathol increase in intraocular pressure: differentiate from OCULAR HYPERTENSION ("intraocular pressure above normal & which may lead to glaucoma"); /surg: consider also FILTERING SURGERY or SCLEROSTOMY or TRABECULECTOMY ID#: D005901

Glaucoma, Angle-Closure

Definition: A form of glaucoma in which the intraocular pressure increases because the angle of the anterior chamber is blocked and the aqueous humor cannot drain from the anterior chamber. Annotation: do not confuse with GLAUCOMA, OPEN-ANGLE: note X ref ID#: D015812

Glaucoma, Neovascular

Definition: A form of secondary glaucoma which develops as a consequence of another ocular disease and is attributed to the forming of new vessels in the angle of the anterior chamber. Annotation: ID#: D015355

Glaucoma, Open-Angle

Definition: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris. Annotation: do not confuse with GLAUCOMA, CLOSED-ANGLE see GLAUCOMA, ANGLE-CLOSURE ID#: D005902


Definition: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures. Annotation: coord IM with probably precoord CNS/neopl term + site (IM); for GLIOBLASTOMA WITH SARCOMATOUS COMPONENT see GLIOSARCOMA; for GLIOBLASTOMA, RETINAL see RETINOBLASTOMA ID#: D005909


Definition: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become ependymomas (EPENDYMOMA), CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS, or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21) Annotation: coord IM with precoord CNS/neopl term + site (IM); GLIOMA, SUBEPENDYMAL is available; for sarcomatous GLIOMA use GLIOSARCOMA; for GLIOMA, RETINAL see RETINOBLASTOMA ID#: D005910

Glioma, Subependymal

Definition: Rare, slow-growing, benign intraventricular tumors, often asymptomatic and discovered incidentally. The tumors are classified histologically as ependymomas and demonstrate a proliferation of subependymal fibrillary astrocytes among the ependymal tumor cells. (From Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1997 Feb;99(1):17-22) Annotation: coord IM with precoord brain/neopl term (IM) + site (IM); do not confuse with ASTROCYTOMA, SUBEPENDYMAL GIANT CELL see ASTROCYTOMA ID#: D018315


Definition: Rare mixed tumors of the brain and rarely the spinal cord which contain malignant neuroectodermal (glial) and mesenchymal components, including spindle-shaped fibrosarcoma cells. These tumors are highly aggressive and present primarily in adults as rapidly expanding mass lesions. They may arise in tissue that has been previously irradiated. (From Br J Neurosurg 1995 Apr;9(2):171-8) Annotation: coord IM with precoord brain/neopl term (IM) + site (IM) ID#: D018316


Definition: The production of a dense fibrous network of neuroglia; includes astrocytosis, which is a proliferation of astrocytes in the area of a degenerative lesion. Annotation: ID#: D005911


Definition: Glomerular disease characterized by an inflammatory reaction, with leukocyte infiltration and cellular proliferation of the glomeruli, or that appears to be the result of immune glomerular injury. Annotation: "minimal lesion glomerulonephritis" = GLOMERULOSCLEROSIS, FOCAL ID#: D005921

Glomerulonephritis, IGA

Definition: Chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by recurring hematuria with only slight proteinuria and by deposits of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A in the mesangial areas of the renal glomeruli. It usually occurs in young males. Annotation: IGA deposits in the mesangium; do not confuse X ref BERGER'S DISEASE with BUERGER'S DISEASE see THROMBOANGIITIS OBLITERANS ID#: D005922

Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative

Definition: Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of mesangial cells, increase in the mesangial matrix, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. The wall thickening is sometimes said to be a result of the interposition of mesangial cytoplasm or matrix between the basement membrane and the endothelium of the capillary wall. It is often divided into types I and II, and sometimes III. Pathogenesis is not well understood, but some types are thought to involve the immune system, with the complement system, in particular, being implicated. Annotation: do not confuse with GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, MEMBRANOUS; do not make diagnoses: use the term used by the author; DF: note short X ref ID#: D015432

Glomerulonephritis, Membranous

Definition: A disease of the glomerulus manifested clinically by proteinuria, and sometimes by other features of the nephrotic syndrome. It is histologically characterized by deposits in the glomerular capillary wall between the epithelial cell and the basement membrane and a thickening of the membrane. Also characteristic are outward projections of the membrane between the epithelial deposits in the form of "spikes". There is some agreement that the deposits are antigen-antibody complexes. Annotation: do not confuse with GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, MEMBRANOPROLIFERATIVE; do not make diagnoses: use the term used by the author; DF: note short X ref ID#: D015433

