Index of Diseases


Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis

Definition: Infectious or noninfectious venous thrombosis of the sagittal sinus. Spontaneous and secondary forms occur. Associated conditions include DEHYDRATION; SEPSIS; THROMBOPHILIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES. Affected individuals may present with or develop HEADACHE; neck pain; PAPILLEDEMA; SEIZURES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; venous CEREBRAL INFARCTION; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; hemiparesis; and other focal neurologic deficits. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p612) Annotation: ID#: D020225

Salivary Calculi

Definition: The presence of calculi in a salivary duct or gland. Annotation: chem composition of calculi: use/chem; /ultrastruc permitted ID#: D020792

Salivary Duct Calculi

Definition: Presence of small calculi in the terminal salivary ducts (salivary sand), or stones (larger calculi) found in the larger ducts. Annotation: chem composition of calculi: use /chem; /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with specific precoord salivary gland dis term (IM); do not confuse with SALIVARY GLAND CALCULI ID#: D012465

Salivary Gland Calculi

Definition: Calculi occurring in a salivary gland. Most salivary gland calculi occur in the submandibular gland, but can also occur in the parotid gland and in the sublingual and minor salivary glands. Annotation: chem composition of calculi: use /chem; /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with specific precoord salivary gland dis term (IM); do not confuse with SALIVARY DUCT CALCULI ID#: D015494

Salivary Gland Diseases

Definition: Annotation: GEN: prefer specifics; inflamm dis = SIALADENITIS; tuberc sialadenitis or tuberc of salivary glands = SIALADENITIS (IM) + TUBERCULOSIS, ORAL (IM) ID#: D012466

Salivary Gland Fistula

Definition: A fistula between a salivary duct or gland and the cutaneous surface of the oral cavity. Annotation: fistula policy: Manual 23.19+; coord IM with specific salivary gland or precoord salivary gland dis (IM) ID#: D012467

Salivary Gland Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS. Annotation: GEN: prefer specific precoord; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D012468

Salmonella Food Poisoning

Definition: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply. Annotation: ID#: D012478

Salmonella Infections

Definition: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA. Annotation: gram-neg bact infect; GEN or unspecified; see notes on specific species terms; SALMONELLA INFECTIONS, ANIMAL & SALMONELLA FOOD POISONING are available ID#: D012480

Salmonella Infections, Animal

Definition: Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA. Annotation: exper or vet; don't forget to check tag ANIMAL ID#: D012481


Definition: Inflammation of the uterine tube. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: inflamm of fallopian tube ID#: D012488

Sandhoff Disease

Definition: An autosomal inherited disease caused by deficiency of the enzymes hexosaminidase A & B (see BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASE) which leads to an accumulation of GM2 ganglioside and the sphingolipid globoside in neurons and other organs. Clinical manifestations resemble TAY-SACHS DISEASE, but the disease is not limited to Askenazi Jews and may feature hepatosplenomegaly. The infantile form presents in the first 4 months of life with psychomotor delay, hypotonia followed by spasticity, and cherry red spots in the macula. Rare juvenile and adult forms have been reported. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p92) Annotation: ID#: D012497


Definition: Infection of the striated muscle of mammals by parasites of the genus SARCOCYSTIS. Disease symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and paralysis are produced by sarcocystin, a toxin produced by the organism. Annotation: /drug ther: consider also COCCIDIOSTATS ID#: D012523

Sarcodina Infections

Definition: Infections with protozoa of the subphylum SARCODINA. Annotation: protozoan infect; GEN or unspecified; most common infect is AMEBIASIS or its specifics ID#: D016775


Definition: An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands. Annotation: coord IM with organ/dis precoord (IM); sarcoidosis of heart: coord IM with MYOCARDIAL DISEASES (IM), not HEART DISEASES ID#: D012507

Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary

Definition: Sarcoidosis affecting predominantly the lungs, the site most frequently involved and most commonly causing morbidity and mortality in sarcoidosis. Pulmonary sarcoidosis is characterized by sharply circumscribed granulomas in the alveolar, bronchial, and vascular walls, composed of tightly packed cells derived from the mononuclear phagocyte system. The clinical symptoms when present are dyspnea upon exertion, nonproductive cough, and wheezing. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p431) Annotation: DF: SARCOIDOSIS PULM ID#: D017565


Definition: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM); SARCOMA, EXPERIMENTAL is also available ID#: D012509

Sarcoma 180

Definition: Annotation: exper neopl; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; don't forget check tag ANIMAL ID#: D012510

Sarcoma 37

Definition: Annotation: exper neopl; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; don't forget check tag ANIMAL ID#: D012511

Sarcoma, Alveolar Soft Part

Definition: A variety of sarcoma having a reticulated fibrous stroma enclosing groups of sarcoma cells, which resemble epithelial cells and are enclosed in alveoli walled with connective tissue. It is a rare tumor, usually occurring between 15 and 35 years of age. It appears in the muscles of the extremities in adults and most commonly in the head and neck region of children. Though slow-growing, it commonly metastasizes to the lungs, brain, bones, and lymph nodes. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1365) Annotation: "alveolar" has nothing to do with pulm alveoli: it refers to sac-like pathol of soft part; /blood /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018234

Sarcoma, Avian

Definition: Connective tissue tumors, affecting primarily fowl, that are usually caused by avian sarcoma viruses. Annotation: caused by a retrovirus; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; don't forget also BIRDS or POULTRY (NIM) or specific bird or fowl (IM); check tag ANIMAL ID#: D001357

Sarcoma, Clear Cell

Definition: A sarcoma of young, often female, adults of the lower extremities and acral regions, intimately bound to tendons as circumscribed but unencapsulated melanin-bearing tumors of neuroectodermal origin. An ultrastructural finding simulates flattened and curved barrel staves, corresponding to the internal structures of premelanosomes. There is a 45-60% mortality in clear cell sarcoma. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018227

Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal

Definition: A highly malignant neoplasm of the endometrium, arising from the endometrial stroma. It represents one type of stromal tumor, the other being endolymphatic stromal myosis. They are differentiated on the basis of the number of mitoses per 10 high power fields: endometrial stromal sarcoma has 10 or more mitoses, endolymphatic stromal myosis fewer. Stroma sarcoma is seen most often between the ages of 45 and 50. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1146) Annotation: coord IM with ENDOMETRIAL NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018203

Sarcoma, Ewing's

Definition: A malignant tumor of the bone which always arises in the medullary tissue, occurring more often in cylindrical bones. There are conspicuous foci of necrosis in association with irregular masses of small, regular, rounded or ovoid cells with very scanty cytoplasm. The tumor occurs usually before the age of 20, about twice as frequently in males as in females. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with BONE NEOPLASMS (IM) or specific bone/neopl term (IM) or specific bone (IM) + BONE NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D012512

Sarcoma, Experimental

Definition: Annotation: animal only; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM or NIM if relevant); don't forget check tag animal; DF: SARCOMA EXPER ID#: D012513

Sarcoma, Granulocytic

Definition: An extramedullary tumor of immature myeloid cells. Granulocytic sarcoma usually occurs with or follows the onset of acute myeloid leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOCYTIC, ACUTE). Annotation: ID#: D023981

