Index of Diseases


Paget's Disease, Extramammary

Definition: A rare cutaneous neoplasm that occurs in the elderly. It develops more frequently in women and predominantly involves apocrine gland-bearing areas, especially the vulva, scrotum, and perianal areas. The lesions develop as erythematous scaly patches that progress to crusted, pruritic, erythematous plaques. The clinical differential diagnosis includes squamous cell carcinoma in situ and superficial fungal infection. It is generally thought to be an adenocarcinoma of the epidermis, from which it extends into the contiguous epithelium of hair follicles and eccrine sweat ducts. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1478) Annotation: neoplastic; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D010145

Paget's Disease, Mammary

Definition: An intraductal carcinoma of the breast extending to involve the nipple and areola, characterized clinically by eczema-like inflammatory skin changes and histologically by infiltration of the dermis by malignant cells (Paget's cells). (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: neoplastic; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with BREAST NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D010144

Pain Insensitivity, Congenital

Definition: A syndrome characterized by indifference to PAIN despite the ability to distinguish noxious from nonnoxious stimuli. Absent corneal reflexes and MENTAL RETARDATION may be associated. Familial forms with autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant patterns of inheritance have been described. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343) Annotation: congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis = HSAN IV see NEUROPATHIES, HEREDITARY SENSORY AND AUTONOMIC; DF: PAIN INSENSITIVITY CONGEN ID#: D000699

Pain, Intractable

Definition: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment. Annotation: IM; usually chronic so do not coord with CHRONIC DISEASE but chronic pain = PAIN (IM) + CHRONIC DISEASE (NIM) ID#: D010148

Pain, Postoperative

Definition: Pain during the period after surgery. Annotation: DF: PAIN POSTOP or POSTOP PAIN ID#: D010149

Palatal Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D010157


Definition: A clinical manifestation consisting of an unnatural paleness of the skin. Annotation: ID#: D010167

Pancoast's Syndrome

Definition: Destructive lesions of the thoracic inlet with involvement of the brachial and sympathetic plexus or carcinoma of the lung apex. It is characterized by pain in the shoulder region radiating toward the axilla and scapula, sensory and motor disorders and wasting of the muscles of the hand, the Bernard-Horner syndrome, and compression of the blood vessels with edema. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes and Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed) Annotation: an apicocostovertebral syndrome ID#: D010178

Pancreatic Cyst

Definition: A true cyst of the pancreas to be distinguished from the much more common PANCREATIC PSEUDOCYST by possessing a mucous epithelial lining. Pancreatic cysts are categorized as congenital, retention, neoplastic, parasitic, enterogenous, or dermoid. Congenital cysts occur more frequently as solitary cysts but may be multiple. Retention cysts are gross enlargements of pancreatic ducts secondary to ductal obstruction. (From Bockus Gastroenterology, 4th ed, p4145) Annotation: non-neoplastic; pancreatic pseudocyst = PANCREATIC PSEUDOCYST; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted ID#: D010181

Pancreatic Diseases

Definition: Annotation: inflamm dis = PANCREATITIS ID#: D010182

Pancreatic Fistula

Definition: Abnormal passage communicating with the pancreas. Annotation: fistula policy: Manual 23.19+ ID#: D010185

Pancreatic Insufficiency

Definition: Absence of or reduced pancreatic exocrine secretion into the duodenum and resultant poor digestion of lipids, vitamins, nitrogen, and carbohydrates. Annotation: ID#: D010188

Pancreatic Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the pancreas. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM); available are ALPHA-CELL TUMOR see GLUCAGONOMA, BETA-CELL TUMOR see INSULINOMA but delta-cell tumor = SOMATOSTATINOMA or VIPOMA ID#: D010190

Pancreatic Pseudocyst

Definition: Cyst-like space not lined by epithelium and contained within the pancreas. Annotation: ID#: D010192


Definition: Annotation: try to specify ACUTE DISEASE (NIM) for acute pancreatitis or CHRONIC DISEASE (NIM) for chronic pancreatitis ID#: D010195

Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing

Definition: Acute inflammation of the pancreas with areas of devitalized pancreatic and/or peripancreatic tissue. These necrotic areas may involve large areas of the pancreas or may be small. When a CT scan is performed with contrast media using a bolus technique, necrotic areas do not perfuse with media and are not enhanced. The lack of enhancement distinguishes necrotic tissue from the adjacent well-perfused viable pancreatic parenchyma. (From Liang et al., Pancreas: Biology, Pathobiology, & Disease, 2d ed, p597) Annotation: ID#: D019283

Pancreatitis, Alcoholic

Definition: An acute or chronic degenerative and inflammatory lesion of the pancreas in the alcoholic which is potentially progressive or possibly reversible. Annotation: usually chronic so do not coord with CHRONIC DISEASE ID#: D019512


Definition: Deficiency of all three cell elements of the blood, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets. Annotation: combined defic of erythrocytes, leukocytes & platelets ID#: D010198


Definition: General term for inflammation of adipose tissue, usually of the skin, characterized by reddened subcutaneous nodules. Annotation: inflamm of adipose tissue; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D015434

Panniculitis, Lupus Erythematosus

Definition: A type of lupus erythematosus characterized by deep dermal or subcutaneous nodules, most often on the head, face, or upper arms. It is generally chronic and occurs most often in women between the ages of 20 and 45. Annotation: DF: PANNICULITIS LE ID#: D015435

Panniculitis, Nodular Nonsuppurative

Definition: A form of panniculitis characterized by recurrent episodes of fever accompanied by the eruption of single or multiple erythematous subcutaneous nodules on the lower extremities. They normally resolve, but tend to leave depressions in the skin. The condition is most often seen in women, alone or in association with other disorders. Annotation: ID#: D010201

Panniculitis, Peritoneal

Definition: Condition of the peritoneum, most commonly of the mesentery, but also of the omentum, characterized by tissue thickening, alteration of fat cells, infiltration of lipid-laden macrophages, and fibrosis. Annotation: of mesentery or omentum ID#: D015436


Definition: Acute suppurative inflammation of the inner eye with necrosis of the sclera (and sometimes the cornea) and extension of the inflammation into the orbit. Pain may be severe and the globe may rupture. In endophthalmitis the globe does not rupture. Annotation: inflamm of all struct of eye: a clin entity; do not use as a coord for inflamm of specific parts of eye: these are available as -ITIS headings in C11 ID#: D010202


Definition: Inflammation in which both the anterior and posterior segments of the uvea are involved and a specific focus is not apparent. It is often severe and extensive and a serious threat to vision. Causes include systemic diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and syphilis, as well as malignancies. The intermediate segment of the eye is not involved. Annotation: inflamm of anterior & posterior uvea ID#: D015864


Definition: Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175) Annotation: ID#: D010211


Definition: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM); "laryngeal papilloma" = PAPILLOMA (IM) + LARYNGEAL NEOPLASMS (IM); "choroid plexus papilloma" = GLIOMA (IM) + CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D010212

Papilloma, Choroid Plexus

Definition: A usually benign neoplasm that arises from the cuboidal epithelium of the choroid plexus and takes the form of an enlarged CHOROID PLEXUS, which may be associated with oversecretion of CSF. The tumor usually presents in the first decade of life with signs of increased intracranial pressure including HEADACHES; ATAXIA; DIPLOPIA; and alterations of mental status. In children it is most common in the lateral ventricles and in adults it tends to arise in the fourth ventricle. Malignant transformation to choroid plexus carcinomas may rarely occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p667; DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2072) Annotation: ID#: D020288

Papilloma, Intraductal

Definition: A small, often impalpable benign papilloma arising in a lactiferous duct and frequently causing bleeding from the nipple. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: intraductal refers to mammary ducts only; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with BREAST NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018300

Papilloma, Inverted

Definition: A mucosal tumor of the urinary bladder or nasal cavity in which proliferating epithelium is invaginated beneath the surface and is more smoothly rounded than in other papillomas. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018308

Papillomavirus Infections

Definition: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression. Annotation: ID#: D030361

Papillon-Lefevre Disease

Definition: Rare, autosomal recessive disorder occurring between the first and fifth years of life. It is characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma with periodontitis followed by the premature shedding of both deciduous and permanent teeth. Annotation: palmoplantar keratoderma with periodontitis ID#: D010214

Papovaviridae Infections

Definition: Virus diseases caused by the PAPOVAVIRIDAE. This includes both papillomavirus infections and polyomavirus infections. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D018348


Definition: A mycosis affecting the skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes, and internal organs. It is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is also called paracoccidioidal granuloma. Superficial resemblance of P. brasiliensis to Blastomyces brasiliensis (BLASTOMYCES) may cause misdiagnosis. Annotation: fungus dis of skin caused by Paracoccidioides; do not confuse X ref BLASTOMYCOSIS, SOUTH AMERICAN with BLASTOMYCOSIS, NORTH AMERICAN see BLASTOMYCOSIS ID#: D010229


Definition: A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion, such as the carotid body, or medulla of the adrenal gland (usually called a chromaffinoma or pheochromocytoma). It is more common in women than in men. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl heading (IM) ID#: D010235

Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal

Definition: A relatively rare, usually benign neoplasm originating in the chemoreceptor tissue of the carotid body, glomus jugulare, and aortic bodies. It consists histologically of rounded or ovoid hyperchromatic cells that tend to be grouped in an alveolus-like pattern within a scant to moderate amount of fibrous stroma and a few large thin-walled vascular channels. They are uncommon before the age of 20, with a female predominance in some series. (Stedman, 25th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p570-1) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D010236


Definition: Infection with trematodes of the genus PARAGONIMUS. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: trematode infect ID#: D010237


Definition: Persistence of the nuclei of the keratinocytes into the stratum corneum of the skin. This is a normal state only in the epithelium of true mucous membranes in the mouth and vagina. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: do not confuse with POROKERATOSIS ID#: D010241

Paralyses, Familial Periodic

Definition: A heterogenous group of inherited disorders characterized by recurring attacks of rapidly progressive flaccid paralysis or myotonia. These conditions have in common a mutation of the gene encoding the alpha subunit of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle. They are frequently associated with fluctuations in serum potassium levels. Periodic paralysis may also occur as a non-familial process secondary to THYROTOXICOSIS and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1481) Annotation: a specific disease entity: see MeSH definition ID#: D010245


Definition: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45) Annotation: severe loss of motor function as compared with PARESIS, a slight loss; GENERAL PARALYSIS see NEUROSYPHILIS does not mean "generalized paralysis" ( = PARALYSIS); spastic paralysis = PARALYSIS (IM) + MUSCLE SPASTICITY (NIM); flaccid paralysis = PARALYSIS (IM) + MUSCLE FLACCIDITY (NIM) ID#: D010243

Paralysis, Hyperkalemic Periodic

Definition: An autosomal dominant familial disorder which presents in infancy or childhood and is characterized by episodes of weakness associated with hyperkalemia. During attacks, muscles of the lower extremities are initially affected, followed by the lower trunk and arms. Episodes last from 15-60 minutes and typically occur after a period of rest following exercise. A defect in skeletal muscle sodium channels has been identified as the cause of this condition. Normokalemic periodic paralysis is a closely related disorder marked by a lack of alterations in potassium levels during attacks of weakness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1481) Annotation: ID#: D020513

Paralysis, Obstetric

Definition: Paralysis of an infant resulting from injury received at birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: refers to neonate; coord IM with specific paralysis or birth inj (IM); do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D010246


Definition: Inflammation of the parametrium, the extension of the subserous coat of the supracervical portion of the uterus laterally between the layers of the broad ligament. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: inflamm of a fibrous coat of the uterus; "pelvic" in X ref refers to pelvic floor ID#: D010249

Paramyxoviridae Infections

Definition: Infections with viruses of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes MORBILLIVIRUS INFECTIONS; RESPIROVIRUS INFECTIONS; PNEUMOVIRUS INFECTIONS; and RUBULAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D018184

Paranasal Sinus Diseases

Definition: Diseases affecting or involving the PARANASAL SINUSES and generally manifesting as inflammation, abscesses, cysts, or tumors. Annotation: ID#: D010254

Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms

Definition: Neoplasms or tumors of the paranasal sinuses. Malignant neoplasms are rare, comprising 3% of all head and neck neoplasms. The majority arise in the maxillary sinus with malignancies of the ethmoid sinus constituting virtually all the remaining tumors. Annotation: coord IM with specific sinus (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM); /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; note that MAXILLARY SINUS NEOPLASMS is also available ID#: D010255

Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration

Definition: Cerebellar degeneration associated with a remote neoplasm. Clinical manifestations include progressive limb and GAIT ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; and NYSTAGMUS. The histologic type of the associated neoplasm is usually carcinoma or lymphoma. Pathologically the cerebellar cortex and subcortical nuclei demonstrate diffuse degenerative changes. Anti-Purkinje cell antibodies (anti-Yo) are found in the serum of approximately 50% of affected individuals. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p686) Annotation: coord with precoord organ/neopl term + histol type ID#: D020362

Paraneoplastic Polyneuropathy

Definition: A diffuse or multifocal peripheral neuropathy related to the remote effects of a neoplasm, most often carcinoma or lymphoma. Pathologically, there are inflammatory changes in peripheral nerves. The most common clinical presentation is a symmetric distal mixed sensorimotor polyneuropathy. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1334) Annotation: DF: PARANEOPL POLYNEUROPATHY ID#: D020364

Paraneoplastic Syndromes

Definition: In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products. Annotation: do not use /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct ID#: D010257

Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System

Definition: Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue. (Intern Med 1996 Dec;35(12):925-9) Annotation: DF: PARANEOPL ENCEPH ID#: D020361


Definition: Mild to moderate loss of bilateral lower extremity motor function, which may be a manifestation of SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; MUSCULAR DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; parasagittal brain lesions; and other conditions. Annotation: ID#: D020335

Paraparesis, Spastic

Definition: Mild or moderate loss of motor function accompanied by SPASTICITY in the lower extremities. This condition is a manifestation of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that cause injury to the motor cortex or descending motor pathways. Annotation: do not confuse with PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC caused by HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 ID#: D020336

Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic

Definition: A subacute paralytic myeloneuropathy occurring endemically in tropical areas such as the Caribbean, Colombia, India, and Africa, as well as in the southwestern region of Japan; associated with infection by human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1). Clinical manifestations include a slowly progressive spastic weakness of the legs, increased reflexes, Babinski signs, incontinence, and loss of vibratory and position sensation. On pathologic examination inflammatory, demyelination, and necrotic lesions may be found in the spinal cord. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1239) Annotation: ID#: D015493


Definition: Retraction of phimotic foreskin, causing a painful swelling of the glans that, if severe, may cause dry gangrene unless corrected. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a penile dis ID#: D010263


Definition: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness. Annotation: also available is QUADRIPLEGIA; note X ref spastic paraplegia: SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA, HEREDITARY is also available ID#: D010264


Definition: A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin. Annotation: blood protein disord ID#: D010265


Definition: The term applied to a group of relatively uncommon inflammatory, maculopapular, scaly eruptions of unknown etiology and resistant to conventional treatment. Eruptions are both psoriatic and lichenoid in appearance, but the diseases are distinct from psoriasis, lichen planus, or other recognized dermatoses. Proposed nomenclature divides parapsoriasis into two distinct subgroups, PITYRIASIS LICHENOIDES and parapsoriasis en plaques (small- and large-plaque parapsoriasis). Annotation: a papulosquamous skin dis ID#: D010267


Definition: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: coord with specific parasitic disease or specific parasite if specific parasite dis is not in MeSH (do not use /blood to indicate -emia) ID#: D018512

Parasitic Diseases

Definition: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure. Annotation: GEN: prefer specifics; relation to parasites: Manual 22.12-.20; parasitic dis not in MeSH: Manual 22.17, 22.18; parasitic dis of heart = PARASITIC DISEASES or specific parasitic dis (IM) + MYOCARDIAL DISEASES (IM), not HEART DISEASES; DF: PARASITIC DIS ID#: D010272

Parasitic Diseases, Animal

Definition: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary. Annotation: exper or vet; GEN or unspecified; prefer specific indentions or specific parasitic dis /vet; indexing policy: Manual 22.12-.20; don't forget to check tag ANIMAL; DF: PARASITIC DIS ANIMAL ID#: D010273


Definition: A cardiac arrhythmia caused by the interaction of two foci independently initiating cardiac impulses at different rates. Generally one of the foci is the sinoatrial node (the normal pacemaker) and the ectopic focus is usually in the ventricle, but can occur in the sinus and AV nodes, atrium and ventricle, and AV junction. Each focus - and thus each rhythm - is protected from the influence of the other. Annotation: a type of arrhythmia; IM; coord with HEART ATRIUM; HEART VENTRICLE or other site in heart (NIM) if pertinent; sinus parasystole: coord IM with ARRHYTHMIA, SINUS (IM) ID#: D017574

Parathyroid Diseases

Definition: Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D010279

Parathyroid Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the PARATHYROID GLANDS. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D010282


Definition: An infectious disease caused by MYCOBACTERIUM PARATUBERCULOSIS. Characteristics include chronic debilitation and weight loss. Annotation: caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis; usually animal; check tag ANIMAL ID#: D010283

Paratyphoid Fever

Definition: A prolonged febrile illness commonly caused by serotypes of Salmonella paratyphi. It is similar to typhoid fever but less severe. Annotation: specify Salmonella paratyphi species if possible (IM) ID#: D010284


Definition: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS. Annotation: remember that "paresis" is sometimes just "paralysis" in foreign lit; spastic paraparesis = PARAPARESIS, SPASTIC or PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC if caused by HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 ID#: D010291


Definition: Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation. Annotation: burning, tingling, prickling sensations go here ID#: D010292

Parkinson Disease

Definition: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75) Annotation: drug ther: consider also ANTIPARKINSON AGENTS; /chem ind = PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY/chem ind ID#: D010300

Parkinson Disease, Postencephalitic

Definition: Parkinsonism following encephalitis, historically seen as a sequella of encephalitis lethargica (Von Economo Encephalitis). The early age of onset, the rapid progression of symptoms followed by stabilization, and the presence of a variety of other neurological disorders (e.g., sociopathic behavior; TICS, MUSCLE SPASMS; oculogyric crises; hyperphagia; and bizarre movements) distinguish this condition from primary PARKINSON DISEASE. Pathologic features include neuronal loss and gliosis concentrated in the MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMUS; and HYPOTHALAMUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p754) Annotation: DF: PARKINSON DIS POSTENCEPH ID#: D010301

Parkinson Disease, Secondary

Definition: Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42) Annotation: /chem ind permitted: coord IM with drug /adv eff-pois-tox (IM); coord IM with other cause (IM) ID#: D010302

Parkinsonian Disorders

Definition: A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA. Annotation: Gen: prefer specifics; do not confuse X ref RAMSAY HUNT PARALYSIS SYNDROME with RAMSAY HUNT AURICULAR SYNDROME see HERPES ZOSTER OTICUS or RAMSAY HUNT CEREBELLAR SYNDROME see MYOCLONIC CEREBELLAR DYSSYNERGIA ID#: D020734


Definition: An inflammatory reaction involving the folds of the skin surrounding the fingernail. It is characterized by acute or chronic purulent, tender, and painful swellings of the tissues around the nail, caused by an abscess of the nail fold. The pathogenic yeast causing paronychia is most frequently Candida albicans. Saprophytic fungi may also be involved. The causative bacteria are usually Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Streptococcus. (Andrews' Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p271) Annotation: infect dis of skin surrounding nail; coord IM with specific infect (IM) ID#: D010304

Parotid Diseases

Definition: Annotation: inflamm dis = PAROTITIS ID#: D010305

Parotid Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D010307


Definition: Inflammation of the parotid gland. Annotation: inflamm of parotid gland; in translations use "parotitis", not "parotiditis" despite form of vernac ID#: D010309

Parovarian Cyst

Definition: A cyst of the epoophoron or parovarium, a vestigial structure associated with the ovary, consisting of a more cranial group of mesonephric tubules and a corresponding portion of the mesonephric duct. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: non-neoplastic; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted ID#: D010310

Pars Planitis

Definition: Form of granulomatous uveitis occurring in the region of the pars plana. This disorder is a common condition with no detectable focal pathology. It causes fibrovascular proliferation at the inferior ora serrata. Annotation: a type of uveitis ID#: D015868

Parturient Paresis

Definition: A disease of pregnant and lactating cows and ewes leading to generalized paresis and death. The disease, which is characterized by hypocalcemia, occurs at or shortly after parturition in cows and within weeks before or after parturition in ewes. Annotation: animal only, exper or vet; in cows & ewes: check tags ANIMAL + FEMALE + PREGNANCY & don't forget CATTLE DISEASES (IM) + CATTLE (NIM) or SHEEP DISEASES (IM) + SHEEP (NIM) ID#: D010319

Parvoviridae Infections

Definition: Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D010322

Pasteurella Infections

Definition: Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA. Annotation: gram-neg bact infect; GEN; prefer specifics ID#: D010326

Pasteurellaceae Infections

Definition: Infections with bacteria of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. Annotation: gram-neg bact infect; GEN: avoid, prefer specifics; DF: PASTEURELLACEAE INFECT ID#: D016871

Pasteurellosis, Pneumonic

Definition: Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to cattle recently transported. It is thought to be caused by infection with the bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (see RESPIROVIRUS) or one of several other respiratory viruses, followed by infection with either PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or PASTEURELLA HAEMOLYTICA. Annotation: usually in cattle; caused by bovine parainfluenza virus 3 followed by Pasteurella multocida or P. haemolytica infect: coord with PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA (IM) or PASTEURELLA HAEMOLYTICA (IM) only if particularly discussed; check tag ANIMAL; if in cow, coord IM with CATTLE (NIM) but not CATTLE DISEASES; if in animal other than cow, coord IM with precoord animal/dis term (IM) + animal (NIM) or animal (IM) in absence of precoord ID#: D012766

Pathologic Processes

Definition: The abnormal mechanisms and forms involved in the dysfunctions of tissues and organs. Annotation: not used for indexing; DF: PATHOL PROCESSES CATALOG: do not use ID#: D010335

Pathological Conditions, Anatomical

Definition: An abnormal structural condition of the human body, usually macroscopic, that is common to a variety of different diseases. Annotation: not to be used for indexing or cataloging ID#: D020763

Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms

Definition: Abnormal anatomical or physiological conditions and objective or subjective manifestations of disease, not classified as disease or syndrome. Annotation: not used for indexing CATALOG: do not use ID#: D013568

Peanut Hypersensitivity

Definition: Allergic reaction to peanuts that is triggered by the immune system. Annotation: NUT HYPERSENSITIVITY is also available ID#: D021183

Pelger-Huet Anomaly

Definition: An inherited defect interfering with normal nuclear lobulation of neutrophils and eosinophils. The nuclei appear rodlike, spherical, or dumbbell-shaped and their structure is coarse and lumpy. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a neutrophil abnorm; in titles & translations, use diacrit: Hüet ID#: D010381

Peliosis Hepatis

Definition: A condition in which microscopic pools of blood are present throughout the liver parenchyma, which may lead to congestion and necrosis. Annotation: ID#: D010382

Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease

Definition: A rare, slowly progressive disorder of myelin formation. Subtypes are referred to as classic, congenital, transitional, and adult forms of this disease. The classic form is X-chromosome linked, has its onset in infancy and is associated with a mutation of the proteolipid protein gene. Clinical manifestations include TREMOR, spasmus nutans, roving eye movements, ATAXIA, spasticity, and NYSTAGMUS. Death occurs by the third decade of life. The congenital form has similar characteristics but presents early in infancy and features rapid disease progression. Transitional and adult subtypes have a later onset and less severe symptomatology. Pathologic features include patchy areas of demyelination with preservation of perivascular islands (trigoid appearance). (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p190) Annotation: ID#: D020371


Definition: Annotation: consider also VITAMIN B DEFICIENCY ID#: D010383

Pelvic Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region. Annotation: internal pelvic organs & region, not bones; if referring to pelvic region as an external site (as in skin lesions) ignore; GEN: prefer specific precoord; coord IM with histol type of neopl if possible (IM) ID#: D010386

Pelvic Pain

Definition: Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508) Annotation: refers to region, not pelvic bones ID#: D017699

Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane

Definition: A chronic blistering disease with predilection for mucous membranes and less frequently the skin, and with a tendency to scarring. It is sometimes called ocular pemphigoid because of conjunctival mucous membrane involvement. Annotation: ID#: D010390

Pemphigoid, Bullous

Definition: A chronic and relatively benign subepidermal blistering disease usually of the elderly and without histopathologic acantholysis. Annotation: ID#: D010391


Definition: Group of chronic blistering diseases characterized histologically by acantholysis and blister formation within the epidermis. Annotation: do not confuse with "pemphigoid"; /genet: consider also PEMPHIGUS, BENIGN FAMILIAL ID#: D010392

