Index of Diseases


Kallmann Syndrome

Definition: Congenital and familial disorder characterized by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, eunuchoidal features, and anosmia or hyposmia. It is caused by a defect in the synthesis and/or release of LHRH (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone; GONADORELIN) from the hypothalamus as a result of faulty embryonic neuronal migration. The gene responsible for this is found in the region Xp22.3 on the short arm of the X chromosome. There is a homolog on the Y chromosome. The syndrome is more prevalent in males by a ratio of three to one. Annotation: a congen hypogonadism; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D017436

Kaposi Varicelliform Eruption

Definition: A disseminated vesicular-pustular eruption caused by the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINUS), the VACCINIA VIRUS, or Varicella zoster (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It is usually superimposed on a preexisting, inactive or active, atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC). Annotation: ID#: D007617

Kartagener Syndrome

Definition: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by BRONCHIECTASIS; SINUSITIS; DEXTROCARDIA; and INFERTILITY. In vitro studies of tissues from these patients, have shown various patterns of abnormal ciliary beating. (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man,, MIM # 244400, April 24, 2001) Annotation: ID#: D007619

Kearns Syndrome

Definition: A mitochondrial disorder featuring the triad of chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, cardiomyopathy (with conduction block), and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. Disease onset is in the first or second decade. Elevated CSF protein, sensorineural deafness, seizures, and pyramidal signs may also be present. Ragged-red fibers are found on muscle biopsy. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p984) Annotation: ID#: D007625


Definition: A sharply elevated, irregularly shaped, progressively enlarging scar resulting from formation of excessive amounts of collagen in the dermis during connective tissue repair. It is differentiated from a hypertrophic scar (CICATRIX, HYPERTROPHIC) in that the former does not spread to surrounding tissues. Annotation: spreads to surrounding tissue: do not confuse with CICATRIX, HYPERTROPHIC which does not; follow text of author; ACNE KELOID is also available ID#: D007627


Definition: Inflammation of the cornea. Annotation: inflamm of cornea; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D007634

Keratitis, Dendritic

Definition: A form of herpetic keratitis characterized by the formation of small vesicles which break down and coalesce to form recurring dendritic ulcers, characteristically irregular, linear, branching, and ending in knoblike extremities. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed) Annotation: a form of herpetic keratitis with dendritic (branching) ulcers ID#: D007635

Keratitis, Herpetic

Definition: A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed) Annotation: herpes simplex of the cornea ID#: D016849


Definition: A benign, non-neoplastic, usually self-limiting epithelial lesion closely resembling squamous cell carcinoma clinically and histopathologically. It occurs in solitary, multiple, and eruptive forms. The solitary and multiple forms occur on sunlight exposed areas and are identical histologically; they affect primarily white males. The eruptive form usually involves both sexes and appears as a generalized papular eruption. Annotation: note category: non-neoplastic; coord IM with precoord organ/dis term (IM); do not confuse with ACANTHAMOEBA KERATITIS ID#: D007636


Definition: Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva. Annotation: inflamm of cornea & conjunctiva ID#: D007637

Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca

Definition: Drying and inflammation of the conjunctiva as a result of insufficient lacrimal secretion. When found in association with XEROSTOMIA and polyarthritis, it is called SJOGREN'S SYNDROME. Annotation: if with xerostomia or xerostomia & connective tissue dis, index as SJOGREN'S SYNDROME ID#: D007638

Keratoconjunctivitis, Infectious

Definition: Infectious diseases of cattle, sheep, and goats, characterized by blepharospasm, lacrimation, conjunctivitis, and varying degrees of corneal opacity and ulceration. In cattle the causative agent is MORAXELLA (MORAXELLA) BOVIS; in sheep, MYCOPLASMA; RICKETTSIA; CHLAMYDIA; or ACHOLEPLASMA; in goats, RICKETTSIA. Annotation: animal only; check tag ANIMAL; coord IM with organism/infect heading /vet (IM); DF: KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS INFECT ID#: D007639


Definition: A noninflammatory, usually bilateral protrusion of the cornea, the apex being displaced downward and nasally. It occurs most commonly in females at about puberty. The cause is unknown but hereditary factors may play a role. The -conus refers to the cone shape of the corneal protrusion. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: cone-shaped protrusion of cornea ID#: D007640

Keratoderma, Palmoplantar

Definition: Group of mostly hereditary disorders characterized by thickening of the palms and soles as a result of excessive keratin formation leading to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis). Annotation: do not confuse with KERATODERMA, PALMOPLANTAR, DIFFUSE or with POROKERATOSIS PALMARIS ET PLANTARIS see POROKERATOSIS; note X-ref HYPERKERATOSIS PALMARIS ET PLANTARIS ID#: D007645

Keratoderma, Palmoplantar, Diffuse

Definition: An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a widely distributed, well-demarcated hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles. There is more than one genotypically distinct form, each of which is clinically similar but histologically distinguishable. Diffuse palmoplantar keratoderma is distinct from palmoplantar keratoderma (KERATODERMA, PALMOPLANTAR), as the former exhibits autosomal dominant inheritance and hyperhidrosis is frequently present. Annotation: do not confuse with KERATODERMA, PALMOPLANTAR ID#: D015776