Sarcoma, Kaposi

Definition: A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D012514

Sarcoma, Mast-Cell

Definition: Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D012515

Sarcoma, Small Cell

Definition: A sarcoma characterized by the presence of small cells, cells measuring 9-14 micrometers with a faint or indistinct rim of cytoplasm and an oval-to-elongated nucleus with relatively dense chromatin. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992) Annotation: /blood supply /chem/ second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D018228

Sarcoma, Synovial

Definition: A malignant neoplasm arising from tenosynovial tissue of the joints and in synovial cells of tendons and bursae. The legs are the most common site, but the tumor can occur in the abdominal wall and other trunk muscles. There are two recognized types: the monophasic (characterized by sheaths of monotonous spindle cells) and the biphasic (characterized by slit-like spaces or clefts within the tumor, lined by cuboidal or tall columnar epithelial cells). These sarcomas occur most commonly in the second and fourth decades of life. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1363) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D013584

Sarcoma, Yoshida

Definition: Annotation: exper neopl; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; don't forget check tag ANIMAL ID#: D012517

Sarcomastigophora Infections

Definition: Infections with protozoa of the phylum SARCOMASTIGOPHORA. Annotation: protozoan infect; GEN: prefer specifics ID#: D016771


Definition: A contagious cutaneous inflammation caused by the bite of the mite SARCOPTES SCABIEI. It is characterized by pruritic papular eruptions and burrows and affects primarily the axillae, elbows, wrists, and genitalia, although it can spread to cover the entire body. Annotation: mite infest caused by Sarcoptes scabiei ID#: D012532

Scalp Dermatoses

Definition: Annotation: consider synonym for dermatitis of scalp & do not add DERMATITIS unless one of the specific DERMATITIS terms in MeSH; does not include neopl of scalp: see note on SCALP ID#: D012536

Scarlet Fever

Definition: Infection with group A streptococci that is characterized by tonsillitis and pharyngitis. An erythematous rash is commonly present. Annotation: strep infect; also called scarlatina ID#: D012541

Scheuermann's Disease

Definition: Osteochondrosis of the vertebral epiphyses in children. Annotation: a spinal osteochondritis in children ID#: D012544


Definition: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States. (Merck Manual, 15th ed) Annotation: trematode infect; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; /drug ther: consider also SCHISTOSOMICIDES ID#: D012552

Schistosomiasis haematobia

Definition: Schistosomiasis caused by SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM. It is endemic in Africa and parts of the Middle East, and affects the urinary tract. Annotation: for X ref SCHISTOSOMIASIS, URINARY do not coord with URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS; in titles & translations do not capitalize haematobia ID#: D012553

Schistosomiasis japonica

Definition: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum. It is endemic in the Far East and affects the bowel, liver, and spleen, Annotation: in titles and translations do not capitalize japonica ID#: D012554

Schistosomiasis mansoni

Definition: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver. Annotation: for X ref SCHISTOSOMIASIS, INTESTINAL do not coord with INTESTINAL DISEASES, PARASITIC; in titles & translations do not capitalize mansoni ID#: D012555

Schnitzler Syndrome

Definition: An extremely rare condition manifested as monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN M dysproteinemia without features of lymphoproliferative disease, but with chronic urticaria, fever of unknown origin, disabling bone pain, hyperostosis, and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Annotation: ID#: D019873

Sciatic Neuropathy

Definition: Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363) Annotation: ID#: D020426


Definition: A condition characterized by pain radiating from the back into the buttock and posterior/lateral aspects of the leg. Sciatica may be a manifestation of SCIATIC NEUROPATHY; RADICULOPATHY (involving the L4, L5, S1 or S2 SPINAL NERVE ROOTS; often associated with INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT); or lesions of the CAUDA EQUINA. Annotation: do not confuse with BACK PAIN or LUMBAGO see LOW BACK PAIN: use term of text; "lombo-sciatique" in French texts is indexed here (IM) + LOW BACK PAIN (IM) ID#: D012585

Scimitar Syndrome

Definition: Anomalous venous drainage of the right lung into the inferior vena cava, with hypoplasia of the right lung. The scimitar-shaped radiographic shadow of the anomalous vein gives the syndrome its name. Annotation: lung abnorm named from shape of x-ray shadow; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D012587

Scleral Diseases

Definition: General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects. Annotation: inflamm dis = SCLERITIS ID#: D015422

Scleredema Adultorum

Definition: A diffuse, non-pitting induration of the skin of unknown etiology that occurs most commonly in association with diabetes mellitus, predominantly in females. It typically begins on the face or head and spreads to other areas of the body, sometimes involving noncutaneous tissues. Often it is preceded by any of various infections, notably staphylococcal infections. The condition resolves spontaneously, usually within two years of onset. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: induration of skin in diabetes ID#: D012592

Sclerema Neonatorum

Definition: A severe, sometimes fatal, disorder of adipose tissue occurring chiefly in preterm or debilitated infants suffering from an underlying illness and manifested by a diffuse, nonpitting induration of the affected tissue. The skin becomes cold, yellowish, mottled, and inflexible. Annotation: a skin abnorm; adipose tissue dis in preterm or debilitated inf; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D012593


Definition: Refers to any inflammation of the sclera including episcleritis, a benign condition affecting only the episclera, which is generally short-lived and easily treated. Classic scleritis, on the other hand, affects deeper tissue and is characterized by higher rates of visual acuity loss and even mortality, particularly in necrotizing form. Its characteristic symptom is severe and general head pain. Scleritis has also been associated with systemic collagen disease. Etiology is unknown but is thought to involve a local immune response. Treatment is difficult and includes administration of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids. Inflammation of the sclera may also be secondary to inflammation of adjacent tissues, such as the conjunctiva. Annotation: inflamm of sclera; note X ref EPISCLERITIS ID#: D015423

Scleroderma, Circumscribed

Definition: A chronic, localized hardening and thickening of the skin. Lesions may be categorized as morphea (guttate, profunda, pansclerotic) or linear (with or without melorheostosis or hemiatrophy). It is twice as common in women as in men. The condition is characterized by skin ischemia, lymphocytic infiltrates, swollen collagen bundles, and thickening of the dermis with reduction of subcutaneous fat. Annotation: localized hardening & thickening of the skin ID#: D012594

Scleroderma, Systemic

Definition: A chronic, progressive dermatosis characterized by boardlike hardening and immobility of the affected skin, with visceral involvement, especially of lungs, esophagus, kidneys and heart. It may be accompanied by calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, and telangiectasis (CREST syndrome). It includes acrosclerosis and sclerodactyly. Annotation: ID#: D012595


Definition: A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve. Annotation: NIM as pathol process with no qualif: coord with Cat A term /pathol (IM) ID#: D012598


Definition: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a type of spinal curvature ID#: D012600


Definition: A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of EYE DISEASES (e.g., RETINAL DISEASES and GLAUCOMA); OPTIC NERVE DISEASES, and other conditions. Annotation: differentiate from physiol blind spot ( = BLIND SPOT) ID#: D012607