Pemphigus, Benign Familial

Definition: Rare hereditary disease characterized by recurrent eruptions of vesicles and bullae mainly on the neck, axillae, and groin. It exhibits autosomal dominant inheritance and is unrelated to pemphigus vulgaris though it closely resembles that disease. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D016506

Penile Diseases

Definition: Annotation: inflamm dis = BALANITIS; penile fract: index under PENIS /inj (IM) + RUPTURE (NIM) ID#: D010409

Penile Induration

Definition: A disease of unknown etiology in which there are plaques or strands of dense fibrous tissue causing induration of the corpora cavernosa of the penis. The condition produces a painful deformity and is sometimes seen in cases of DUPUYTREN'S CONTRACTURE. Annotation: hardening of the corpora cavernosa ID#: D010411

Penile Neoplasms

Definition: Cancers or tumors of the PENIS or of its component tissues. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D010412

Peptic Ulcer

Definition: Ulcer that occurs in those portions of the alimentary tract which come into contact with gastric juice containing pepsin and acid. It occurs when the amount of acid and pepsin is sufficient to overcome the gastric mucosal barrier. Annotation: GEN: prefer STOMACH ULCER or DUODENAL ULCER but note GASTRODUODENAL ULCER = PEPTIC ULCER; stress ulcer: coord with STRESS or STRESS, PSYCHOLOGICAL (IM or NIM); /drug ther: consider also ANTI-ULCER AGENTS ID#: D010437

Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage

Definition: Bleeding from a peptic ulcer. Annotation: IM + coord with STOMACH ULCER or DUODENAL ULCER (IM) ID#: D010438

Peptic Ulcer Perforation

Definition: Penetration of a peptic ulcer through the stomach wall. May be free, i.e., at a point where the stomach wall faces a real or potential space,, or confined, i.e., at a point where the stomach wall is defended by contiguous or adjacent structures, such as the pancreas. Annotation: IM + coord with STOMACH ULCER /compl or DUODENAL ULCER /compl (IM) ID#: D010439

Periapical Abscess

Definition: Acute or chronic inflammation of tissues surrounding the apical portion of a tooth, associated with the collection of pus, resulting from infection following pulp infection through a carious lesion or as a result of an injury causing pulp necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: do not confuse with PERIODONTAL ABSCESS: note X refs below; for coord read note on ABSCESS ID#: D010482

Periapical Diseases

Definition: Diseases of the periapical tissue. Annotation: inflamm dis = PERIAPICAL PERIODONTITIS ID#: D010483

Periapical Granuloma

Definition: Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation of periapical tissue resulting from irritation following pulp disease or endodontic treatment. Annotation: ID#: D010484

Periapical Periodontitis

Definition: Inflammation of the periapical tissue. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS. Annotation: GEN or unspecified ID#: D010485


Definition: Inflammation of the tissues around a joint. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: "inflamm of tissues around a joint" ID#: D010489

Pericardial Effusion

Definition: Presence of fluid within the pericardium. Annotation: fluid within the pericardium ID#: D010490


Definition: Inflammation of the pericardium. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: inflamm of pericardium ID#: D010493

Pericarditis, Constrictive

Definition: Annotation: ID#: D010494

Pericarditis, Tuberculous

Definition: Infection of the pericardium with tubercle bacilli. This condition arises by contiguous extension of tuberculous lesions of the hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes or by pleuropulmonary tuberculosis. Annotation: ID#: D010495


Definition: Inflammation of the gingiva surrounding the crown of a tooth. Annotation: inflamm of gingiva surrounding crown of tooth ID#: D010497

Perimeningeal Infections

Definition: Infectious processes, including abscesses, effusions, and empyemas which occur in the epidural or subdural spaces surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Annotation: coord IM with specific infection term (IM) ID#: D020819


Definition: Inflammation of the perinephrium. It is marked by fever, local pain, and tenderness on pressure. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: inflamm of perinephrium & other tissue around the kidney ID#: D010501

Periodontal Abscess

Definition: Localized circumscribed purulent area of inflammation in the periodontal tissue. It is a derivative of marginal periodontitis and commonly associated with suprabony and infrabony pockets and interradicular involvements, in contrast to periapical abscess which is attributable to pulp necrosis. Annotation: do not confuse with PERIAPICAL ABSCESS: see X refs there; for coord read note on ABSCESS ID#: D010508

Periodontal Attachment Loss

Definition: Loss or destruction of periodontal tissue caused by periodontitis or other destructive periodontal diseases or by injury during instrumentation. Attachment refers to the periodontal ligament which attaches to the alveolar bone. It has been hypothesized that treatment of the underlying periodontal disease and the seeding of periodontal ligament cells enable the creating of new attachment. Annotation: attachment refers to the periodontal ligament ID#: D017622

Periodontal Cyst

Definition: An epithelium-lined sac containing fluid; usually found at the apex of a pulp-involved tooth. The lateral type occurs less frequently along the side of the root. Annotation: non-neoplastic; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/dis term (IM) ID#: D010509

Periodontal Diseases

Definition: Annotation: X ref PARODONTOSIS is in foreign lit; "periodontosis" also seen in foreign lit, meaning "periodontal disease", should not be confused with PERIODONTOSIS see PERIODONTITIS, JUVENILE; inflamm dis = PERIODONTITIS ID#: D010510

Periodontal Pocket

Definition: An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment and bone resorption. Annotation: do not confuse with GINGIVAL POCKET: read MeSH definition ID#: D010514


Definition: Inflammatory reaction of the tissues surrounding a tooth (periodontium), usually resulting from the extension of gingival inflammation (gingivitis) into the periodontium. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: PERIODONTITIS, JUVENILE is also available with ref to teen-agers & young adults ID#: D010518

Periodontitis, Juvenile

Definition: Localized periodontitis in teenagers and young adults. The onset is during the circumpubertal period but the diagnosis can be made beyond puberty. Lesions are confined predominantly to the first permanent molars or incisors and the distribution of lesions is usually symmetrical. The gingiva may appear normal. The lesions are highly active immediately following puberty but later destruction may slow or cease spontaneously. The disease is four times more prevalent in females than males and more prevalent in African Americans than in other races or ethnic groups. (From Schluger et al., Periodontal Diseases, 2d ed, p61) Annotation: usually in teenagers & young adults: note ages in text & check proper tags; do not confuse X ref PERIODONTOSIS with "periodontosis" seen in foreign lit, meaning "periodontal disease" & indexed under PERIODONTAL DISEASES ID#: D010520


Definition: Inflammation of the periosteum. The condition is generally chronic, and is marked by tenderness and swelling of the bone and an aching pain. Acute periostitis is due to infection, is characterized by diffuse suppuration, severe pain, and constitutional symptoms, and usually results in necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: inflamm of the periosteum ID#: D010522

Peripheral Nervous System Diseases

Definition: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves. Annotation: GEN: prefer specifics; coord IM with specific nerve (IM); "diabetic peripheral neuropathy": index only under DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES; DF: PNS DIS ID#: D010523

Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms

Definition: Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1) Annotation: coord IM with specific peripheral nerve (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D010524

Peripheral Vascular Diseases

Definition: General or unspecified diseases of the blood vessels outside the heart. It is for diseases of the peripheral as opposed to the cardiac circulation. Annotation: coord IM with specific peripheral artery or vein IM; inflamm dis = probably VASCULITIS; vascular compression syndromes: coord IM with CONSTRICTION, PATHOLOGIC (NIM) + specific blood vessel if pertinent (IM) ID#: D016491

Peritoneal Diseases

Definition: Conditions or disorders affecting the PERITONEUM. Annotation: inflamm dis = PERITONITIS ID#: D010532

Peritoneal Neoplasms

Definition: Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D010534


Definition: Annotation: ID#: D010538

Peritonsillar Abscess

Definition: An abscess in the peritonsillar tissue extending into the tonsil capsule, resulting from suppuration of the tonsil. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: for coord read note on ABSCESS ID#: D000039

Peroneal Neuropathies

Definition: Disease involving the common PERONEAL NERVE or its branches, the deep and superficial peroneal nerves. Lesions of the deep peroneal nerve are associated with PARALYSIS of dorsiflexion of the ankle and toes and loss of sensation from the web space between the first and second toe. Lesions of the superficial peroneal nerve result in weakness or paralysis of the peroneal muscles (which evert the foot) and loss of sensation over the dorsal and lateral surface of the leg. Traumatic injury to the common peroneal nerve near the head of the FIBULA is a relatively common cause of this condition. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p31) Annotation: ID#: D020427

Peroxisomal Disorders

Definition: A heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic disorders marked by absent or dysfunctional PEROXISOMES. Peroxisomal enzymatic abnormalities may be single or multiple. Biosynthetic peroxisomal pathways are compromised, including the ability to synthesize ether lipids and to oxidize long-chain fatty acid precursors. Diseases in this category include ZELLWEGER SYNDROME; infantile Refsum disease; rhizomelic chondrodysplasia (CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA, RHIZOMELIC); hyperpipecolic acidemia; neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy; and ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY (X-linked). Neurologic dysfunction is a prominent feature of most peroxisomal disorders. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; do not confuse X ref REFSUM DISEASE, INFANTILE with REFSUM DISEASE, a hered peripheral neuropathy; do not confuse X ref ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY, NEONATAL with ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY; do not use /in inf ID#: D018901

Persian Gulf Syndrome

Definition: Unexplained symptoms reported by veterans of the Persian Gulf War with Iraq in 1991. The symptoms reported include fatigue, skin rash, muscle and joint pain, headaches, loss of memory, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms, and extreme sensitivity to commonly occurring chemicals. (Nature 1994 May 5;369(6475):8) Annotation: coord IM with specific dis or manifest (IM) ID#: D018923

Persistent Fetal Circulation Syndrome

Definition: A syndrome of persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn infant, without demonstrable cardiac disease. It is characterized by cyanosis and acidosis, severe pulmonary vasoconstriction, hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle, and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance, with resultant right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus and at times a patent foramen ovale. Annotation: pulm hypertension in newborn inf; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; check the tags HUMAN & INFANT, NEWBORN; DF: PFC SYNDROME ID#: D010547

Persistent Vegetative State

Definition: Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished. Annotation: see also AKINETIC MUTISM ID#: D018458


Definition: A highly fatal contagious disease of goats and sheep caused by PESTE-DES-PETITS-RUMINANTS VIRUS. The disease may be acute or subacute and is characterized by stomatitis, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, and pneumonia. Annotation: ID#: D029021

Pestivirus Infections

Definition: Infections with viruses of the genus PESTIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE. Annotation: caused by a flavivirus; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D018182

Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome

Definition: Multiple pigmented (melanin) macules of the skin and mouth mucosa and multiple polyposis of the small intestine. Annotation: multiple cutaneous & oral pigmented macules with intestinal polyposis; do not use /blood supply /chem /congen /second /secret /ultrastruct ID#: D010580

Phagocyte Bactericidal Dysfunction

Definition: Disorders in which phagocytic cells cannot kill ingested bacteria; characterized by frequent recurring infection with formulation of granulomas. Annotation: immunodefic syndrome where phagocytes cannot kill bacteria ID#: D010585

Pharyngeal Diseases

Definition: General or unspecified diseases of the pharynx. Annotation: inflamm dis = PHARYNGITIS ID#: D010608

Pharyngeal Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D010610


Definition: Inflammation of the throat. Annotation: inflamm of pharynx: note X ref ID#: D010612

Phenylketonuria, Maternal

Definition: A maternal condition which occurs in untreated or partially treated phenylketonuric females when they become pregnant. This may result in damage to the fetus, including microcephaly, mental retardation, congenital heart disease, intrauterine growth retardation, and craniofacial abnormalities. (From Am J Med Genet 1997 Mar 3;69(1):89-95) Annotation: check tags PREGNANCY & FEMALE; consider also PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE /defic; DF: PKU MATERNAL ID#: D017042


Definition: A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952). Annotation: GEN: prefer specifics; note X refs: consider also PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE /defic and DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE /defic; DF: PKU ID#: D010661


Definition: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the adrenal medulla or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine, is hypertension, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be headache, sweating, palpitation, apprehension, tremor, pallor or flushing of the face, nausea and vomiting, pain in the chest and abdomen, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298) Annotation: benign or malignant; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with usually ADRENAL GLAND NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D010673


Definition: The inability to retract the foreskin over the glans penis due to tightness of the prepuce. Annotation: ID#: D010688


Definition: Inflammation of a vein. Annotation: inflamm of a vein; assume to be of the legs so do not coord with LEG; THROMBOPHLEBITIS is also available ID#: D010689