Glomerulosclerosis, Focal

Definition: Glomerular disease characterized by focal and segmental areas of glomerular sclerosis, usually commencing in the juxtamedullary glomeruli and gradually spreading to involve other parts of the kidney, with eventual kidney failure. Annotation: a form of glomerulonephritis ID#: D005923

Glomus Jugulare Tumor

Definition: A paraganglioma involving the glomus jugulare, a microscopic collection of chemoreceptor tissue in the adventitia of the bulb of the jugular vein. It may cause paralysis of the vocal cords, attacks of dizziness, blackouts, and nystagmus. It is not resectable but radiation therapy is effective. It regresses slowly, but permanent control is regularly achieved. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1603-4) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; organ/neopl & histol coords not necessary ID#: D005925

Glomus Tumor

Definition: A blue-red, extremely painful paraganglioma involving a glomeriform arteriovenous anastomosis (glomus body), which may be found anywhere in the skin, most often in the distal portion of the fingers and toes, especially beneath the nail. They may also occur in the stomach and nasal cavity. It is composed of specialized pericytes (sometimes termed glomus cells), usually in single encapsulated nodular masses which may be several millimeters in diameter. When located in the usual subungual site, the abundant innervation makes the tumor exquisitely painful; when located elsewhere, the glomus tumor is painless. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D005918


Definition: Painful sensations in the tongue, including a sensation of burning. Annotation: ID#: D005926


Definition: Inflammation of the tongue. Annotation: inflamm of the tongue ID#: D005928

Glossitis, Benign Migratory

Definition: An idiopathic disorder characterized by the loss of filiform papillae leaving reddened areas of circinate macules bound by a white band. The lesions heal, then others erupt. Annotation: ID#: D005929

Glossopharyngeal Nerve Diseases

Definition: Diseases of the ninth cranial (glossopharyngeal) nerve or its nuclei in the medulla. The nerve may be injured by diseases affecting the lower brain stem, floor of the posterior fossa, jugular foramen, or the nerve's extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include loss of sensation from the pharynx, decreased salivation, and syncope. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia refers to a condition that features recurrent unilateral sharp pain in the tongue, angle of the jaw, external auditory meatus and throat that may be associated with SYNCOPE. Episodes may be triggered by cough, sneeze, swallowing, or pressure on the tragus of the ear. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1390) Annotation: neopl: coord IM with CRANIAL NERVE NEOPLASMS (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D020435


Definition: Glucagon-secreting tumor of the pancreatic alpha cells characterized by a distinctive rash, weight loss, stomatitis, glossitis, diabetes, hypoaminoacidemia, and normochromic normocytic anemia. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with PANCREATIC NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D005935

Glucose Intolerance

Definition: A pathological state in which the fasting plasma glucose level is less than 140 mg per deciliter and the 30-, 60-, or 90-minute plasma glucose concentration following a glucose tolerance test exceeds 200 mg per deciliter. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS but also occurs with other diseases. Annotation: ID#: D018149

Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency

Definition: A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of enzyme activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia. Annotation: a congen hemolytic anemia; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; DF: GPD DEFIC ID#: D005955

Glycogen Storage Disease

Definition: A group of inherited metabolic disorders involving the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. In some patients, prominent liver involvement is presented. In others, more generalized storage of glycogen occurs, sometimes with prominent cardiac involvement. Annotation: an inborn error of carbohydrate metab; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D006008

Glycogen Storage Disease Type I

Definition: An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D005953

Glycogen Storage Disease Type II

Definition: An autosomal recessively inherited glycogen storage disease caused by GLUCAN 1,4-ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE DEFICIENCY. Large amounts of GLYCOGEN accumulate in the LYSOSOMES of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL); HEART; LIVER; SPINAL CORD; and BRAIN. Three forms have been described: infantile, childhood, and adult. The infantile form is fatal in infancy and presents with hypotonia and a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC). The childhood form usually presents in the second year of life with proximal weakness and respiratory symptoms. The adult form consists of a slowly progressive proximal myopathy. (From Muscle Nerve 1995;3:S61-9; Menkes,Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp73-4) Annotation: ID#: D006009

Glycogen Storage Disease Type III

Definition: An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to deficient expression of amylo-1,6-glucosidase (one part of the glycogen debranching enzyme system). The clinical course of the disease is similar to that of glycogen storage disease type I, but milder. Massive hepatomegaly, which is present in young children, diminishes and occasionally disappears with age. Levels of glycogen with short outer branches are elevated in muscle, liver, and erythrocytes. Six subgroups have been identified, with subgroups Type IIIa and Type IIIb being the most prevalent. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D006010

Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV

Definition: An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to a deficiency in expression of branching enzyme (alpha-1,4-glucan-6-alpha-glucosyltransferase), resulting in an accumulation of abnormal glycogen with long outer branches. Clinical features are muscle hypotonia and cirrhosis. Death from liver disease usually occurs before age 2. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D006011

Glycogen Storage Disease Type V

Definition: Glycogenosis due to muscle phosphorylase deficiency. Characterized by painful cramps following sustained exercise. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D006012

Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI

Definition: A hepatic GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE in which there is an apparent deficiency of hepatic phosphorylase (GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE, LIVER FORM) activity. Annotation: ID#: D006013

Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII

Definition: An autosomal recessive glycogen storage disease in which there is deficient expression of 6-phosphofructose 1-kinase in muscle (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE) resulting in abnormal deposition of glycogen in muscle tissue. These patients have severe congenital muscular dystrophy and are exercise intolerant. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D006014

Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

Definition: An x-linked recessive hepatic glycogen storage disease resulting from lack of expression of phosphorylase-b-kinase activity. Symptoms are relatively mild; hepatomegaly, increased liver glycogen, and decreased leukocyte phosphorylase are present. Liver shrinkage occurs in response to glucagon. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D006015


Definition: The presence of glucose in the urine, especially the excretion of an abnormally large amount of sugar (glucose) in the urine. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: note category; presence of glucose (sugar) in urine ID#: D006029

Glycosuria, Renal

Definition: Glycosuria occurring when there is only the normal amount of sugar in the blood, due to inherited inability of the renal tubules to reabsorb glucose completely. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: from inability of renal tubules to reabsorb glucose completely; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D006030

Goat Diseases

Definition: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra. Annotation: IM GEN or unspecified; coord IM with specific dis /vet (IM); for abnormalities or injuries, index under GOATS /abnorm or GOATS /inj; don't forget also GOATS (NIM) & check tag ANIMAL; DF: GOAT DIS ID#: D015511


Definition: Enlargement of the thyroid gland. Annotation: enlarged thyroid; lingual goiter: index here to avoid complex coords ID#: D006042

Goiter, Endemic

Definition: Enlargement of the thyroid gland in a significantly large fraction of a population group, generally considered to be due to insufficient iodine in the diet. Annotation: enlarged thyroid in a large population group ID#: D006043

Goiter, Nodular

Definition: An enlarged thyroid gland containing circumscribed nodules within its substance. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a goiter containing circumscribed nodules in the thyroid ID#: D006044

Goiter, Substernal

Definition: An enlarged thyroid gland where the enlarged gland is situated beneath the sternum. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a goiter where part of the enlarged thyroid lies beneath the sternum ID#: D006045

Goldenhar Syndrome

Definition: Mandibulofacial dysostosis with congenital eyelid dermoids. Annotation: "mandibulofacial dysostosis with congen eyelid dermoids"; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D006053

Gonadal Disorders

Definition: Disease of the ovaries and testes of any etiology. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; DF: GONADAL DIS ID#: D006058

Gonadal Dysgenesis

Definition: A number of syndromes with defective gonadal developments such as streak gonads and dysgenetic testes. The spectrum of gonadal and sexual abnormalities is reflected in their varied sex chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOMES) constitution as shown by the karyotypes of 45,X monosomy (TURNER SYNDROME); 46,XX (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46XX); 46,XY (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY); and sex chromosome MOSAICISM (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, MIXED). Their phenotypes range from female, through ambiguous, to male. This concept includes gonadal agenesis. Annotation: ID#: D006059

Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46,XX

Definition: The 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis may be sporadic or familial. Familial XX gonadal dysgenesis is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and its locus was mapped to chromosome 2. Mutation in the gene for the FSH receptor (RECEPTORS, FSH) was detected. Sporadic XX gonadal dysgenesis is heterogeneous and has been associated with trisomy-13 and trisomy-18. These phenotypic females are characterized by a normal stature, sexual infantilism, bilateral streak gonads, amenorrhea, elevated plasma LH and FSH concentration. The syndrome is sometimes called "pure gonadal dysgenesis," but this designation may also refer to gonadal dysgenesis with a 46,XY karyotype (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY). Annotation: ID#: D023961

Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46,XY

Definition: This type of gonadal defect is characterized by a female phenotype, normal to tall stature, bilateral streak or dysgenetic gonads, and a 46,XY karyotype. This XY gonadal dysgenesis is a heterogenous condition with variant forms resulting from a structural abnormality on Y chromosome, a mutation in SRY gene or a mutation in autosomal genes. The syndrome is sometimes called "pure gonadal dysgenesis," but this designation may also refer to gonadal dysgenesis with a 46,XX karyotype (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XX). Annotation: ID#: D006061