Definition: A fatal disease of the nervous system in sheep and goats, characterized by pruritus, debility, and locomotor incoordination. It is caused by proteinaceous infectious particles called PRIONS. Annotation: a prion dis; usually animal: check tag ANIMAL; if in sheep, coord IM with SHEEP (NIM) but do not index under SHEEP DISEASES; if in goats, coord IM with GOAT DISEASES (IM) & GOATS (NIM) ID#: D012608

Screw Worm Infection

Definition: Infection with larvae of the blow fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Callitroga americanum), a common cause of disease in livestock in the southern and southwestern U.S.A. Annotation: caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax ( = DIPTERA) ID#: D012610

Scrub Typhus

Definition: An acute infectious disease caused by ORIENTIA TSUTSUGAMUSHI. It is limited to eastern and southeastern Asia, India, northern Australia, and the adjacent islands. Characteristics include the formation of a primary cutaneous lesion at the site of the bite of an infected mite, fever lasting about two weeks, and a maculopapular rash. Annotation: caused by ORIENTIA TSUTSUGAMUSHI ID#: D012612


Definition: A condition due to deficiency of ASCORBIC ACID (vitamin C) in the diet and marked by weakness, anemia, spongy gums, a tendency to mucocutaneous hemorrhages and a brawny induration of the muscles of the calves and legs. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: ID#: D012614

Sea-Blue Histiocyte Syndrome

Definition: Rare disorder consisting of splenomegaly, mild purpura secondary to thrombocytopenia, and occasionally, hepatic cirrhosis associated with the appearance of numerous histiocytes in the spleen and bone marrow which stain a sea-blue color. Annotation: ID#: D012618

Sebaceous Gland Diseases

Definition: Diseases of the sebaceous glands such as sebaceous hyperplasia and sebaceous cell carcinoma (SEBACEOUS GLAND NEOPLASMS). Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; DF: SEBACEOUS GLAND DIS ID#: D012625

Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms

Definition: Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D012626

Secernentea Infections

Definition: Infections with nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Annotation: nematode infect ID#: D017190


Definition: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder." Annotation: unspecified seizures: note specifics; audiogenic or acoustic seizures = REFLEX EPILEPSY, AUDIOGENIC SEIZURES; FEBRILE is also available ID#: D012640

Seizures, Febrile

Definition: Seizures that occur during a febrile episode. It is a common condition, affecting 2-5% of children aged 3 months to five years. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance has been identified in some families. The majority are simple febrile seizures (generally defined as generalized onset, single seizures with a duration of less than 30 minutes). Complex febrile seizures are characterized by focal onset, duration greater than 30 minutes, and/or more than one seizure in a 24 hour period. The likelihood of developing epilepsy (i.e., a nonfebrile seizure disorder) following simple febrile seizures is low. Complex febrile seizures are associated with a moderately increased incidence of epilepsy. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p784) Annotation: ID#: D003294


Definition: A radiosensitive, malignant neoplasm of the testis, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. There are three variants: classical (typical), the most common type; anaplastic; and spermatocytic. The classical seminoma is composed of fairly well differentiated sheets or cords of uniform polygonal or round cells (seminoma cells), each cell having abundant clear cytoplasm, distinct cell membranes, a centrally placed round nucleus, and one or more nucleoli. In the female, a grossly and histologically identical neoplasm, known as dysgerminoma, occurs. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with TESTICULAR NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018239

Sensation Disorders

Definition: Disorders of the special senses (i.e., vision, hearing, taste, and smell) or somatosensory system (i.e., afferent components of the peripheral nervous system). Annotation: GEN or unspecified: prefer specifics ID#: D012678


Definition: The presence of pathogenic microorganisms or their toxins in tissues or in the blood. Systemic disease caused by the spread of the microorganisms via the circulating blood is commonly called SEPTICEMIA. (From Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: a type of infect; do not confuse with SEPTICEMIA; SEPSIS SYNDROME is also available ID#: D018805

Sepsis Syndrome

Definition: A systemic response to infection, defined as hypothermia or hyperthermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, a clinically evident focus of infection or positive blood cultures, one or more end organs with either dysfunction or inadequate perfusion, cerebral dysfunction, hypoxemia, increased plasma lactate or unexplained metabolic acidosis, and oliguria. It is one of the most common causes of adult respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, ADULT). (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992) While usually related to infection, it can also be associated with noninfectious insults such as trauma, burns, pancreatitis. (JAMA 1995;273(2):155-6) Annotation: often leads to RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, ADULT ID#: D018746


Definition: Systemic disease associated with the presence and persistence of pathogenic microorganisms or their toxins in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a type of sepsis; GEN or unspecified only: prefer BACTEREMIA; FUNGEMIA; PARASITEMIA or VIREMIA; HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA, a Pasteurella infect, is also available ID#: D012687

Septo-Optic Dysplasia

Definition: A condition resulting from congenital malformations involving the brain. The syndrome of septo-optic dysplasia combines hypoplasia or agenesis of the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM and the OPTIC NERVE. The extent of the abnormalities can vary. Septo-optic dysplasia is often associated with abnormalities of the hypothalamic and other diencephalic structures, and HYPOPITUITARISM. Annotation: ID#: D025962


Definition: Inflammation of a serous membrane. Annotation: ID#: D012700

Serotonin Syndrome

Definition: An adverse drug interaction characterized by altered mental status, autonomic dysfunction, and neuromuscular abnormalities. It is most frequently caused by use of both serotonin reuptake inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, leading to excess serotonin availability in the CNS at the serotonin 1A receptor. Annotation: ID#: D020230

Serratia Infections

Definition: Infections with bacteria of the genus SERRATIA. Annotation: gram-neg bact infect ID#: D016868

Sertoli Cell Tumor

Definition: A rare benign tumor of the testis that histologically resembles the fetal testis. There are three varieties: diffuse stromal, mixed (stromal and epithelial), and tubular (epithelial). Sertoli cells in the epithelial elements may produce estrogen and cause feminization. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with TESTICULAR NEOPLASMS (IM) in male or OVARIAN NEOPLASMS (IM) if in female ID#: D012707

Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor

Definition: An ovarian tumor usually of low-grade malignancy occurring most frequently in the third and fourth decades, with 75% seen in women under 40. It is rare, representing less than .02% of ovarian cancers. The tumor typically produces androgens with virilization being noted in 70-85% of the patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1684) Annotation: coord IM with OVARIAN NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018310

Serum Sickness

Definition: Immune complex disease caused by the administration of foreign serum or serum proteins and characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, and urticaria. When they are complexed to protein carriers, some drugs can also cause serum sickness when they act as haptens inducing antibody responses. Annotation: an immune complex dis ID#: D012713


Definition: Infection with nematodes of the genus SETARIA. This condition is usually seen in cattle and equines and is of little pathogenic significance, although migration of the worm to the eye may lead to blindness. Annotation: /drug ther: consider FILARICIDES ID#: D012719

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

Definition: Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. About half of the patients with autosomal recessive SCID are deficient in the enzyme adenosine deaminase. Annotation: immunol defic in newborn inf; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; DF: note short X ref ID#: D016511

Sex Chromosome Disorders

Definition: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS) in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; coord IM with specific sex chromosome (IM) ID#: D025064