Phlebotomus Fever

Definition: Influenza-like febrile viral disease caused by several members of the BUNYAVIRIDAE family and transmitted mostly by the bloodsucking sandfly Phlebotomus papatasii. Annotation: caused by a bunyavirus ID#: D010217

Phosphorus Metabolism Disorders

Definition: Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization. Annotation: HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA is also available; DF: PHOSPHORUS METAB DIS ID#: D010760


Definition: Abnormal sensitivity to light. This may occur as a manifestation of EYE DISEASES; MIGRAINE; SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE; MENINGITIS; and other disorders. Photophobia may also occur in association with DEPRESSION and other MENTAL DISORDERS. Annotation: ID#: D020795

Photosensitivity Disorders

Definition: Abnormal responses to sunlight or artificial light due to extreme reactivity of light-absorbing molecules in tissues. It refers almost exclusively to skin photosensitivity, including sunburn, reactions due to repeated prolonged exposure in the absence of photosensitizing factors, and reactions requiring photosensitizing factors such as photosensitizing agents and certain diseases. With restricted reference to skin tissue, it does not include photosensitivity of the eye to light, as in photophobia or photosensitive epilepsy. Annotation: a skin disease entity: does not mean sensitivity to light of eye, plants, bacteria, etc. ( = LIGHT) ID#: D010787

Phyllodes Tumor

Definition: A variant of mammary fibroadenoma, usually of large size, with an unusually cellular, sarcoma-like stroma. Annotation: coord IM with probably BREAST NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D003557

Pickwickian Syndrome

Definition: Extreme obesity with polycythemia, somnolence, hypoventilation, arterial unsaturation and hypercapnia, and pulmonary hypertension. Annotation: obesity with somnolence, blood & resp disord ID#: D010845

Picornaviridae Infections

Definition: Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D010850


Definition: Autosomal dominant, congenital disorder characterized by localized hypomelanosis of the skin and hair. The most familiar feature is a white forelock presenting in 80 to 90 percent of the patients. The underlying defect is possibly related to the differentiation and migration of melanoblasts, as well as to defective development of the neural crest (neurocristopathy). Piebaldism may be closely related to Waardenburg's syndrome. Annotation: hypopigmentation of skin & hair; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D016116


Definition: Either of two diseases resulting from fungal infection of the hair shafts. Black piedra occurs mainly in and on the hairs of the scalp and is caused by Piedraia hortae; white piedra occurs in and on the hairs of the scalp, beard, moustache and genital areas and is caused by Trichosporon beigelii. Annotation: fungus dis of hair shaft: see MeSH definition ID#: D010854

Pierre Robin Syndrome

Definition: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by brachygnathia and cleft palate, often associated with glossoptosis, backward and upward displacement of the larynx, and angulation of the manubrium sterni. Cleft palate makes sucking and swallowing difficult, permitting easy access of fluids into the larynx. It may appear in several syndromes or as an isolated hypoplasia. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: multiple oral abnorm; named for French dentist Pierre Robin: Robin is his surname; note: no hyphen; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D010855

Pigmentation Disorders

Definition: Annotation: do not restrict to skin despite category; do not confuse X ref INCONTINENTIA PIGMENTI ACHROMIANS with INCONTINENTIA PIGMENTI ID#: D010859


Definition: A tumor composed of cells resembling those of the hair matrix, which undergo 'mummification' and may calcify. It is a relatively uncommon tumor, which may occur at any age from infancy. The majority of patients are under 20, and females are affected more than males. The lesion is usually a solitary deep dermal or subcutaneous tumor 3-30 mm in diameter, situated in the head, neck, or upper extremity. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2401) Annotation: benign or malignant; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with SKIN NEOPLASMS (IM) + HAIR DISEASES (IM) ID#: D018296

Pilonidal Sinus

Definition: A hair-containing cyst or sinus, occurring chiefly in the coccygeal region. Annotation: non-neoplastic; a hair-containing cyst or sinus usually in the coccygeal region: no organ coord needed; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted ID#: D010864


Definition: Neoplasms which originate from pineal parenchymal cells that tend to enlarge the gland and be locally invasive. The two major forms are pineocytoma and the more malignant pineoblastoma. Pineocytomas have moderate cellularity and tend to form rosette patterns. Pineoblastomas are highly cellular tumors containing small, poorly differentiated cells. These tumors occasionally seed the neuroaxis or cause obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS or Parinaud's syndrome. GERMINOMA; CARCINOMA, EMBRYONAL; GLIOMA; and other neoplasms may arise in the pineal region with germinoma being the most common pineal region tumor. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2064; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p670) Annotation: coord IM with BRAIN NEOPLASMS + PINEAL BODY (IM) ID#: D010871


Definition: An infectious disease of the skin caused by Treponema carateum that occurs only in the western hemisphere. Age of onset is between 10 and 20 years of age. This condition is characterized by marked changes in the skin color and is believed to be transmitted by direct person-to-person contact. Annotation: a nonvenereal treponemal skin infect ID#: D010874

Pituitary Apoplexy

Definition: Sudden hemorrhage or ischemic necrosis involving the pituitary gland which may be associated with acute visual loss, severe headache, meningeal signs, cranial nerve palsies, panhypopituitarism, and rarely COMA. The most common cause is hemorrhage (INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES) related to a pituitary ADENOMA (see also PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Ischemia; MENINGITIS; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; and other disorders may be associated with this condition. Annotation: ID#: D010899

Pituitary Diseases

Definition: Disorders of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland which usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of pituitary hormones. Pituitary mass lesions may also produce compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; coord IM with specific part of pituitary (IM); PITUITARY APOPLEXY is available ID#: D010900

Pituitary Neoplasms

Definition: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA. Annotation: coord IM with site in pituitary (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D010911


Definition: A name originally applied to a group of skin diseases characterized by the formation of fine, branny scales, but now used only with a modifier. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a papulosquamous skin dis ID#: D010915

Pityriasis Lichenoides

Definition: A subgroup of PARAPSORIASIS itself divided into acute and chronic forms. The acute form is characterized by the abrupt onset of a generalized, reddish-brown, maculopapular eruption. Lesions may be vesicular, hemorrhagic, crusted, or necrotic. Histologically the disease is characterized by epidermal necrolysis. The chronic form shows milder skin changes with necrosis. An important variant of the chronic form is LYMPHOMATOID PAPULOSIS. Annotation: a form of parapsoriasis & of pityriasis ID#: D017514

Pityriasis Rosea

Definition: A mild exanthematous inflammation of unknown etiology. It is characterized by the presence of salmon-colored maculopapular lesions. The most striking feature is the arrangement of the lesions such that the long axis is parallel to the lines of cleavage. The eruptions are usually generalized, affecting chiefly the trunk, and the course is often self-limiting. Annotation: ID#: D017515

Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris

Definition: A chronic skin disease characterized by small follicular papules, disseminated reddish-brown scaly patches, and often, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. The papules are about the size of a pin and topped by a horny plug. Annotation: ID#: D010916

Placenta Accreta

Definition: Abnormal adherence of part or all of the placenta to the uterine wall, with partial or complete absence of the decidua basalis, especially of the spongiosum layer. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: adherence of placenta to uterine wall; check the tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY ID#: D010921

Placenta Diseases

Definition: Annotation: check the tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY; "fetal malnutrition" : index under PLACENTAL INSUFFICIENCY ID#: D010922

Placenta Praevia

Definition: A placenta which develops in the lower uterine segment, in the zone of dilatation, so that it covers or adjoins the internal os. Painless hemorrhage in the last trimester, particularly during the eighth month, is the most common symptom. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a placenta developing in dilatation zone of uterus; check the tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY ID#: D010923

Placenta, Retained

Definition: A placenta which is either adherent or incarcerated by irregular uterine contractions, and which in consequence fails to be expelled after birth. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a placenta failing to be expelled after birth; check the tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY ID#: D018457

Placental Insufficiency

Definition: Failure of the placenta to deliver an adequate supply of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. Annotation: inadequate oxygen & nutrients to fetus via placenta; check the tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY ID#: D010927


Definition: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form. Annotation: Pasteurella pestis or Yersinia pestis infection only; swine plague = HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA /vet (IM) + SWINE DISEASES (IM) but do not confuse with African swine plague ( = AFRICAN SWINE FEVER) ID#: D010930

Plant Poisoning

Definition: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage. Annotation: human & animal; coord IM with specific plant (IM) + specific dis /etiol (IM); do not coord with food plants in Cat J: index under specific Cat J2 food plant /pois (IM), as FRUIT /pois or GARLIC /pois but not also here; Jamaican vomiting sickness: index PLANT POISONING + HYPOGLYCINS /pois ID#: D010939


Definition: Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic plasma cells either in bone marrow or various extramedullary sites. Annotation: solitary = PLASMACYTOMA; multiple = MULTIPLE MYELOMA; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D010954

Platelet Storage Pool Deficiency

Definition: Disorder characterized by a decrease or lack of platelet dense bodies in which the releasable pool of adenine nucleotides and 5HT are normally stored. Annotation: ID#: D010981


Definition: A developmental deformity of the occipital bone and upper end of the cervical spine, in which the latter appears to have pushed the floor of the occipital bone upward. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: occipital bone abnorm; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D010985

Pleural Diseases

Definition: Annotation: inflamm dis = PLEURISY ID#: D010995

Pleural Effusion

Definition: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself. Annotation: note category; presence of fluid in the pleural space; PLEURAL EFFUSION, MALIGNANT is also available ID#: D010996

Pleural Effusion, Malignant

Definition: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity as a complication of malignant disease. Malignant pleural effusions often contain actual malignant cells. Annotation: note category; presence of fluid in the pleural space as a compl of cancer ID#: D016066

Pleural Neoplasms

Definition: Neoplasms of the thin serous membrane that envelopes the lungs and lines the thoracic cavity. Pleural neoplasms are exceedingly rare and are usually not diagnosed until they are advanced because in the early stages they produce no symptoms. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D010997


Definition: Annotation: same as "pleuritis" in foreign lit ID#: D010998

Pleurodynia, Epidemic

Definition: An acute, febrile, infectious disease generally occurring in epidemics. It is usually caused by coxsackieviruses B and sometimes by coxsackieviruses A; echoviruses; or other enteroviruses. Annotation: ID#: D011000


Definition: Pleurisy complicated with pneumonia. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: do not make a diagnosis: use the term as used by the author ID#: D011001

Pleuropneumonia, Contagious

Definition: A pleuropneumonia of cattle and goats caused by species of MYCOPLASMA. Annotation: Mycoplasma infect; animal only; check tag ANIMAL; coord IM with precoord animal/dis term (IM) + animal (NIM) or with animal (IM) in absence of precoord ID#: D011002

Plummer-Vinson Syndrome

Definition: Syndrome of dysphagia with iron deficiency anemia and mucosal lesions of the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus. Annotation: dysphagia with iron defic anemia ID#: D011004

Pneumatosis Cystoides Intestinalis

Definition: A condition characterized by the presence of thin-walled, gas-containing cysts in the wall of the intestines. The lesions may be subserosal or submucosal. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: gas-containing cysts in the intestinal wall ID#: D011006


Definition: Presence of air or gas within the intracranial cavity (e.g., epidural space, subdural space, intracerebral, etc.) which may result from traumatic injuries, fistulous tract formation, erosions of the skull from NEOPLASMS or infection, NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES, and other conditions. Annotation: ID#: D011007

Pneumococcal Infections

Definition: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE. Annotation: DF: PNEUMOCOCCAL INFECT ID#: D011008


Definition: Condition characterized by permanent deposition of substantial amounts of particulate matter in the lungs, usually of occupational or environmental origin, and by the tissue reaction to its presence. Annotation: GEN or specific for which there is no term in MeSH; do not use /chem ind for a dust causing this dis: use /etiol; TN 151: compl of pneumoconiosis; index specific pneumoconioses for which there is no MeSH term here + substance yielding dust, as pneumoconiosis in gold mining: PNEUMOCONIOSIS (IM) + GOLD (IM) + MINING (IM); do not coord with OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES ID#: D011009

Pneumocystis carinii Infections

Definition: Infection with Pneumocystis carinii, a fungus causing interstitial plasma cell pneumonia (PNEUMONIA, PNEUMOCYSTIS CARINII) and other infections in humans. Immunocompromised patients, especially those with AIDS, are particularly susceptible to these infections. Extrapulmonary sites are rare but seen occasionally. Annotation: fungus dis; IM; coord with precoord organ/dis term (IM) but consider more commonly PNEUMONIA, PNEUMOCYSTIS CARINII ID#: D016720


Definition: Inflammation of the lungs. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D011014