Gonadal Dysgenesis, Mixed

Definition: A type of defective gonadal development in patients with a wide spectrum of chomosomal mosaic variants. Their karyotypes are of partial sex chromosome monosomy resulting from an absence or an abnormal second sex chromosome (X or Y). Karyotypes include 45,X/46,XX; 45,X/46,XX/47,XXX; 46,XXp-; 45,X/46,XY; 45,X/47,XYY; 46,XYpi; etc. The spectrum of phenotypes may range from phenotypic female through pseudohermaphrodite to phenotypic male, depending on the ratio in each gonad of 45,X primordial germ cells to those with normal 46,XX or 46,XY constitution. Annotation: ID#: D006060


Definition: A DYSGERMINOMA that contains all gonadal elements - germ cells, sex cord derivatives, and stromal derivatives. It occurs almost exclusively in abnormal gonads, most often associated with some form of gonadal dysgenesis, frequently associated with abnormal chromosomal karyotype. It is rare and occurs almost exclusively during the first two decades of life. Almost 33% are associated with germinomas. Gonadoblastomas consist of large germ cells surrounded by smaller round, darkly staining Sertoli cells, forming microfollicles consisting of hyaline bodies and calcium deposits. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1643) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with OVARIAN NEOPLASMS (IM) or TESTICULAR NEOPLASMS (IM) & appropriate check tags ID#: D018238


Definition: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879. Annotation: caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae ID#: D006069

Goodpasture Syndrome

Definition: A combination of pulmonary hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis. It is known also as the lung purpura glomerulonephritis complex. It is considered by some to be a form of hypersensitivity reaction. Annotation: pulm hemorrhage & glomerulonephritis ID#: D006070


Definition: Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi. Annotation: a rheum dis; /drug ther: consider also GOUT SUPPRESSANTS & its indentions; ARTHRITIS, GOUTY is also available ID#: D006073

Graft Occlusion, Vascular

Definition: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts. Annotation: ID#: D006083

Graft vs Host Disease

Definition: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION. Annotation: do not confuse with GRAFT VS HOST REACTION (Cat G); DF: note short X ref ID#: D006086

Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections

Definition: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. Annotation: GEN: avoid; prefer specifics; DF: GRAM NEG BACT INFECT ID#: D016905

Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections

Definition: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method. Annotation: GEN: avoid; prefer specifics, DF: GRAM POS BACT INFECT ID#: D016908

Granular Cell Tumor

Definition: Unusual tumor affecting any site of the body, but most often encountered in the head and neck. Considerable debate has surrounded the histogenesis of this neoplasm; however, it is considered to be a myoblastoma of, usually, a benign nature. It affects women more often than men. When it develops beneath the epidermis or mucous membrane, it can lead to proliferation of the squamous cells and mimic squamous cell carcinoma. Annotation: benign or malignant; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM); do not confuse with GRANULOSA CELL TUMOR, an ovarian neopl ID#: D016586


Definition: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents. Annotation: GEN: prefer specifics; coord IM with organ/dis (IM); malignant of nose = GRANULOMA, LETHAL MIDLINE; central giant cell granuloma & giant cell granuloma = GRANULOMA, GIANT CELL; granulomatous dis or granulomatous dis of childhood = GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC; cholesterol granuloma = GRANULOMA, FOREIGN BODY (IM) + CHOLESTEROL (IM); talc granuloma = GRANULOMA, FOREIGN BODY /etiol (not/chem ind) + TALC /adv eff; xanthogranuloma = XANTHOMATOSIS (IM) + GRANULOMA (IM) but XANTHOGRANULOMA, JUVENILE is available ID#: D006099

Granuloma Annulare

Definition: Benign granulomatous disease of unknown etiology characterized by a ring of localized or disseminated papules or nodules on the skin and palisading histiocytes surrounding necrobiotic tissue resulting from altered collagen structures. Annotation: non-neoplastic; of the skin, so do not coord with SKIN DISEASES; coord IM with specific site or precoord site heading if pertinent (IM) ID#: D016460

Granuloma Inguinale

Definition: Anogenital ulcers caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis as distinguished from lymphogranuloma inguinale (see LYMPHOGRANULOMA VENEREUM) caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Diagnosis is made by demonstration of typical intracellular Donovan bodies in crushed-tissue smears. Annotation: non-neoplastic; gram-neg bact infect; sexually transmitted ID#: D006100