Sex Cord-Stromal Tumor

Definition: A malignant neoplasm of the ovary or testis. These tumors differentiate toward sex cords (in embryonic gonads) in the form of female (i.e., granulosa and theca) cells, male (i.e., Sertoli and Leydig) cells, or indifferent elements. In the ovary, sex cord-stromal tumors comprise 5% of all ovarian neoplasms. In the testes, Leydig and Sertoli cell tumors comprise about 5% of all testicular neoplasms, 10% of which behave in a malignant fashion. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with TESTICULAR NEOPLASMS (IM) in male or OVARIAN NEOPLASMS (IM) if in female ID#: D018312

Sex Differentiation Disorders

Definition: Disorders in the differentiation process of gonadal tissues and organs during embryogenesis. Annotation: organic in nature: differentiate from SEX DISORDERS (related to coitus); do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; DF: SEX DIFFER DIS ID#: D012734

Sex Disorders

Definition: Physiological disturbances in normal sexual performance. Annotation: related to coitus: differentiate from SEX DIFFERENTIATION DISORDERS (gonadal) ID#: D012735

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Definition: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES, BACTERIAL & SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES, VIRAL are also available; not all genital diseases are venereal or sexually transm & not all sexually transm diseases are genital; contact tracing: index under CONTACT TRACING (IM) + SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES /epidemiol or /transm (IM); DF: SEX TRANSM DIS ID#: D012749

Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial

Definition: Bacterial diseases transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct. Annotation: GEN: prefer specifics; DF: SEX TRANSM DIS BACT ID#: D015231

Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral

Definition: Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct. Annotation: GEN: prefer specifics; DF: SEX TRANSM DIS VIRAL ID#: D015229

Sezary Syndrome

Definition: A form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma manifested by generalized exfoliative erythroderma, intense pruritus, peripheral lymphadenopathy, and abnormal hyperchromatic mononuclear cells in the skin, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood (Sezary cells). (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a form of T-cell lymphoma of the skin; coord IM with SKIN NEOPLASMS (IM); spell in titles & translations with accent: Sézary ID#: D012751

Sheep Diseases

Definition: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis. Annotation: IM GEN or unspecified; coord IM with specific dis /vet (IM) or specific sheep dis (IM); for abnormalities or injuries, index under SHEEP /abnorm or SHEEP /inj; don't forget also SHEEP (NIM) & check tag ANIMAL; DF: SHEEP DIS ID#: D012757


Definition: A pathological condition that can suddenly affect the hemodynamic equilibrium, usually manifested by failure to perfuse or oxygenate vital organs. Annotation: therapy of shock = SHOCK /ther, not SHOCK THERAPY (see ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY), a psychother technique; note TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME see SHOCK, SEPTIC is available ID#: D012769

Shock, Cardiogenic

Definition: Shock resulting from diminution of cardiac output in heart disease. Annotation: ID#: D012770

Shock, Hemorrhagic

Definition: Acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss resulting in HYPOVOLEMIA. Annotation: HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK does not go here: it is a see ref to SHOCK ID#: D012771

Shock, Septic

Definition: Shock due to circulatory insufficiency caused most commonly by gram-negative BACTEREMIA. It is less often the result of the persistent presence of other micro-organisms in the blood (FUNGEMIA; VIREMIA); in rare instances, it is caused by gram-positive organisms, but with different symptomatology. Annotation: coord (IM) with specific infect (IM) ID#: D012772

Shock, Surgical

Definition: A type of shock that occurs as a result of a surgical procedure. Annotation: ID#: D012773

Shock, Traumatic

Definition: Shock produced as a result of trauma. Annotation: ID#: D012774

Short Bowel Syndrome

Definition: A malabsorption syndrome resulting from extensive operative resection of small bowel. Annotation: ID#: D012778

Short Rib-Polydactyly Syndrome

Definition: A syndrome inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and incompatible with life. The main features are narrow thorax, short ribs, scapular and pelvic dysplasia, and polydactyly. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; do not confuse X ref with NOONAN SYNDROME, the male Turner syndrome ID#: D012779

Shoulder Dislocation

Definition: Annotation: disloc of humerus from shoulder joint; acromioclavicular disloc = ACROMIOCLAVICULAR JOINT + DISLOCATIONS ID#: D012783

Shoulder Fractures

Definition: Fractures of the proximal humerus, including the head, anatomic and surgical necks, and tuberosities. Annotation: refers to SHOULDER, not SHOULDER JOINT; restricted to fract of proximal humerus (head, neck, tuberosities): do not confuse with HUMERAL FRACTURES (non-head, etc.) ID#: D012784

Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

Definition: Compression of the rotator cuff tendons and subacromial bursa between the humeral head and structures that make up the coracoacromial arch and the humeral tuberosities. This condition is associated with subacromial bursitis and rotator cuff (largely supraspinatus) and bicipital tendon inflammation, with or without degenerative changes in the tendon. Pain that is most severe when the arm is abducted in an arc between 40 and 120 degrees, sometimes associated with tears in the rotator cuff, is the chief symptom. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes and Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed) Annotation: ID#: D019534

Shoulder Pain

Definition: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin. Annotation: ID#: D020069

Shwartzman Phenomenon

Definition: A vasculitis, local or systemic, caused by a two-stage reaction in which a first encounter with endotoxin produces intravascular fibrin thrombi whose clearance results in reticuloendothelial blockade which prevents the clearance of thrombi caused by a second encounter with endotoxin, (or a variety of polyanions, glycogen or antigen/antibody complexes) resulting in tissue necrosis and/or hemorrhage. In pregnancy gram-negative septicemia during delivery or abortion may serve as the first or provocative encounter. Annotation: ID#: D012790

Shy-Drager Syndrome

Definition: A progressive neurodegenerative condition of the central and autonomic nervous systems characterized by atrophy of the preganglionic lateral horn neurons of the thoracic spinal cord, which differentiates this condition from other forms of idiopathic orthostatic hypotension (HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC). This disease is generally considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Affected individuals present in the fifth or sixth decade with orthostasis and bladder dysfunction; and later develop FECAL INCONTINENCE; anhidrosis; ATAXIA; IMPOTENCE; and alterations of tone suggestive of basal ganglia dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p536) Annotation: ID#: D012791


Definition: Annotation: salivary gland inflammation, also called sialitis; tuberc sialitis: coord IM with TUBERCULOSIS, ORAL (IM) ID#: D012793

Sialic Acid Storage Disease

Definition: Autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders caused by lysosomal membrane transport defects that result in accumulation of free sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) within the lysosomes. The two main clinical phenotypes, which are allelic variants of the SLC17A5 gene, are ISSD, a severe infantile form, or Salla disease, a slowly progressive adult form, named for the geographic area in Finland where the kindred first studied resided. Annotation: ID#: D029461

Sialometaplasia, Necrotizing

Definition: A benign, inflammatory, variably ulcerated, occasionally bilateral, self-healing lesion of the minor salivary glands that is often confused clinically and histologically with carcinoma. Annotation: benign inflamm self-healing lesions of minor salivary glands ID#: D012797


Definition: Increased salivary flow. Annotation: "increased salivary flow" ID#: D012798