Pneumonia, Aspiration

Definition: A type of pneumonia resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper respiratory tract. Annotation: lung inflamm from aspiration of food, liquid or gastric contents; /congen: consider also RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME ID#: D011015

Pneumonia, Atypical Interstitial, of Cattle

Definition: A cattle disease of uncertain cause, probably an allergic reaction. Annotation: don't forget also CATTLE (NIM) & check tag ANIMAL ID#: D011016

Pneumonia, Bacterial

Definition: Pneumonia caused by various species of bacteria. Bacterial pneumonia commonly results from bronchogenic spread of infection following microaspiration of secretions. The largest category of this disease arises from community-acquired pneumonias. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; coord IM with specific bact infect (IM); DF: PNEUMONIA BACT ID#: D018410

Pneumonia, Lipid

Definition: Pneumonia due to aspiration or inhalation of various oily or fatty substances. Annotation: lung inflamm from aspiration or inhalation of oily or fatty substances ID#: D011017

Pneumonia, Mycoplasma

Definition: Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs and bronchi, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE. Annotation: caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae ID#: D011019

Pneumonia, Pneumococcal

Definition: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE. This condition is characterized by inflammation of one or more lobes of the lungs and symptoms include chills, fever, rapid breathing, and cough. Annotation: caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae ID#: D011018

Pneumonia, Pneumocystis carinii

Definition: A pulmonary disease occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by dyspnea, tachypnea, and hypoxemia. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus Pneumocystis carinii. Annotation: a common opportunistic fungus infect in AIDS ID#: D011020

Pneumonia, Progressive Interstitial, of Sheep

Definition: Chronic respiratory disease caused by the VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS. It was formerly believed to be identical with jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE) but is now recognized as a separate entity. Annotation: caused by a lentivirus; don't forget also SHEEP (NIM) & check tag ANIMAL; DF: note short X ref ID#: D011021

Pneumonia, Rickettsial

Definition: Pneumonia caused by infection with bacteria of the family RICKETTSIACEAE. Annotation: coord IM with specific rickettsial infection (IM) ID#: D011022

Pneumonia, Staphylococcal

Definition: Pneumonia caused by STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS. This condition is a frequent complication of viral influenza. Annotation: caused by Staphylococcus aureus; DF: PNEUMONIA STAPH or STAPH PNEUMONIA ID#: D011023

Pneumonia, Viral

Definition: Pneumonia caused by a virus. (Dorland, 28th ed) Annotation: coord IM with specific viral dis (IM) ID#: D011024


Definition: Annotation: ID#: D011026


Definition: The presence of gas or air in the peritoneal cavity. It may occur spontaneously or be deliberately introduced as an aid to radiologic examination (PNEUMOPERITONEUM, ARTIFICIAL). (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a disease; do not confuse with PNEUMOPERITONEUM, ARTIFICIAL, a radiogr technique; RETROPNEUMOPERITONEUM is also available: see note there ID#: D011027


Definition: An accumulation of air or gas in the pleural space, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process, or be introduced deliberately ( = PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL). (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: accumul of air or gas in pleural cavity: a disease; do not confuse with PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL, a surg procedure ID#: D011030

Pneumovirus Infections

Definition: Infections with viruses of the genus PNEUMOVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTIONS, an important cause of respiratory disease in humans. Annotation: caused by a RESPIROVIRUS; GEN or unspecified ID#: D018186

POEMS Syndrome

Definition: A multisystemic disorder characterized by a sensorimotor polyneuropathy (POLYNEUROPATHIES), organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and pigmentary skin changes. Other clinical features which may be present include EDEMA; CACHEXIA; microangiopathic glomerulopathy; pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY); cutaneous necrosis; THROMBOCYTOSIS; and POLYCYTHEMIA. This disorder is frequently associated with osteosclerotic myeloma. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1335; Rev Med Interne 1997;18(7):553-62) Annotation: for Polyneuropathy, Organomegaly, Endocrinopathy, Monoclonal gammopathy, Skin changes; DF: POEMS ID#: D016878

Poikiloderma Congenitale

Definition: An autosomal recessive syndrome occurring principally in females, characterized by the presence of reticulated, atrophic, hyperpigmented, telangiectatic cutaneous plaques, often accompanied by juvenile cataracts, saddle nose, congenital bone defects, disturbances in the growth of hair, nails, and teeth, and hypogonadism. Annotation: skin & other abnorm; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D011038


Definition: A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection or inhalation of, or exposure to a deleterious agent. Annotation: a dis concept: the field = TOXICOLOGY; IM; GEN only; prefer /pois with Cat D & J terms: Manual 19.7+, 19.8.57, 19.9+, 25.11.4; /drug ther: consider also ANTIDOTES; sometimes called "toxicoses" & often called "intoxication" in foreign lit; DF: POIS ID#: D011041

Poland Syndrome

Definition: A syndrome which is characterized by symbrachydactyly and aplasia of the sternal head of pectoralis major. Annotation: abnorm of pectoralis musc with syndactyly, named for A. Poland, 19th cent physician; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D011045


Definition: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5) Annotation: ID#: D011051

Poliomyelitis, Bulbar

Definition: A form of paralytic poliomyelitis affecting neurons of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA of the brain stem. Clinical features include impaired respiration, HYPERTENSION, alterations of vasomotor control, and dysphagia. Weakness and atrophy of the limbs and trunk due to spinal cord involvement is usually associated. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p765) Annotation: DF: POLIO BULBAR ID#: D011052

Polyarteritis Nodosa

Definition: A form of necrotizing vasculitis involving small- and medium-sized arteries. The signs and symptoms result from infarction and scarring of the affected organ system. Annotation: a form of necrotizing vasculitis ID#: D010488

Polychondritis, Relapsing

Definition: An acquired disease of unknown etiology, chronic course, and tendency to recur. It is characterized by inflammation and degeneration of cartilage and can result in deformities such as floppy ear and saddle nose. Loss of cartilage in the respiratory tract can lead to respiratory obstruction. Annotation: ID#: D011081

Polycystic Kidney Diseases

Definition: Diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed cysts within the kidney. Annotation: KIDNEY, CYSTIC and MULTICYSTIC DYSPLASTIC KIDNEY are also available ID#: D007690

Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant

Definition: A genetic disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance characterized by multiple cysts in both kidneys and progressive deterioration of renal function. Type 1 is usually caused by a mutant gene at the PKD1 locus on the short arm of chromosome 16, though mutations elsewhere in the genome can also cause the disease. The age of onset of symptoms varies widely. Annotation: DF: ADPKD ID#: D016891

Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Recessive

Definition: A rare genetic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance characterized by multiple cysts in both kidneys and associated hepatic lesions. Serious manifestations are usually present at birth and there is high perinatal mortality. Annotation: non-neoplastic; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; DF: ARPKD ID#: D017044

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Definition: Clinical symptom complex characterized by oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, anovulation, and regularly associated with bilateral polycystic ovaries. Annotation: non-neoplastic; also called "sclerocystic ovarian degeneration", "sclerocystic ovaries", "sclerocystic ovary syndrome" espec in Russian lit ID#: D011085


Definition: An increase in the total red cell mass of the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: increase in total red cell mass ID#: D011086

Polycythemia Vera

Definition: A myeloproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by abnormal proliferation of all hematopoietic bone marrow elements and an absolute increase in red cell mass and total blood volume, associated frequently with splenomegaly, leukocytosis, and thrombocythemia. Hematopoiesis is also reactive in extramedullary sites (liver and spleen). In time myelofibrosis occurs. Annotation: a myeloproliferative disord ID#: D011087


Definition: A developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of more than five fingers on the hand or more than five toes on the foot in primates. In non-primate vertebrates, it refers to the presence of more than the normal number of toes on the forelimb or hindlimb. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; do not confuse with SYNDACTYLIA; coord IM with FINGERS /abnorm (IM) or TOES /abnorm (IM); SHORT RIB-POLYDACTYLY SYNDROME is also available ID#: D017689

Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune

Definition: Autoimmune disease affecting multiple endocrine organs. Type I is characterized by childhood onset and mucocutaneous candidiasis, while type II exhibits any combination of adrenal insufficiency (ADDISON'S DISEASE), lymphocytic thyroiditis, hypoparathyroidism, and gonadal failure. In both types organ-specific antibodies against a variety of endocrine glands have been detected. The type II syndrome differs from type I in that it is associated with HLA-A1 and B8 haplotypes, onset is usually in adulthood, and candidiasis is not present. Annotation: a multiple endocrine disord so do not coord with specific endocrine dis or precoord endocr dis term unless particularly discussed; do not index under CANDIDIASIS unless particularly discussed: see MeSH definition; DF: APECED ID#: D016884


Definition: Excess of amniotic fluid greater than 2,000 ml. It is a common obstetrical complication whose major causes include maternal diabetes, chromosomal disorders, isoimmunological disease, congenital abnormalities, and multiple gestations. Annotation: excess of amniotic fluid ID#: D006831

Polymyalgia Rheumatica

Definition: A syndrome in the elderly characterized by proximal joint and muscle pain, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a self-limiting course. Pain is usually accompanied by evidence of an inflammatory reaction. Women are affected twice as commonly as men and Caucasians more frequently than other groups. The condition is frequently associated with TEMPORAL ARTERITIS and some theories pose the possibility that the two diseases arise from a single etiology or even that they are the same entity. Annotation: ID#: D011111


Definition: Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY, NERVOUS SYSTEM); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9) Annotation: ID#: D017285


Definition: Diseases of multiple peripheral nerves simultaneously. Polyneuropathies usually are characterized by symmetrical, bilateral distal motor and sensory impairment with a graded increase in severity distally. The pathological processes affecting peripheral nerves include degeneration of the axon, myelin or both. The various forms of polyneuropathy are categorized by the type of nerve affected (e.g., sensory, motor, or autonomic), by the distribution of nerve injury (e.g., distal vs. proximal), by nerve component primarily affected (e.g., demyelinating vs. axonal), by etiology, or by pattern of inheritance. Annotation: ID#: D011115

Polyomavirus Infections

Definition: Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL). Annotation: ID#: D027601


Definition: A general descriptive term used with reference to any mass of tissue that bulges or projects outward or upward from the normal surface level, thereby being macroscopically visible as a hemispheroidal, spheroidal, or irregular moundlike structure growing from a relatively broad base or a slender stalk. Classically applied to a growth on the mucous membrane of the nose, the term is now applied to such protrusions from any mucous membrane. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: neoplastic: coord with organ/neopl pre-coord; laryngeal polyps = LARYNGEAL NEOPLASMS (IM) + POLYPS (IM); /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; COLONIC POLYPS; INTESTINAL POLYPS & NASAL POLYPS are also available; familial: consider also ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI but remember this is of the colon ID#: D011127


Definition: Diseases characterized by injury or dysfunction involving multiple peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process may primarily affect myelin or nerve axons. Two of the more common demyelinating forms are acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy (GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME) and POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING. Polyradiculoneuritis refers to inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots. Annotation: do not confuse with POLYRADICULOPATHY (dis of multiple nerve roots) nor with RADICULOPATHY (dis of a single nerve root) ID#: D011129

Polyradiculoneuropathy, Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating

Definition: A slowly progressive autoimmune demyelinating disease of peripheral nerves and nerve roots. Clinical manifestations include weakness and sensory loss in the extremities and enlargement of peripheral nerves. The course may be relapsing-remitting or demonstrate a step-wise progression. Protein is usually elevated in the spinal fluid and cranial nerves are typically spared. GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME features a relatively rapid progression of disease which distinguishes it from this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1337) Annotation: do not confuse X ref CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY with POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, ACUTE INFLAMMATORY see GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME ID#: D020277


Definition: Disease or injury involving multiple SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Polyradiculitis refers to inflammation of multiple spinal nerve roots. Annotation: do not confuse with POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY (dis of both spinal nerve roots & peripheral nerves) nor with RADICULOPATHY (dis of a single spinal nerve root) ID#: D011128


Definition: Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes. Annotation: ID#: D011141

Popliteal Cyst

Definition: A synovial cyst in the popliteal space arising from the semimembranous bursa or the knee joint. Annotation: non-neoplastic; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted ID#: D011151

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome

Definition: A syndrome characterized by outbreaks of late term abortions, high numbers of stillbirths and mummified or weak newborn piglets, and respiratory disease in young unweaned and weaned pigs. It is caused by PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYNDROME VIRUS. (Radostits et al., Veterinary Medicine, 8th ed, p1048) Annotation: caused by an arterivirus; DF: note short X ref ID#: D019318