Definition: Any horny growth such as a wart or callus. Annotation: a horny skin dis ID#: D007642

Keratosis Follicularis

Definition: A slowly progressive autosomal dominant disorder of keratinization characterized by pinkish-to-tan papules that coalesce to form plaques. These lesions become darker over time and commonly fuse, forming papillomatous and warty malodorous growths. Annotation: ID#: D007644

Keratosis, Seborrheic

Definition: Benign eccrine poromas that present as multiple oval, brown-to-black plaques, located mostly on the chest and back. The age of onset is usually in the fourth or fifth decade. Annotation: ID#: D017492


Definition: A term used pathologically to describe BILIRUBIN staining of the BASAL GANGLIA; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM and clinically to describe a syndrome associated with HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Clinical features include athetosis, MUSCLE SPASTICITY or hypotonia, impaired vertical gaze, and DEAFNESS. Nonconjugated bilirubin enters the brain and acts as a neurotoxin, often in association with conditions that impair the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER (e.g., SEPSIS). This condition occurs primarily in neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN), but may rarely occur in adults. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p613) Annotation: ID#: D007647


Definition: A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of ketone bodies in the body tissues and fluids. It is a complication of diabetes mellitus and starvation. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: high levels of ketone bodies; do not confuse with KETOSES (monosaccharides) ID#: D007662

Kidney Calculi

Definition: Calculi occurring in the kidney. Calculi too large to pass spontaneously range in size from 1 cm to the staghorn stones that occupy the renal pelvis and calyces. Annotation: chem composition of calculi: use /chem; /ultrastruct permitted ID#: D007669

Kidney Cortex Necrosis

Definition: The death of all the functioning renal cells of the kidney cortex with continued viability of the majority of the medullary units. It is due usually to the arterial distribution peculiar to the kidney which makes the renal cortex more susceptible to diminished blood flow. Annotation: ID#: D007673

Kidney Diseases

Definition: Annotation: GEN or unspecified: prefer specifics; inflamm dis = NEPHRITIS; consider diseases under NEPHR- & RENAL; cyst = KIDNEY, CYSTIC but KIDNEY, POLYCYSTIC is also available; "renal failure" not specified as "acute" or "chronic": check text for clues in notes under KIDNEY FAILURE, ACUTE & KIDNEY FAILURE, CHRONIC & if not able to determine, index as KIDNEY DISEASES ID#: D007674

Kidney Failure

Definition: The inability of a kidney to excrete metabolites at normal plasma levels under conditions of normal loading, or the inability to retain electrolytes under conditions of normal intake. In the acute form (KIDNEY FAILURE, ACUTE), it is marked by uremia and usually by oliguria or anuria, with hyperkalemia and pulmonary edema. The chronic form (KIDNEY FAILURE, CHRONIC) is irreversible and requires hemodialysis. Annotation: for renal failure unspecified as "acute" (KIDNEY FAILURE, ACUTE) or "chronic" (KIDNEY FAILURE, CHRONIC) but check text for clues at those annotations ID#: D017095

Kidney Failure, Acute

Definition: A clinical syndrome characterized by a sudden decrease in glomerular filtration rate, often to values of less than 1 to 2 ml per minute. It is usually associated with oliguria (urine volumes of less than 400 ml per day) and is always associated with biochemical consequences of the reduction in glomerular filtration rate such as a rise in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine concentrations. Annotation: clues for indexing: check text for see related refs shown here or pois or trauma or "reversible" ID#: D007675

Kidney Failure, Chronic

Definition: An irreversible and usually progressive reduction in renal function in which both kidneys have been damaged by a variety of diseases to the extent that they are unable to adequately remove the metabolic products from the blood and regulate the body's electrolyte composition and acid-base balance. Chronic kidney failure requires HEMODIALYSIS or surgery, usually KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION. Annotation: clues for indexing: check text for see related refs shown here & proteinuria or possible transpl or "irreversible"; DF: note short X ref ID#: D007676

Kidney Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY. Annotation: GEN: prefer specifics; coord IM with histol type neopl (IM) ID#: D007680

Kidney Papillary Necrosis

Definition: A form of acute kidney disease characterized by necrosis of the renal papillae. It is most frequently associated with diabetes mellitus because of the severe vascular disease present in the arteries and capillaries, particularly in the kidney. There is usually a large component of infection present, and in non-diabetics pyelonephritis and obstructive uropathy are the usual etiologic agents. Annotation: ID#: D007681

Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute

Definition: Acute kidney failure resulting from destruction of tubular epithelial cells. It is commonly attributed to exposure to toxic agents or renal ischemia following severe trauma. Annotation: a type of acute renal failure ID#: D007683