Sick Building Syndrome

Definition: A group of symptoms that are two- to three-fold more common in those who work in large, energy-efficient buildings, associated with an increased frequency of headaches, lethargy, and dry skin. Clinical manifestations include hypersensitivity pneumonitis (ALVEOLITIS, EXTRINSIC ALLERGIC); allergic rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL); ASTHMA; infections, skin eruptions, and mucous membrane irritation syndromes. Current usage tends to be less restrictive with regard to the type of building and delineation of complaints. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992) Annotation: coord IM with specific manifest if pertinent (IM) ID#: D018877

Sick Sinus Syndrome

Definition: Dysfunction of the sinoatrial node manifested by persistent sinus bradycardia, sinus arrest, sinoatrial exit block, chronic atrial fibrillation and inability of the heart to resume sinus rhythm following cardioversion for atrial fibrillation. Annotation: sinus refers to sinoatrial node ID#: D012804

Sickle Cell Trait

Definition: The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S. Annotation: ID#: D012805


Definition: The deposition of iron in a tissue. In the eye, the iron may be deposited in the stroma adjacent to the Descemet's membrane. Annotation: tissue deposition of iron; do not coord with OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES ID#: D012806

Sigmoid Diseases

Definition: Annotation: inflamm dis: coord IM with COLITIS (NIM) but note PROCTOSIGMOIDITIS see PROCTOCOLITIS & RECTOSIGMOIDITIS see PROCTOCOLITIS; diverticula & diverticulosis: coord IM with DIVERTICULUM, COLON (IM); diverticulitis: coord IM with DIVERTICULITIS, COLONIC (IM) ID#: D012810

Sigmoid Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the SIGMOID. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D012811

Signs and Symptoms

Definition: Clinical manifestations that can be either objective when observed by a physician, or subjective when perceived by the patient. Annotation: not used for indexing ID#: D012816

Signs and Symptoms, Digestive

Definition: Digestive system manifestations of diseases of the gastrointestinal system or of other organs. Annotation: not used for indexing or cataloging; see specific digestive diseases in C6 ID#: D012817

Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory

Definition: Respiratory system manifestations of diseases of the respiratory tract or of other organs. Annotation: not used for indexing ID#: D012818


Definition: Pneumoconiosis due to the inhalation of dust of stone, sand, or flint containing silicon dioxide, with formation of generalized, nodular fibrotic changes in both lungs. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: pneumoconiosis from silicon dioxide (in stone, sand, flint); do not use /chem ind for dust causing this dis: use /etiol; ANTHRACOSILICOSIS & SILICOTUBERCULOSIS are also available; do not coord with OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES ID#: D012829


Definition: Tuberculosis of the silicotic lung. Annotation: tuberc in the silicotic lung; do not coord with OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES ID#: D012830

Silo Filler's Disease

Definition: Pneumonia or bronchiolitis caused by inhalation of nitrogen dioxide released by silage. Annotation: agric worker's pneumonia or bronchiolitis from silage inhalation ID#: D012832

Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

Definition: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIV. Annotation: coord IM with RETROVIRUSES, SIMIAN or a specific (IM) or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS (IM) or SIV (IM) if pertinent; DF: note short X ref ID#: D016097

Sinoatrial Block

Definition: Disturbance of heart conduction in which the atrial response is delayed or omitted because of partial or complete interference with the propagation of impulses from the sinoatrial node to the atria. Annotation: ID#: D012848

Sinus Pericranii

Definition: Rare vascular anomaly involving an abnormal communication between the extracranial and intracranial circulations involving the venous dura sinuses. It is often present in childhood and can be congenital or traumatic in origin. Annotation: ID#: D020779

Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial

Definition: Thrombus formation in an intracranial venous sinus, including the superior sagittal, cavernous, lateral, and petrous sinuses. Etiologies include thrombosis due to infection, DEHYDRATION, coagulation disorders (see THROMBOPHILIA), and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Annotation: note specific indentions ID#: D012851


Definition: An inflammatory process of the mucous membranes of the paranasal sinuses that occurs in three stages: acute, subacute, and chronic. Sinusitis results from any condition causing ostial obstruction or from pathophysiologic changes in the mucociliary transport mechanism. Annotation: IM; sinusitis of specific sinus is also available (e.g., ETHMOID SINUSITIS) ID#: D012852

Situs Inversus

Definition: Lateral transposition of the viscera of the thorax and abdomen. It has a familial pattern and consanguineous parents have been reported. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: lateral transposition of the viscera; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D012857

Sjogren's Syndrome

Definition: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis. Annotation: a form of rheum arthritis; do not confuse with SJOGREN-LARSSON SYNDROME, a form of ichthyosis; in titles & translations, use diacrit: Sjogren ID#: D012859

Sjogren-Larsson Syndrome

Definition: Rare syndrome of autosomal recessive inheritance characterized by ichthyosis, mental retardation, and spastic pyramidal symptoms. It is associated with a defect in fatty alcohol metabolism. Annotation: a type of ichthyosis: do not confuse with SJOGREN'S SYNDROME; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; in titles & translations use diacrit: Sjögren-Larsson ID#: D016111

Skin Abnormalities

Definition: Congenital structural abnormalities of the skin. Annotation: for congen struct abnorm only; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; DF: SKIN ABNORM ID#: D012868

Skin and Connective Tissue Diseases

Definition: A collective term for diseases of the skin and its appendages and of connective tissue. Annotation: not used for indexing; DF: SKIN CONNECTIVE TISSUE DIS CATALOG: do not use ID#: D017437

Skin Diseases

Definition: Annotation: GEN: prefer specifics; X ref DERMATOSES is sometimes used loosely for "dermatitis", strictly speaking an inflamm dis: check text carefully; /drug ther: consider also DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS; inflamm dis = DERMATITIS & its specifics; dryness of skin goes here: do not interpret as XERODERMA see ICHTHYOSIS without clues from text; also available are FACIAL DERMATOSES; FOOT DERMATOSES; HAND DERMATOSES; LEG DERMATOSES & SCALP DERMATOSES ID#: D012871

Skin Diseases, Bacterial

Definition: Skin diseases caused by bacteria. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; coord IM with precoord bact infect (IM) ID#: D017192

Skin Diseases, Eczematous

Definition: Any of a variety of eruptive skin disorders characterized by erythema, oozing, vesiculation, and scaling. Etiology is varied. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer ECZEMA or specific eczematous skin dis ID#: D017443

Skin Diseases, Genetic

Definition: Diseases of the skin with a genetic component, usually the result of various inborn errors of metabolism. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; DF: SKIN DIS GENET ID#: D012873

Skin Diseases, Infectious

Definition: Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; coord IM with specific infect dis (IM) + site (NIM) but note precoord site terms in note on SKIN DISEASES; bacterial = SKIN DISEASES, BACTERIAL, viral = SKIN DISEASES, VIRAL, parasitic = SKIN DISEASES, PARASITIC, fungal = DERMATOMYCOSES ID#: D012874

Skin Diseases, Metabolic

Definition: Diseases of the skin associated with underlying metabolic disorders. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; DF: SKIN DIS METAB ID#: D012875