Definition: A heritable disorder of faulty keratinization characterized by the proliferation of abnormal clones of KERATINOCYTES and lesions showing varying atrophic patches surrounded by an elevated, keratotic border. These keratotic lesions can progress to overt cutaneous neoplasm. Several clinical variants are recognized, including porokeratosis of Mibelli, linear porokeratosis, disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis, palmoplantar porokeratosis, and punctate porokeratosis. Annotation: do not confuse with PARAKERATOSIS ID#: D017499


Definition: A group of disorders characterized by the excessive production of porphyrins or their precursors that arises from abnormalities in the regulation of the porphyrin-heme pathway. Aquired pophyrias, which are due to inhibition of enzymes in the metabolic pathway by a drug, toxin or abnormal metabolite, are more common than those which are inherited. Annotation: GEN or unspecified: prefer specifics ID#: D011164

Porphyria Cutanea Tarda

Definition: A form of hepatic porphyria (PORPHYRIA, HEPATIC) characterized by photosensitivity resulting in bullae that rupture easily to form shallow ulcers. This condition occurs in two forms: a sporadic, nonfamilial form that begins in middle age and has normal amounts of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase with diminished activity in the liver; and a familial form in which there is an autosomal dominant inherited deficiency of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase in the liver and red blood cells. Annotation: a form of hepatic porphyria ID#: D017119

Porphyria, Acute Intermittent

Definition: A form of hepatic porphyria (PORPHYRIA, HEPATIC) characterized by periodic attacks of gastrointestinal disturbances, abdominal colic, paralyses, and psychiatric disorders. The onset of this condition is usually in the third or fourth decade of life. Annotation: a form of hepatic porphyria ID#: D017118

Porphyria, Erythrohepatic

Definition: A form of porphyria characterized by a wide range of photocutaneous changes, liver disease, and an excess of protoporphyrin. Annotation: do not confuse with PORPHYRIA, HEPATIC; do not confuse X ref PROTOPORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC with PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC ID#: D017121

Porphyria, Erythropoietic

Definition: Autosomal recessive porphyria characterized by splenomegaly, photosensitivity, hemolytic anemia, and the appearance of red urine in early infancy. This condition results from increased synthesis of uroporphyrinogen I relative to uroporphyrinogen III in bone marrow normoblasts. Annotation: do not confuse with PROTOPORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC see PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROHEPATIC; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D017092

Porphyria, Hepatic

Definition: Porphyria in which the liver is the site where excess formation of porphyrin or its precursors is found. PORPHYRIA, ACUTE INTERMITTENT and PORPHYRIA CUTANEA TARDA are types of hepatic porphyria. Annotation: do not confuse with PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROHEPATIC ID#: D017094

Port-Wine Stain

Definition: A vascular malformation of developmental origin characterized pathologically by ectasia of superficial dermal capillaries, and clinically by persistent macular erythema. In the past, port wine stains have frequently been termed capillary hemangiomas, which they are not; unfortunately this confusing practice persists: HEMANGIOMA, CAPILLARY is neoplastic, a port-wine stain is non-neoplastic. Port-wine stains vary in color from fairly pale pink to deep red or purple and in size from a few millimeters to many centimeters in diameter. The face is the most frequently affected site and they are most often unilateral. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 5th ed, p483) Annotation: distinguish from HEMANGIOMA, CAPILLARY ID#: D019339

Positive-Pressure Respiration, Intrinsic

Definition: Non-therapeutic positive end-expiratory pressure occurring frequently in patients with severe airway obstruction. It can appear with or without the administration of external positive end-expiratory pressure (POSITIVE-PRESSURE RESPIRATION). It presents an important load on the inspiratory muscles which are operating at a mechanical disadvantage due to hyperinflation. Auto-PEEP may cause profound hypotension that should be treated by intravascular volume expansion, increasing the time for expiration, and/or changing from assist mode to intermittent mandatory ventilation mode. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1127) Annotation: note category: a type of resp insuff; do not confuse with POSITIVE END-EXPIRATORY PRESSURE or PEEP see POSITIVE-PRESSURE RESPIRATION, a form of artif resp (Cat E); DF: note short X ref ID#: D018467

Postcholecystectomy Syndrome

Definition: Abdominal sequelae of biliary tract surgery as a result of various biliary tract disorders. Often the same symptoms that are present before the operation recur or postoperative symptoms such as colicky pain, bloating, nausea, and vomiting occur. There is pain on palpation of the right upper quadrant and sometimes jaundice. (Magalini, Dictionary of Medical Syndromes, 3d ed) Annotation: ID#: D017562

Postgastrectomy Syndromes

Definition: Sequelae of gastrectomy from the second week after operation on. Include recurrent or anastomotic ulcer, postprandial syndromes (DUMPING SYNDROME and late postprandial hypoglycemia), disordered bowel action, and nutritional deficiencies. Annotation: ID#: D011178

Postmortem Changes

Definition: Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death. Annotation: do not use for routine postmortem pathol ( = /pathol) ID#: D011180

Postoperative Complications

Definition: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery. Annotation: few qualif apply; IM; coord with specific postop compl (IM); not restricted to immediate postop period; differentiate from Cat E4 terms with /adv eff: Manual 23.18+; DF: POSTOP COMPL ID#: D011183

Postoperative Hemorrhage

Definition: Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound. Annotation: IM; do not confuse with BLOOD LOSS, SURGICAL which is perioperative; coord with specific type of hemorrhage (IM) or specific type of surg (IM); see note on HEMORRHAGE for additional instructions on coords; DF: POSTOP HEMORRHAGE ID#: D019106

Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

Definition: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia. Annotation: ID#: D020250

Postpartum Hemorrhage

Definition: The presence of abnormal uterine bleeding immediately after labor or childbirth. Annotation: check tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY ID#: D006473

Postpericardiotomy Syndrome

Definition: A febrile illness associated with pericardial and sometimes pleuropulmonary reaction that often follows extensive pericardiotomy. Annotation: ID#: D011185

Postphlebitic Syndrome

Definition: Post-thrombotic complications, including destruction of the valves of the deep veins and communication veins of the leg, and obliteration of the thrombosed veins rather than recanalization, resulting in chronic venous insufficiency, marked by edema, stasis dermatitis, and ulceration of the leg. Annotation: post-thrombotic venous insuff of the legs ID#: D011186

Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome

Definition: A syndrome characterized by new neuromuscular symptoms that occur at least 15 years after clinical stability has been attained in patients with a prior history of symptomatic poliomyelitis. Clinical features include new muscular weakness and atrophy of the limbs, bulbar innervated musculature, and muscles of respiration, combined with excessive fatigue, joint pain, and reduced stamina. The process is marked by slow progression and periods of stabilization. (From Ann NY Acad Sci 1995 May 25;753:68-80) Annotation: DF: POSTPOLIO SYNDROME or PPMA ID#: D016262

Potassium Deficiency

Definition: A condition due to decreased dietary intake of potassium, as in starvation or failure to administer in intravenous solutions, or to gastrointestinal loss in diarrhea, chronic laxative abuse, vomiting, gastric suction, or bowel diversion. Severe potassium deficiency may produce muscular weakness and lead to paralysis and respiratory failure. Muscular malfunction may result in hypoventilation, paralytic ileus, hypotension, muscle twitches, tetany, and rhabomyolysis. Nephropathy from potassium deficit impairs the concentrating mechanism, producing polyuria and decreased maximal urinary concentrating ability with secondary polydipsia. (Merck Manual, 16th ed) Annotation: DF: POTASSIUM DEFIC ID#: D011191


Definition: Acute inflammation of intestinal mucosa seen in an ileal reservoir that may extend transmurally, occurring as a late complication of restorative proctocolectomy (PROCTOCOLECTOMY, RESTORATIVE), possibly due to obstruction and stercoral ulceration. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992) Annotation: inflamm of an ileal reservoir after restorative proctocolectomy so do not index under PROCTOCOLECTOMY, RESTORATIVE unless particularly discussed ID#: D019449

Poultry Diseases

Definition: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. Annotation: coord IM with specific poultry (IM); for abnormalities or injuries, index under POULTRY /abnorm or POULTRY /inj; don't forget also POULTRY (NIM) if no specific fowl is indexed; also check tag ANIMAL; differentiate from BIRD DISEASES on basis of definition of BIRDS & POULTRY under POULTRY ID#: D011201

Poxviridae Infections

Definition: Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D011213

Prader-Willi Syndrome

Definition: A chromosomal disorder associated with a deletion of the proximal portion of the long arm of chromosome 15 (15q11-q13) in the majority of affected individuals. The abnormalities occur exclusively on the paternally derived chromosome 15. Clinical manifestations include MENTAL RETARDATION, muscular hypotonia, OBESITY, hyperphagia, short stature, hypogonadism, strabismus, and hypersomnolence. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p229) Annotation: ID#: D011218


Definition: Development of hypertension with proteinuria, edema, or both, due to pregnancy or the influence of a recent pregnancy. It occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but it may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease. Annotation: hypertension, proteinuria & edema after 20th week of pregn; check tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY ID#: D011225

Pre-Excitation Syndromes

Definition: Conditions characterized by activation of the whole or some part of the ventricle by the atrial impulse earlier than would be expected if the impulse reached the ventricle by way of the normal specific conduction system only. Annotation: GEN: prefer specifics; long QT = LONG QT SYNDROME; normal PR-long QRS = PRE-EXCITATION, MAHAIM TYPE; short PR-normal QRS = LOWN-GANONG-LEVINE SYNDROME; short PR, long QRS = WOLFF-PARKINSON-WHITE SYNDROME ID#: D011226

Pre-Excitation, Mahaim-Type

Definition: A form of pre-excitation characterized by a normal PR interval and a long QRS interval with a delta wave. Annotation: normal PR interval & long QRS interval with delta wave; SHORT PR NORMAL QRS COMPLEX SYNDROME see LOWN-GANONG-LEVINE SYNDROME is available ID#: D011227

Precancerous Conditions

Definition: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: IM; do not use /compl for develop into cancer: use /pathol; coord IM with organ/neopl term (IM); Manual ID#: D011230

Prediabetic State

Definition: Annotation: do not use /compl for develop into diabetes; coord IM with specific diabetes precoord IM when pertinent ID#: D011236

Pregnancy Complications

Definition: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a disease. The disease may precede or follow conception and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or fetus. Annotation: pregn in a dis or a dis in pregn; coord IM with dis (IM); /surg: consider also OBSTETRIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; do not use for heterotopic pregn: see note at PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC; check tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY; Manual 18.4.7; DF: PREGN COMPL ID#: D011248

Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular

Definition: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow conception and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or fetus. Annotation: coord IM with specific cardiovasc dis (IM); check tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY; hemorrh during pregn goes here, not PREGN COMPL HEMATOL; Manual 18.4.7; DF: PREGN COMPL CARDIOVASC ID#: D011249

Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic

Definition: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease. The hematologic disorder may be of the cells or coagulation elements of the blood but does not refer to deficiencies or excesses of various substances in the blood, such as hypercalcemia or hypocalcemia. It may precede or follow conception and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or fetus. Annotation: for disord of formed elements or coag processes of blood in pregn, not for excess or defic of substances in the blood (as HYPOKALEMIA + PREGN COMPL, not PREGN COMPL HEMATOL); coord IM with specific hematologic dis (IM); check tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY; hemorrh during pregn goes under PREGNANCY COMPL CARDIOVASC, not here; Manual 18.4.7; DF: PREGN COMPL HEMATOL ID#: D011250

Pregnancy Complications, Infectious

Definition: Infections occurring during the course of pregnancy, or pregnancy during the course of an infectious disease. Annotation: bact, fungal or viral infect: note also PREGNANCY COMPLICATIONS, PARASITIC; coord IM with specific infectious dis (IM); check tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY; Manual 18.4.7; DF: PREGN COMPL INFECT ID#: D011251

Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic

Definition: Neoplasms occurring during the course of pregnancy, or pregnancy during the course of a neoplastic disease. Annotation: coord IM with specific histol type (IM) + precoord organ/neopl term (IM); check tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY; Manual 18.4.7; DF: PREGN COMPL NEOPL ID#: D011252

Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic

Definition: Parasitic diseases occurring during the course of pregnancy, or pregnancy during the course of a parasitic disease. Some of the more commonly co-occurring infections are amebiasis, malaria and toxoplasmosis. Annotation: coord IM with specific parasitic dis (IM); check tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY; Manual 18.4.7; DF: PREGN COMPL PARASITIC ID#: D015597