Granuloma, Foreign-Body

Definition: Histiocytic, inflammatory response to a foreign body. It consists of modified macrophages with multinucleated giant cells, in this case foreign-body giant cells (GIANT CELLS, FOREIGN-BODY), usually surrounded by lymphocytes. Annotation: ID#: D015745

Granuloma, Giant Cell

Definition: A non-neoplastic inflammatory lesion, usually of the jaw or gingiva, containing large, multinucleated cells. It includes reparative giant cell granuloma. Peripheral giant cell granuloma refers to the gingiva (giant cell epulis); central refers to the jaw. Annotation: do not confuse with GIANT CELL TUMORS, benign or malignant neopl; coord IM with organ/dis (IM), not organ/neopl; peripheral or epulis involves gingiva, central refers to jaw ID#: D006101

Granuloma, Laryngeal

Definition: A polypoid granulomatous projection into the lumen of the larynx. Annotation: non-neoplastic ID#: D006102

Granuloma, Lethal Midline

Definition: A non-neoplastic disease of unknown etiology beginning with inflammation, ulceration, and perforation of nose and palate and progressing to gradual destruction of midline facial structures. Annotation: ID#: D006103

Granuloma, Plasma Cell

Definition: A slow-growing benign pseudotumor in which plasma cells greatly outnumber the inflammatory cells. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; non-neoplastic; IM; coord with organ/dis (IM), not organ/neopl ID#: D006104

Granuloma, Plasma Cell, Orbital

Definition: A chronic neoplasm-like inflammatory reaction, usually affecting the orbital tissues of both eyes, also known as orbital myositis. Annotation: non-neoplastic ID#: D016727

Granuloma, Plasma Cell, Pulmonary

Definition: A pseudotumor of the lung composed of inflammatory cells and showing complete maturity of fibroblastic components with a striking lack of mitosis. It is also called postinflammatory pseudotumor and pseudoneoplastic pneumonitis. (Surg Gynecol Obstet 1983 Jan;156(1):89-96) Annotation: non-neoplastic; DF: GRANULOMA PLASMA CELL PULM ID#: D016726

Granuloma, Pyogenic

Definition: A disorder of the skin, the oral mucosa, and the gingiva, that usually presents as a solitary polypoid capillary hemangioma often resulting from trauma. It is manifested as an inflammatory response with similar characteristics to those of a granuloma. Annotation: non-neoplastic; coord IM with organ/dis (IM); do not confuse X ref HEMANGIOMA, LOBULAR CAPILLARY with neopl HEMANGIOMA, CAPILLARY ID#: D017789

Granuloma, Respiratory Tract

Definition: Granulomatous disorders affecting one or more sites in the respiratory tract. Annotation: ID#: D015769

Granulomatous Disease, Chronic

Definition: A recessive X-linked defect of leukocyte function in which phagocytic cells ingest but fail to digest bacteria, resulting in recurring bacterial infections with granuloma formation. Annotation: also called granulomatous disease of childhood ID#: D006105

Granulosa Cell Tumor

Definition: An ovarian tumor originating in the cells of the primordial membrana granulosa of the graafian follicle. It may be associated with excessive production of estrogen (ESTROGENS). Annotation: coord IM with OVARIAN NEOPLASMS (IM); do not confuse with GRANULAR CELL TUMOR, a myoblastoma of any site, usually head & neck ID#: D006106

Graves' Disease

Definition: Hyperthyroidism associated with a diffuse hyperplastic goiter resulting from production of an antibody directed against the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor, which acts as an agonist of TSH. (Braverman, The Thyroid, 6th ed, p648) Annotation: a form of hyperthyroidism; for ophthalmopathy X refs: coord with specific eye dis or vision disord (IM) only if particularly discussed ID#: D006111

Growth Disorders

Definition: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth. Annotation: do not confuse with NUTRITION DISORDERS (disord of assimilating & utilizing nutrients) ID#: D006130

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

Definition: An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314) Annotation: do not confuse X ref POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY ACUTE, INFLAMMATORY with POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY see POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING ID#: D020275


Definition: Occlusion of some part of the female genital tract, especially of the vagina. (Dorland, 28th ed) Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D006175


Definition: Excessive development of the male mammary glands, even to the functional state. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: excessive breast develop in male; check tags HUMAN & MALE ID#: D006177

Gyrate Atrophy

Definition: Progressive, autosomal recessive, diffuse atrophy of the choroid, pigment epithelium, and sensory retina that begins in childhood. Annotation: a hered eye dis; /congen permitted: read MeSH definition ID#: D015799