Skin Diseases, Papulosquamous

Definition: A group of dermatoses with distinct morphologic features. The primary lesion is most commonly a papule, usually erythematous, with a variable degree of scaling on the surface. Plaques form through the coalescing of primary lesions. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D017444

Skin Diseases, Parasitic

Definition: Skin diseases caused by arthropods, helminths, or protozoa. Annotation: IM; coord with specific parasitic dis (IM) + site (NIM) but see precoord site terms in note under SKIN DISEASES; ECTOPARASITIC INFESTATIONS is available for parasites on or within the skin ID#: D012876

Skin Diseases, Vascular

Definition: Skin diseases affecting or involving the cutaneous blood vessels and generally manifested as inflammation, swelling, erythema, or necrosis in the affected area. Annotation: note X ref: livedo reticularis + cerebrovasc disord = SNEDDON SYNDROME ID#: D017445

Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous

Definition: Skin diseases characterized by local or general distributions of blisters. They are classified according to the site and mode of blister formation. Lesions can appear spontaneously or be precipitated by infection, trauma, or sunlight. Etiologies include immunologic and genetic factors. (From Scientific American Medicine, 1990) Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; do not confuse X ref SNEDDON-WILKINSON DISEASE with SNEDDON SYNDROME ID#: D012872

Skin Diseases, Viral

Definition: Skin diseases caused by viruses. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; coord IM with precoord viral infect (IM) ID#: D017193

Skin Manifestations

Definition: Dermatologic disorders attendant upon non-dermatologic disease or injury. Annotation: not used for indexing since 1989; prior to 1989 used for skin manifest of non-skin diseases ID#: D012877

Skin Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neoplasm (IM); coord also with site (NIM) if merely locational but for neoplasms of the head or neck, coord IM with HEAD AND NECK NEOPLASMS or specifics (IM) ID#: D012878

Skin Ulcer

Definition: Annotation: ID#: D012883

Skull Base Neoplasms

Definition: Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS). Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with specific histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D019292

Skull Fracture, Basilar

Definition: Fractures which extend through the base of the SKULL, usually involving the PETROUS BONE. Battle's sign (characterized by skin discoloration due to extravasation of blood into the subcutaneous tissue behind the ear and over the mastoid process), CRANIAL NEUROPATHIES, TRAUMATIC; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OTORRHEA are relatively frequent sequelae of this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p876) Annotation: coord (IM) with specific bone in the skull/inj (IM) if pertinent ID#: D020205

Skull Fracture, Depressed

Definition: A skull fracture characterized by inward depression of a fragment or section of cranial bone, often compressing the underlying dura mater and brain. Depressed cranial fractures which feature open skin wounds that communicate with skull fragments are referred to as compound depressed skull fractures. Annotation: coord (IM) with specific bone in the skull/inj (IM) if pertinent ID#: D020204

Skull Fractures

Definition: Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED). Annotation: GEN; fractures of specific bones of the skull: coord IM with specific bone/inj (IM) ID#: D012887

Skull Neoplasms

Definition: Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull. Annotation: of bony part of skull only: do not confuse with HEAD AND NECK NEOPLASMS or FACIAL NEOPLASMS; "intracranial tumors" is probably BRAIN NEOPLASMS, not SKULL NEOPLASMS; GEN: prefer specifics; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM); SKULL BASE NEOPLASMS is also available ID#: D012888

Sleep Apnea Syndromes

Definition: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APENA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types. Annotation: DF: SLEEP APNEA ID#: D012891

Sleep Apnea, Central

Definition: A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28) Annotation: ID#: D020182

Sleep Apnea, Obstructive

Definition: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac ARRHYTHMIA and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395) Annotation: ID#: D020181

Slow Virus Diseases

Definition: Diseases of viral origin, characterized by incubation periods of months to years, insidious onset of clinical manifestations, and protracted clinical course. Though the disease process is protracted, viral multiplication may not be unusually slow. Conventional viruses produce slow virus diseases such as SUBACUTE SCLEROSING PANENCEPHALITIS, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL), and AIDS. Diseases produced by unconventional agents were originally considered part of this group. They are now called PRION DISEASES. Annotation: caused by viruses incubating months to years; some dis formerly called slow virus dis are now considered prion dis: see note there; GEN or unspecified: prefer specifics ID#: D012897


Definition: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed) Annotation: caused by a poxvirus ID#: D012899

Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome

Definition: Autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies including microcephaly, mental retardation, unusual facies, and genital abnormalities. The biochemical defect is a lack of 7-dehydrocholesterol-delta-7-reductase, resulting in abnormally high levels of 7-dehydrocholesterol and low levels of cholesterol. Annotation: an inborn error of lipid metab; the syndrome is named for the authors first describing it, the X ref RSH SYNDROME refers to the initials of the surnames of the first 3 patients ID#: D019082

Smoke Inhalation Injury

Definition: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients. Annotation: BURNS, INHALATION is also available; DF: SMOKE INHAL INJ ID#: D015208

Smooth Muscle Tumor

Definition: A tumor composed of smooth muscle tissue, as opposed to leiomyoma, a tumor derived from smooth muscle. Annotation: a specific histol type: do not confuse with NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE, a group histol term, or with LEIOMYOMA (see MeSH definition); /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM); restricted use: Manual ID#: D018235

Snake Bites

Definition: Bites by snakes. The condition of having been bitten by a venomous snake, characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous) Annotation: IM; coord with specific available snake family or genus (IM); ther with antivenins is /ther, not /drug ther ID#: D012909

Sneddon Syndrome

Definition: A systemic non-inflammatory arteriopathy primarily of middle-aged females characterized by the association of livedo reticularis, multiple thrombotic CEREBRAL INFARCTION; CORONARY DISEASE, and HYPERTENSION. Elevation of antiphospholipid antibody titers (see also ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME), cardiac valvulopathy, ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and chronic ischemia of the extremities may also occur. Pathologic examination of affected arteries reveals non-inflammatory adventitial fibrosis, thrombosis, and changes in the media. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p861; Arch Neurol 1997 Jan;54(1):53-60) Annotation: do not confuse with SNEDDON-WILKINSON DISEASE see SKIN DISEASES, VESICULOBULLOUS ID#: D018860


Definition: Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate. Annotation: note category ID#: D012913

Soft Tissue Infections

Definition: Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688) Annotation: GEN or unspecified soft tissue; coord IM with organism/infect precoord (IM); DF: SOFT TISSUE INFECT ID#: D018461

Soft Tissue Injuries

Definition: Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand". Annotation: IM GEN or unspecified; coord NIM with specific organ or region /inj (IM); DF: SOFT TISSUE INJ ID#: D017695

Soft Tissue Neoplasms

Definition: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc. Annotation: neoplasms located in soft (connective) tissue, NOT neoplasms composed of soft tissue; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term or site (IM) ID#: D012983

Somatosensory Disorders

Definition: Disorders of sensory information received from superficial and deep regions of the body. The somatosensory system conveys neural impulses which pertain to proprioception, tactile sensation, thermal sensation, pressure sensation, and pain. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and BRAIN DISEASES may be associated with impaired or abnormal somatic sensation. Annotation: GEN: prefer specifics ID#: D020886