Pregnancy in Diabetics

Definition: Previously diagnosed diabetics that become pregnant. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance induced by pregnancy but resolved at the end of pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL). Annotation: refers to DIABETES MELLITUS, not DIABETES INSIPIDUS; do not confuse with DIABETES, GESTATIONAL where pregn causes diabetes while in PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS a diabetic becomes pregnant; coord IM with specific diabetes precoord (IM) if pertinent; DF: PREGN IN DIABETES ID#: D011254

Pregnancy Toxemias

Definition: Pregnancy-induced hypertensive states, including EPH gestosis when edema and proteinuria accompany hypertension. Other hypertensive disorders that develop during pregnancy or the puerperium are pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, either of which may be superimposed upon chronic hypertensive vascular or renal disease. Annotation: pregn-induced hypertensive states; check tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY; DF: PREGN TOXEMIAS ID#: D011260

Pregnancy, Abdominal

Definition: Ectopic pregnancy with development of the fetus in the abdominal cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: fetus develops in abdom cavity; check tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY; heterotopic or combined uterine & abdom pregn: see note at PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC; DF: PREGN ABDOMINAL ID#: D011269

Pregnancy, Ectopic

Definition: Development of the fertilized ovum outside of the uterine cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: fetus develops outside uterus; check tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY; heterotopic = PREGNANCY (IM) + PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC or its specifics (IM) + site (NIM); DF: PREGN ECTOPIC ID#: D011271

Pregnancy, Tubal

Definition: Ectopic pregnancy within an oviduct. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: fetus develops in fallopian tube; check tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY; heterotopic or combined uterine & tubal pregn: see note on PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC; DF: PREGN TUBAL ID#: D011274


Definition: Conditions in which the abnormalities in the peripheral blood or bone marrow represent the early manifestations of acute leukemia, but in which the changes are not of sufficient magnitude or specificity to permit a diagnosis of acute leukemia by the usual clinical criteria. Annotation: do not use /compl for develop into leukemia ID#: D011289

Premenstrual Syndrome

Definition: A combination of distressing physical, psychologic, or behavioral changes that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of PMS are diverse (such as pain, water-retention, anxiety, cravings, and depression) and they dimish markedly 2 or 3 days after the initiation of menses. Annotation: ID#: D011293


Definition: Progressive bilateral loss of hearing that occurs in the aged. Syn: senile deafness. Annotation: "progressive bilateral loss of hearing that occurs in the aged" ID#: D011304


Definition: The normal decreasing elasticity of the crystalline lens that leads to loss of accommodation. Annotation: ID#: D011305


Definition: Persistent abnormal erection of the penis, usually without sexual desire, and accompanied by pain and tenderness. It is seen in diseases and injuries of the spinal cord, and may be caused by vesical calculus and certain injuries to the penis. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: persistent penile erection ID#: D011317

Primate Diseases

Definition: Diseases of animals within the order PRIMATES. This term includes diseases of Haplorhini and Strepsirhini. Annotation: animal only, not man; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; coord IM with specific dis /vet (IM); for abnormalities or injuries, index under specific primate heading /abnorm or /inj; don't forget also PRIMATES (NIM) if no specific primate is indexed; also check tag ANIMAL; DF: PRIMATE DIS ID#: D018419

Prion Diseases

Definition: A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA, ataxia, and a fatal outcome. Diseases in this category include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER-SCHEINKER SYNDROME; KURU; SCRAPIE; fatal familial insomnia; bovine spongiform encephalopathy (see ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM); transmissible mink encephalopathy; and chronic wasting disease of mule deer and elk. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83) Annotation: GEN or unspecified: prefer specifics ID#: D017096


Definition: Annotation: ID#: D011349


Definition: Inflammation of the rectum and colon. Annotation: note X ref RECTOCOLITIS but available also are RECTOCOLITIS, HEMORRHAGIC see COLITIS, ULCERATIVE & RECTOCOLITIS, ULCERATIVE see COLITIS, ULCERATIVE ID#: D011350


Definition: An abnormal congenital condition characterized by premature aging in children, where all the changes of cell senescence occur. It is manifested by premature greying; hair loss; hearing loss (DEAFNESS); cataracts (CATARACT); ARTHRITIS; OSTEOPOROSIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; atrophy of subcutaneous fat; skeletal hypoplasia; and accelerated ATHEROSCLEROSIS. Many affected individuals develop malignant tumors, especially SARCOMA. Annotation: ID#: D011371


Definition: A condition marked by abnormal protrusion of the mandible. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: abnormal protrusion of mandible; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; consider also MALOCCLUSION, ANGLE CLASS III ID#: D011378


Definition: A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA. Annotation: coord IM with PITUITARY NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D015175


Definition: The protrusion of an organ or part of an organ into a natural or artificial orifice. Annotation: GEN or unspecified but almost never IM; coord with organ/dis precoord (IM) ID#: D011391

Prostatic Diseases

Definition: Annotation: inflamm dis = PROSTATITIS ID#: D011469

Prostatic Hyperplasia

Definition: Enlargement or overgrowth of the prostate gland as a result of an increase in the number of its constituent cells. Annotation: note category: non-neoplastic despite X refs ADENOMA, PROSTATIC & PROSTATIC ADENOMA ID#: D011470

Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Definition: A premalignant change arising in the prostatic epithelium, regarded as the most important and most likely precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The neoplasia takes the form of an intra-acinar or ductal proliferation of secretory cells with unequivocal nuclear anaplasia, which corresponds to nuclear grade 2 and 3 invasive prostate cancer. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS (IM); DF: PROSTATIC INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPL ID#: D019048

Prostatic Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the prostate. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM); note PROSTATIC ADENOMA see PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA ID#: D011471


Definition: Inflammation of the prostate. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: inflamm of prostate ID#: D011472

Prosthesis-Related Infections

Definition: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late). Annotation: coord IM with specific infect (IM) + specific prosthesis /adv eff (IM), as EYE, ARTIFICIAL /adv eff; infect by biofilm: coord IM with BIOFILMS (IM) but see note there; DF: PROSTHESIS RELAT INFECT ID#: D016459

Protein C Deficiency

Definition: An absence or deficiency in PROTEIN C which leads to impaired regulation of blood coagulation. It is associated with an increased risk of severe or premature thrombosis. (Stedman's Med. Dict., 26th ed.) Annotation: DF: PROTEIN C DEFIC ID#: D020151

Protein Deficiency

Definition: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406) Annotation: deficiency of dietary protein, not genetic defic of specific proteins; consider also PROTEIN-CALORIE MALNUTRITION; DF: PROTEIN DEFIC ID#: D011488

Protein S Deficiency

Definition: An autosomal dominant disorder showing decreased levels of plasma protein S antigen or activity, associated with venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. PROTEIN S is a vitamin K-dependent plasma protein that inhibits blood clotting by serving as a cofactor for activated PROTEIN C (also a vitamin K-dependent protein), and the clinical manifestations of its deficiency are virtually identical to those of protein C deficiency. Treatment with heparin for acute thrombotic processes is usually followed by maintenance administration of coumarin drugs for the prevention of recurrent thrombosis. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1511; Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p1523) Annotation: a blood protein disord causing thromboses; DF: PROTEIN S DEFIC ID#: D018455

Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Definition: The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body's metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses. Annotation: consider also KWASHIORKOR ID#: D011502

Protein-Losing Enteropathies

Definition: A series of gastrointestinal disorders which share in common the excessive loss of protein, mainly albumin, across the gut wall. They occur in the stomach (Menetrier disease), as well as the small bowel (intestinal lymphangiectases, assorted inflammatory states). They are also occasionally associated with congestive heart failure (again a small bowel protein loss). Annotation: ID#: D011504


Definition: Annotation: for clin state or varying levels of urinary protein: PROTEINS /urine is invalid; EPH (Edema, Proteinuria, Hypertension) = GESTOSIS, EPH & do not index under PROTEINURIA unless it is particularly discussed ID#: D011507

Proteus Infections

Definition: Infections with bacteria of the genus PROTEUS. Annotation: gram-neg bact infect; GEN; coord IM with various species (IM) ID#: D011512

Proteus Syndrome

Definition: Hamartoneoplastic malformation syndrome of uncertain etiology characterized by partial gigantism of the hands and/or feet, asymmetry of the limbs, plantar hyperplasia, hemangiomas, lipomas, lymphangiomas, epidermal nevi, macrocephaly, cranial hyperostoses, and long-bone overgrowth. Joseph Merrick, the so-called "elephant man", apparently suffered from Proteus syndrome and not neurofibromatosis, a disorder with similar characteristics. Annotation: hamartomas & multiple abnorm; "Proteus" refers to the sea god in Greek mythol who could assume many forms; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D016715

Protozoan Infections

Definition: Infections with unicellular organisms of the subkingdom PROTOZOA. Annotation: GEN; prefer specifics; /drug ther: consider also ANTIPROTOZOAL AGENTS ID#: D011528

Protozoan Infections, Animal

Definition: Infections with unicellular organisms of the subkingdom PROTOZOA. The infections may be experimental or veterinary. Annotation: exper or vet; GEN or unspecified; prefer specific indentions or specific protozoan infect /vet; don't forget to check tag ANIMAL; DF: PROTOZOAN INFECT ANIMAL ID#: D011529

Prune Belly Syndrome

Definition: A syndrome characterized by abdominal wall musculature deficiency, cryptorchism, and urinary tract abnormalities. The syndrome derives its name from its characteristic distended abdomen with wrinkled skin. Annotation: a syndrome of multiple abnorm; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D011535


Definition: A name applied to several itchy skin eruptions of unknown cause. The characteristic course is the formation of a dome-shaped papule with a small transient vesicle on top, followed by crusting over or lichenification. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: itchy skin eruptions ID#: D011536


Definition: An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief. Annotation: /drug ther: consider also ANTIPRURITICS ID#: D011537

Pruritus Ani

Definition: Intense chronic itching in the anal area. Annotation: note spelling: -itus, not -itis ID#: D011538

Pruritus Vulvae

Definition: Intense itching of the external female genitals. Annotation: note spelling: -itus, not -itis ID#: D011539


Definition: A pathologic entity characterized by deossification of a weight-bearing long bone, followed by bending and pathologic fracture, with inability to form normal BONY CALLUS leading to existence of the "false joint" that gives the condition its name. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a type of ununited fract; do not index under FRACTURES, UNUNITED unless particularly discussed ID#: D011542

Pseudobulbar Palsy

Definition: A syndrome characterized by DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, dysphonia, impairment of voluntary movements of tongue and facial muscles, and emotional lability. This condition is caused by diseases that affect the motor fibers that travel from the cerebral cortex to the lower BRAIN STEM (i.e., corticobulbar tracts); including MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489) Annotation: ID#: D020828


Definition: A condition in which the gonads are of one sex but one or more contradictions exist in the morphologic criteria of sex. Female pseudohermaphroditism is a form in which the affected individual is a genetic and gonadal female with partial masculinization. Male pseudohermaphroditism is a form in which the affected individual is a genetic and gonadal male with incomplete masculinization. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; check tag will be genetic sex, not sex of patient as presented ID#: D011545


Definition: A hereditary disorder characterized by salt wasting and growth retardation, presenting in infancy as high levels of urinary sodium despite hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hyperreninemia, and elevated aldosterone levels. The mode of inheritance is probably autosomal dominant, affecting electrolyte secretion in the kidney tubule. Annotation: ID#: D011546


Definition: A hereditary condition clinically resembling HYPOPARATHYROIDISM, but caused by failure of response to rather than deficiency of parathyroid hormones. It is characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, and is commonly associated with short stature, obesity, short metacarpals, and ectopic calcification. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a metab bone dis; do not confuse with PSEUDOPSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM ID#: D011547


Definition: A group of disorders having a benign course but exhibiting clinical and histological features suggestive of malignant lymphoma. Pseudolymphoma is characterized by a benign infiltration of lymphoid cells or histiocytes which microscopically resembles a malignant lymphoma. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 26th ed) Annotation: non-neoplastic; coord IM with organ/dis (IM) ID#: D019310

Pseudomonas Infections

Definition: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS. Annotation: gram-neg bact infect; see note under PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA ID#: D011552

Pseudomyxoma Peritonei

Definition: A condition characterized by poorly-circumscribed gelatinous masses filled with malignant mucin-secreting cells. Forty-five percent of pseudomyxomas arise from the ovary, usually in a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (CYSTADENOCARCINOMA, MUCINOUS), which has prognostic significance. Pseudomyxoma peritonei must be differentiated from mucinous spillage into the peritoneum by a benign mucocele of the appendix. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992) Annotation: neoplastic; accumulation of mucoid matter in peritoneal cavity: see MeSH definition; coord IM with PERITONEAL NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D011553