Kidney, Cystic

Definition: A kidney containing one or more cysts, including polycystic disease (KIDNEY, POLYCYSTIC), solitary cyst, multiple simple cysts, and retention cysts (associated with parenchymal scarring). (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: non-neoplastic; differentiate from KIDNEY, POLYCYSTIC; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted ID#: D007689

Kidney, Sponge

Definition: Cystic disease of the medullary portion of the renal pyramids; asymptomatic unless complicated by infection, calculi, or obstruction; should be distinguished from congenital polycystic disease of the kidneys. Annotation: a type of cystic kidney; non-neoplastic ID#: D007691

King's Evil

Definition: The historic designation for scrofula (TUBERCULOSIS, LYMPH NODE). The disease is so called from the belief that it could be healed by the touch of a king. This term is used only for historical articles using the name "king's evil", and is to be differentiated from scrofula as lymph node tuberculosis in modern clinical medicine. (From Webster, 3d ed) Annotation: = scrofula in hist articles only: differentiate from SCROFULA see TUBERCULOSIS, LYMPH NODE which is restricted to scrofula in modern clin med ID#: D018601

Klatskin's Tumor

Definition: Adenocarcinoma of the common hepatic duct bifurcation. These tumors are generally small, sharply localized, and seldom metastasizing. G. Klatskin's original review of 13 cases was published in 1965. Once thought to be relatively uncommon, tumors of the bifurcation of the bile duct now appear to comprise more than one-half of all bile duct cancers. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1457) Annotation: blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON (IM) + BILE DUCT NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018285

Klebsiella Infections

Definition: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA. Annotation: gram-neg bact infect; coord IM with various species (IM) ID#: D007710

Klinefelter Syndrome

Definition: A SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDER characterized by small testes, underdevelopment of secondary sexual characteristics, infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE), hyalinization and fibrosis of the seminiferous tubules, and elevated levels of gonadotropin. Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several variants include those with the karyotpes 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and several mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.). Annotation: = classic karyotype XXY; index here karyotypes XXXY, XXXXY, XXYY, XXXYY, XX/XXY, XX/YY, XY/XXY, XXY/XXXY, XXY/XXYY, XY/XXY/XXXY if called KLINEFELTER SYNDROME by author but if not so named by author, index under SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS ID#: D007713

Klippel-Feil Syndrome

Definition: A condition characterized by shortness of the neck resulting from reduction in the number of vertebrae or the fusion of multiple hemivertebrae into one osseous mass. The hairline is low and the motion of the neck is limited. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: short neck as result of vertebral abnorm; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D007714

Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome

Definition: A rare condition usually affecting one extremity, characterized by hypertrophy of the bone and related soft tissues, large cutaneous hemangiomas, persistent nevus flammeus, and skin varices. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a form of angiomatosis ID#: D007715

Knee Injuries

Definition: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint. Annotation: consider also PATELLA /inj ID#: D007718

Kraurosis Vulvae

Definition: An atrophic disease affecting the female external genitalia, most often of older women, resulting in drying and shriveling of the parts, and marked by leukoplakic patches on the mucosa, itching, dyspareunia, dysuria, and soreness. It occurs most commonly as a result of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus of the vulva, but may be associated with other types of genital atrophy. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: atrophy of vulva & vagina ID#: D007724

Krukenberg Tumor

Definition: Mucocellular carcinoma of the ovary, usually metastatic from the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by areas of mucoid degeneration and the presence of signet-ring-like cells. It accounts for 30%-40% of metastatic cancers to the ovaries and possibly 1%-2% of all malignant ovarian tumors. The lesions may not be discovered until the primary disease is advanced, and most patients die of their disease within a year. In some cases, a primary tumor is not found. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1685 Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with OVARIAN NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D007725


Definition: A prion disease found exclusively among the Fore liguistic group natives of the highlands of NEW GUINEA. The illness is primarily restricted to adult females and children of both sexes. It is marked by the subacute onset of tremor and ataxia followed by motor weakness and incontinence. Death occurs within 3-6 months of disease onset. The condition is associated with ritual cannibalism, and has become rare since this practice has been discontinued. Pathologic features include a noninflammatory loss of neurons that is most prominent in the cerebellum, glial proliferation, and amyloid plaques. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p773) Annotation: do not confuse with KORO, a depersonalization disord ID#: D007729


Definition: A syndrome produced by severe protein deficiency, characterized by retarded growth, changes in skin and hair pigment, edema, and pathologic changes in the liver, including fatty infiltration, necrosis, and fibrosis. The word is a local name in Gold Coast, Africa, meaning "displaced child". Although first reported from Africa, kwashiorkor is now known throughout the world, but mainly in the tropics and subtropics. It is considered to be related to marasmus. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: severe form of protein malnutrition ID#: D007732

Kyasanur Forest Disease

Definition: Tick-borne flavivirus infection occurring in the Kyasanur Forest in India. Annotation: note spelling: not Kyanasur; the forest is in India; a hemorrhagic fever caused by a flavivirus ID#: D007733


Definition: Abnormally increased convexity in the curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a type of spinal curvature ID#: D007738