Definition: A rare somatostatin-secreting tumor of pancreatic delta cells associated with diabetes mellitus or abnormal glucose tolerance. It is also found in the intestine. Of the reported primary tumors, 60% were found in the pancreas and 40% in the duodenum or jejunum. Most patients were between 40 and 60 years of age with a 2:1 ratio of females to males. (Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp1197-1200) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with PANCREATIC NEOPLASMS (IM) or other precoord organ/neopl term (IM) if primary; this is a delta cell tumor ID#: D013005

Space Motion Sickness

Definition: Disorder characterized by nausea, vomiting, and dizziness, possibly in response to vestibular disorientation or fluid shifts associated with space flight. (From Webster's New World Dictionary) Annotation: caused by space flight ID#: D018489


Definition: Infection of animals, including fish and man, with a developmental stage of Diphyllobothrium. This stage has recently been referred to as a plerocercoid but the name sparganum has persisted. Therefore, infection of fish or other animals with the plerocercoid larvae is sparganosis. Fish-eating mammals, including man, are the final hosts. Annotation: tapeworm infect; see note under SPARGANUM; infect at larval stage: DIPHYLLOBOTHRIASIS is infect by adult ID#: D013031


Definition: An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL) or smooth muscle (MUSCLE, SMOOTH). Annotation: GEN or unspecified only; coord IM with specific organ/dis (IM); spasms in infants: index SPASMS, INFANTILE if an epileptic seizure (see MeSH definition) or SPASM + INFANT if non-epileptic such as in tetany or vitamin defic; "facial spasm" = SPASM (IM) + FACIAL MUSCLES (IM) but "hemifacial spasm" = HEMIFACIAL SPASM; also available are BRONCHIAL SPASM & ESOPHAGEAL SPASM, DIFFUSE ID#: D013035

Spasms, Infantile

Definition: An epileptic syndrome characterized by the triad of infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia, and arrest of psychomotor development at seizure onset. The majority present between 3-12 months of age, with spasms consisting of combinations of brief flexor or extensor movements of the head, trunk, and limbs. The condition is divided into two forms: cryptogenic (idiopathic) and symptomatic (secondary to a known disease process such as intrauterine infections; nervous system abnormalities; BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC, INBORN; prematurity; perinatal asphyxia; TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS; etc.). (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp744-8) Annotation: epileptic seizures only: do not confuse with SPASM + INFANT for non-epileptic seizures in inf such as in tetany or vitamin defic; check tag INFANT or INFANT, NEWBORN ID#: D013036

Spastic Paraplegia, Hereditary

Definition: A group of inherited diseases that share similar phenotypes but are genetically diverse. Different genetic loci for autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and x-linked forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia have been identified. Clinically, patients present with slowly progessive distal limb weakness and lower extremity spasticity. Peripheral sensory neurons may be affected in the later stages of the disease. (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Jan;64(1):61-6; Curr Opin Neurol 1997 Aug;10(4):313-8) Annotation: coord with GENES, DOMINANT or GENES, RECESSIVE if discussed ID#: D015419

Speech Disorders

Definition: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language. Annotation: /ther: consider also SPEECH THERAPY; do not confuse with LANGUAGE DISORDERS: read differentiation of SPEECH & LANGUAGE under SPEECH ID#: D013064

Spermatic Cord Torsion

Definition: Torsion of the spermatic cord caused usually by incomplete attachment of the epididymis to the testis or by inclusion of the cord within the tunica vaginalis. Faulty development of various anatomical components of the testes is also a cause. It occurs most frequently in childhood and adolescence. (From Current Medical Information & Terminology, 5th ed) Annotation: ID#: D013086


Definition: A cystic distention of the epididymis or the rete testis containing spermatozoa. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: epididymis cyst containing sperm ID#: D013088

Sphenoid Sinusitis

Definition: Inflammation of the sphenoid sinus. This condition usually is accompanied by pansinusitis and may present itself in an acute or chronic form. Annotation: ID#: D015524

Spherocytosis, Hereditary

Definition: A familial congenital hemolytic anemia characterized by numerous abnormally shaped erythrocytes which are generally spheroidal. The erythrocytes have increased osmotic fragility and are abnormally permeable to sodium ions. Annotation: a congen hemolytic anemia; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D013103


Definition: A group of inherited metabolic disorders characterized by an excessive intra-lysosomal deposition of glycosphingolipids and phosphosphingolipids in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and, to a variable degree, in visceral structures. Clinical features vary with the specific subtype of the disease, but common features include progressive deterioration in psychomotor and visual function. (From Arch Neurol 1998 Aug;55(8):1055-6; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p89) Annotation: ID#: D013106

Spina Bifida Cystica

Definition: A form of spinal dysraphism associated with a protruding cyst made up of either meninges (i.e., a MENINGOCELE) or meninges in combination with spinal cord tissue (i.e., a MENINGOMYELOCELE). These lesions are frequently associated with spinal cord dysfunction, HYDROCEPHALUS, and SYRINGOMYELIA. (From Davis et al., Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp224-5) Annotation: ID#: D016137

Spina Bifida Occulta

Definition: A common congenital midline defect of fusion of the vertebral arch without protrusion of the spinal cord or meninges. The lesion is also covered by skin. L5 and S1 are the most common vertebrae involved. The condition may be associated with an overlying area of hyperpigmented skin, a dermal sinus, or an abnormal patch of hair. The majority of individuals with this malformation are asymptomatic although there is an increased incidence of tethered cord syndrome and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34) Annotation: ID#: D016136

Spinal Cord Compression

Definition: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence. Annotation: coord IM with specific vertebrae (NIM) to locate site on spinal cord; not for "cauda equina syndrome": use CAUDA EQUINA (IM) + NERVE COMPRESSION SYNDROMES (IM) ID#: D013117

Spinal Cord Diseases

Definition: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord. Annotation: coord IM with specific vertebrae (NIM) to locate site on spinal cord; inflamm dis of spinal cord= MYELITIS ID#: D013118

Spinal Cord Injuries

Definition: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.). Annotation: coord IM with specific vertebra (NIM) to locate site on spinal cord ID#: D013119

Spinal Cord Ischemia

Definition: Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue. Annotation: ID#: D020760

Spinal Cord Neoplasms

Definition: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM); coord IM with specific vertebrae (NIM) to locate site on spinal cord ID#: D013120

Spinal Cord Vascular Diseases

Definition: Hypoxic-ischemic and hemorrhagic disorders of the spinal cord. ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, emboli, and vascular malformations are potential causes of these conditions. Annotation: ID#: D020758

Spinal Curvatures

Definition: Deviations of the spine from its normal direction or position. (Dorland, 28th ed) Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D013121

Spinal Diseases

Definition: Annotation: coord IM with specific vertebrae (IM) ID#: D013122

Spinal Dysraphism

Definition: Congenital defects of closure of one or more vertebral arches, which may be associated with malformations of the spinal cord, nerve roots, congenital fibrous bands, lipomas, and congenital cysts. These malformations range from mild (e.g., SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA) to severe, including rachischisis where there is complete failure of neural tube and spinal cord fusion, resulting in exposure of the spinal cord at the surface. Spinal dysraphism includes all forms of spina bifida. The open form is called SPINA BIFIDA CYSTICA and the closed form is SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34) Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D016135