Definition: Presence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction. Annotation: do not confuse with PSEUDOAPHAKIA see CATARACT ID#: D019591


Definition: A genetically related form of PSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM characterized by the same features except for the abnormal response to parathyroid hormone. Annotation: do not confuse with PSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM of which it is an incomplete form ID#: D011556


Definition: A highly contagious herpesvirus infection affecting the central nervous system of swine, cattle, dogs, cats, rats, and other animals. Annotation: ID#: D011557

Pseudotumor Cerebri

Definition: A condition marked by raised intracranial pressure and characterized clinically by HEADACHES; NAUSEA; PAPILLEDEMA, peripheral constriction of the visual fields, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile TINNITUS. OBESITY is frequently associated with this condition, which primarily affects women between 20 and 44 years of age. Chronic PAPILLEDEMA may lead to optic nerve injury (see OPTIC NERVE DISEASES) and visual loss (see BLINDNESS). Annotation: note category: non-neopl ID#: D011559

Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum

Definition: A rare, progressive inherited disorder resulting from extensive basophilic degeneration of elastic tissue, usually presenting after puberty and involving the skin, eye, and cardiovascular system. Characteristic manifestations are small, circumscribed yellowish patches at sites of considerable movement of the skin, ANGIOID STREAKS in the retina, and a tendency towards hemorrhage and arterial insufficiency. Annotation: skin & other abnorm; in titles & translations use diacrit: Grönblad ID#: D011561

Psoas Abscess

Definition: Abscess of the psoas muscle resulting usually from disease of the lumbar vertebrae, with the pus descending into the muscle sheath. The infection is most commonly tuberculous or staphylococcal. Annotation: for coord read note on ABSCESS ID#: D016659


Definition: A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis. Annotation: a papulosquamous skin dis; ARTHRITIS, PSORIATIC is also available ID#: D011565

Psychophysiologic Disorders

Definition: A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under autonomic nervous system control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988) Annotation: differentiate from PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE which is the field; coord IM with specific dis /psychol (IM); Manual 27.12; DF: PSYCHOPHYSIOL DIS ID#: D011602


Definition: An abnormal triangular fold of membrane in the interpalpebral fissure, extending from the conjunctiva to the cornea, being immovably united to the cornea at its apex, firmly attached to the sclera throughout its middle portion, and merged with the conjunctiva at its base. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a conjunctival dis, not a structure; pterygium of other organs: index under specific organ /abnorm ID#: D011625

Puberty, Delayed

Definition: Unusually late sexual maturity. Annotation: human only ID#: D011628

Puberty, Precocious

Definition: Unusually early sexual maturity. Annotation: human only ID#: D011629

Puerperal Disorders

Definition: Disorders or diseases associated with the six-to-eight-week period immediately following labor and delivery. Annotation: check the tag FEMALE; puerperal psychoses: coord IM with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (IM) ID#: D011644

Puerperal Infection

Definition: An infection occurring in the puerperium or postpartum period. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; coord IM with specific infect (IM); check the tag FEMALE ID#: D011645

Pulmonary Adenomatosis, Ovine

Definition: A contagious, neoplastic, pulmonary disease of sheep characterized by hyperplasia and hypertrophy of pneumocytes and epithelial cells of the lung. It is caused by OVINE PULMONARY ADENOCARCINOMA VIRUS. Annotation: caused by a retrovirus; don't forget also SHEEP (NIM) & check tag ANIMAL; DF: PULM ADENOMATOSIS OVINE ID#: D011648

Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

Definition: A chronic lung disease characterized by dyspnea, productive cough, chest pain, weakness, weight loss, and hemoptysis, and by the filling of the distal alveoli with a bland, eosinophilic, proteinaceous material that prevents ventilation of affected areas. (Dorland, 28th ed) Annotation: DF: PULM ALVEOLAR PROTEINOSIS ID#: D011649

Pulmonary Atresia

Definition: Congenital absence of the normal valvular orifice into the pulmonary artery. This condition is characterized by cardiomegaly, reduced pulmonary vascularity, and right ventricular atrophy. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; DF: PULM ATRESIA ID#: D018633

Pulmonary Blastoma

Definition: A malignant neoplasm of the lung composed chiefly or entirely of immature undifferentiated cells (i.e., blast forms) with little or virtually no stroma. (From Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: coord IM with LUNG NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018202

Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

Definition: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA. Annotation: LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE is also available ID#: D029424

Pulmonary Edema

Definition: Annotation: includes congestion; X ref WET LUNG: in shock, consider also SHOCK LUNG see RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, ADULT; DF: PULM EDEMA ID#: D011654

Pulmonary Embolism

Definition: Embolism in the pulmonary artery or one of its branches. Annotation: includes thrombosis, thromboembolism & infarct; DF: PULM EMBOLISM ID#: D011655

Pulmonary Emphysema

Definition: A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by anatomic alterations of the lungs, such as the enlargement of airspaces and destruction of alveolar walls. Annotation: in cattle is probably EMPHYSEMA, ACUTE BOVINE PULMONARY see PNEUMONIA, ATYPICAL INTERSTITIAL, OF CATTLE; DF: PULM EMPHYSEMA ID#: D011656

Pulmonary Eosinophilia

Definition: A disease characterized by pulmonary infiltrations of eosinophils and blood eosinophilia. Annotation: pulm infiltrations of eosinophils; do not confuse X ref LOEFFLER SYNDROME with LOEFFLER'S ENDOCARDITIS see HYPEREOSINOPHILIC SYNDROME; DF: PULM EOSINOPHILIA ID#: D011657

Pulmonary Fibrosis

Definition: Chronic inflammation and progressive fibrosis of the pulmonary alveolar walls, with steadily progressive dyspnea, resulting finally in death from oxygen lack or right heart failure. Annotation: an interstitial lung dis; usually chronic so do not coord with CHRONIC DISEASE; DF: PULM FIBROSIS ID#: D011658

Pulmonary Heart Disease

Definition: Annotation: DF: PULM HEART DIS ID#: D011660

Pulmonary Subvalvular Stenosis

Definition: Stenosis of the conus arteriosus (infundibulum) with or without involvement of the pulmonary valve. It is usually associated with a defect in the interventricular septum. Annotation: do not confuse with PULMONARY VALVE STENOSIS; if secondary to idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, coordinate with CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC; DF: PULM SUBVALV STENOSIS ID#: D011662

Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency

Definition: Backflow of blood from the pulmonary artery into the right ventricle, owing to imperfect functioning of the pulmonary valve. Annotation: imperfect closing of valve; DF: PULM VALVE INSUFFICIENCY ID#: D011665

Pulmonary Valve Stenosis

Definition: Annotation: do not confuse with PULMONARY SUBVALVULAR STENOSIS; atresia = PULMONARY ATRESIA; DF: PULM VALVE STENOSIS ID#: D011666

Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease

Definition: Obstruction of the small- and medium-sized pulmonary veins by fibrous proliferation of the intima and media or by thrombosis or a combination of both. Annotation: pulm vein blockage; DF: PVOD ID#: D011668


Definition: Inflammation of the dental pulp, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: inflamm of dent pulp ID#: D011671

Pupil Disorders

Definition: Conditions which affect the structure or function of the pupil of the eye, including disorders of innervation to the pupillary constrictor or dilator muscles, and disorders of pupillary reflexes. Annotation: see also IRIS DISORDERS ID#: D011681

Purine-Pyrimidine Metabolism, Inborn Errors

Definition: Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; coord IM with specific purine /metab (IM) or pyrimidine /metab (IM); DF: PP METAB INBORN ERR ID#: D011686


Definition: Purplish or brownish red discoloration, easily visible through the epidermis, caused by hemorrhage into the tissues. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D011693

Purpura, Hyperglobulinemic

Definition: Purpura seen in many hematological disorders, characterized by an increase in GAMMA-GLOBULINS. Annotation: ID#: D011694

Purpura, Schoenlein-Henoch

Definition: A form of nonthrombocytopenic purpura due to a hypersensitivity vasculitis associated with a variety of clinical symptoms including urticaria and erythema, arthropathy and arthritis, gastrointestinal symptoms, and renal involvement. Annotation: nonthrombopenic: thrombopenic = PURPURA, THROMBOCYTOPENIC ID#: D011695

Purpura, Thrombocytopenic

Definition: Any form of purpura in which the PLATELET COUNT is decreased. Many forms are thought to be caused by immunological mechanisms. Annotation: PURPURA, THROMBOCYTOPENIC, IDIOPATHIC & PURPURA, THROMBOTIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC are also available; nonthrombocytopenic = PURPURA, SCHOENLEIN-HENOCH ID#: D011696

Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic

Definition: Thrombocytopenia occurring in the absence of toxic exposure or a disease associated with decreased platelets. It is mediated by immune mechanisms, in most cases IMMUNOGLOBULIN G autoantibodies which attach to platelets and subsequently undergo destruction by macrophages. The disease is seen in acute (affecting children) and chronic (adult) forms. Annotation: ID#: D016553

Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic

Definition: A disease characterized by thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, bizarre neurological manifestations, azotemia, fever, and thromboses in terminal arterioles and capillaries. Annotation: ID#: D011697

Putaminal Hemorrhage

Definition: Bleeding into the PUTAMEN, a BASAL GANGLIA nucleus. This is a relatively common site of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage and is associated with chronic HYPERTENSION and lipohyalinosis of small blood vessels in the putamen. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of hemorrhage, but include hemiparesis, headache, and alterations of consciousness. Annotation: ID#: D020146


Definition: Inflammation of the pelvis of the kidney. (Dorland, 28th ed) Annotation: = kidney pelvis inflammation ID#: D011702


Definition: Annotation: = inflammation of kidney + its pelvis ID#: D011704

Pyelonephritis, Xanthogranulomatous

Definition: An inflammatory condition of the kidney most commonly resulting in a grossly enlarged and nonfunctioning kidney associated with stones and infection. Annotation: ID#: D011705

Pyloric Stenosis

Definition: Obstruction of the pyloric canal. Annotation: for hypertrophic, coord IM with HYPERTROPHY (NIM) ID#: D011707


Definition: Any purulent skin disease (Dorland, 27th ed). Annotation: "any purulent skin dis" but do not make diagnoses: use term of text ID#: D011711

Pyoderma Gangrenosum

Definition: An idiopathic, rapidly evolving, and severely debilitating disease occurring most commonly in association with chronic ulcerative colitis. It is characterized by the presence of boggy, purplish ulcers with undermined borders, appearing mostly on the legs. The majority of cases are in people between 40 and 60 years old. Its etiology is unknown. Annotation: severe type of skin ulcer appearing mostly on the legs ID#: D017511

Pyruvate Carboxylase Deficiency Disease

Definition: An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by absent or decreased PYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE activity, the enzyme that regulates gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and neurotransmitter synthesis. Clinical manifestations include lactic acidosis, seizures, respiratory distress, marked psychomotor delay, periodic HYPOGLYCEMIA, and hypotonia. The clinical course may be similar to LEIGH DISEASE. (From Am J Hum Genet 1998 Jun;62(6):1312-9) Annotation: ID#: D015324

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency Disease

Definition: An inherited metabolic disorder caused by deficient enzyme activity in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX, resulting in deficiency of acetyl CoA and reduced synthesis of acetylcholine. Two clinical forms are recognized: neonatal and juvenile. The neonatal form is a relatively common cause of lactic acidosis in the first weeks of life and may also feature an erythematous rash. The juvenile form presents with lactic acidosis, alopecia, intermittent ATAXIA, SEIZURES, and an erythematous rash. (From J Inherit Metab Dis 1996;19(4):452-62) Autosomal recessive and X-linked forms are caused by mutations in the genes for the three different enzyme components of this multisubunit pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. One of the mutations at Xp22.2-p22.1 in the gene for the E1 alpha component of the complex leads to LEIGH DISEASE. Annotation: DF: PDHC DEFIC DIS ID#: D015325

Pyruvate Metabolism, Inborn Errors

Definition: Hereditary disorders of pyruvate metabolism. They are difficult to diagnose and describe because pyruvate is a key intermediate in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Some inherited metabolic disorders may alter pyruvate metabolism indirectly. Disorders in pyruvate metabolism appear to lead to deficiencies in neurotransmitter synthesis and, consequently, to nervous system disorders. Annotation: an inborn error of carbohydrate metab; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; DF: PYRUVATE METAB INBORN ERR ID#: D015323


Definition: Annotation: ID#: D011776