Spinal Fractures

Definition: Broken bones in the vertebral column. Annotation: coord IM with specific vertebrae /inj (IM) ID#: D016103

Spinal Injuries

Definition: Injuries involving the vertebral column. Annotation: do not confuse with SPINAL CORD INJURIES; GEN only, vertebrae unspecified ID#: D013124

Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood

Definition: A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive. (J Med Genet 1996 Apr:33(4):281-3) Annotation: infantile, childhood or adolescent: for other, MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL is available ID#: D014897

Spinal Neoplasms

Definition: Annotation: do not confuse with SPINAL CORD NEOPLASMS; coord IM with specific vertebrae (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM); /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted ID#: D013125

Spinal Osteophytosis

Definition: Outgrowth of immature bony processes from the vertebrae, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It includes cervical and lumbar spondylosis. Annotation: coord IM with specific vertebrae (IM) ID#: D013128

Spinal Stenosis

Definition: Narrowing of the spinal canal. Annotation: "narrowing of the spinal canal"; do not use vertebra headings to locate level of spinal canal ID#: D013130

Spinocerebellar Ataxias

Definition: A group of dominantly inherited, predominantly late-onset, cerebellar ataxias which have been divided into multiple subtypes based on clinical features and genetic mapping. Progressive ataxia is a central feature of these conditions, and in certain subtypes POLYNEUROPATHY; DYSARTHRIA; visual loss; and other disorders may develop. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch65, pp 12-17; J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1998 Jun;57(6):531-43) Annotation: SPINOCEREBELLAR ATAXIA TYPE 3 see MACHADO-JOSEPH DISEASE is available ID#: D020754

Spinocerebellar Degenerations

Definition: A heterogenous group of degenerative syndromes marked by progressive cerebellar dysfunction either in isolation or combined with other neurologic manifestations. Sporadic and inherited subtypes occur. Inheritance patterns include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked. Annotation: ID#: D013132

Spirochaetales Infections

Definition: Infections with bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES. Annotation: infect by "spirochetes"; GEN or unspecified only: prefer specific spirochete infection ID#: D013145

Spirurida Infections

Definition: Infections with nematodes of the order SPIRURIDA. Annotation: ID#: D017205

Splenic Diseases

Definition: Annotation: ID#: D013158

Splenic Infarction

Definition: Insufficiency of arterial or venous blood supply to the spleen due to emboli, thrombi, vascular torsion, or pressure that produces a macroscopic area of necrosis. (From Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: DF: SPLENIC INFARCT ID#: D013159

Splenic Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D013160

Splenic Rupture

Definition: Annotation: traumatic or spontaneous; if spontaneous coord IM with RUPTURE, SPONTANEOUS (NIM); differentiate from traumatic spleen perforation ( = SPLEEN /inj) ID#: D013161


Definition: Enlargement of the spleen. Annotation: do not confuse with HYPERSPLENISM, increase in splenic hemolytic function; IM only if point of article; do not index at all if the usual symptom of a disease; NIM if merely one of many symptoms in article ID#: D013163


Definition: The spontaneous transplantation of splenic tissue to unusual sites after open splenic trauma, e.g., after automobile accidents, gunshot or stab wounds. The splenic pulp implants appear as red-blue nodules on the peritoneum, omentum, and mesentery, morphologically similar to multifocal pelvic endometriosis. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992) Annotation: spontaneous intra-abdom transpl of spleen tissue to other tissue, usually after trauma ID#: D017890


Definition: Arthritis of the spine, specifically involving the intervertebral articulations. Annotation: coord IM with specific vertebrae (IM) ID#: D025241


Definition: Heterogeneous group of arthritic diseases sharing clinical and radiologic features and presence of the HLA-B27 ANTIGEN. Annotation: coord IM with specific vertebrae (IM) ID#: D025242


Definition: Inflammation of the vertebrae. This includes both arthritic and non-arthritic conditions. Annotation: coord IM with specific vertebrae (IM); do not confuse with SPONDYLOSIS see SPINAL OSTEOPHYTOSIS ID#: D013166

Spondylitis, Ankylosing

Definition: The form of rheumatoid arthritis affecting the spine. It occurs predominantly in young males and produces pain and stiffness as a result of inflammation of the sacroiliac, intervertebral, and costovertebral joints. Etiology is unknown. Annotation: coord IM with specific vertebrae (IM) ID#: D013167


Definition: Forward displacement of one vertebra over another. Annotation: "forward displacemt of 1 vertebra over another"; do not confuse with SPONDYLOLYSIS, dissolution of a vertebra; IM; coord with specific vertebra (IM) ID#: D013168


Definition: Dissolution of a vertebra, especially the pars interarticularis. Annotation: "dissolution of a vertebra"; do not confuse with SPONDYLOLISTHESIS, displacemt of 1 vertebra over another; IM; coord with specific vertebra (IM) ID#: D013169


Definition: The commonest and least serious of the deep mycoses, characterized by nodular lesions of the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues. It is caused by inhalation of contaminated dust or by infection of a wound. Annotation: fungus dis of skin ID#: D013174

Sprains and Strains

Definition: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature. Annotation: IM; coord sprain with specific joint /inj (IM) or ligament /inj (IM) & strain with specific muscle /inj (IM); CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS is available; "strain fracture": index under FRACTURES (IM) + CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS (IM); DF: SPRAINS ID#: D013180

Sprue, Tropical

Definition: A malabsorption syndrome occurring in the tropics and subtropics. Protein malnutrition is usually precipitated by the malabsorption, and anemia due to folic acid deficiency is particularly common. Administration of antibiotics (especially tetracycline) and folic acid usually results in remission. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a malabsorpt syndrome; note "tropical": do not confuse with non-tropical sprue which is SPRUE see CELIAC DISEASE ID#: D013182

Staphylococcal Food Poisoning

Definition: Poisoning by staphylococcal toxins present in contaminated food. Annotation: DF: STAPH FOOD POIS ID#: D013202

Staphylococcal Infections

Definition: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS. Annotation: gram-pos bact infect; STAPHYLOCOCCAL FOOD POISONING is also available; DF: STAPH INFECT ID#: D013203

Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome

Definition: A disease of infants due to group 2 phage type 17 staphylococci that produce an epidermolytic exotoxin. Superficial fine vesicles and bullae form and rupture easily, resulting in loss of large sheets of epidermis. Annotation: in inf; do not confuse with another epidermolytic disease: NONSTAPHYLOCOCCAL SCALDED SKIN SYNDROME see EPIDERMAL NECROLYSIS, TOXIC; DF: SSSS ID#: D013206

Staphylococcal Skin Infections

Definition: Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS. Annotation: coord IM with specific STAPHYLOCOCCUS (IM); DF: STAPH SKIN INFECT ID#: D013207


Definition: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: TN 80: definition & relation to FASTING; refeeding after starvation: index refeeding under FOOD if pertinent ID#: D013217

Status Asthmaticus

Definition: A sudden intense and continuous aggravation of a state of asthma, marked by dyspnea to the point of exhaustion and collapse and not responding to the usual therapeutic efforts. Annotation: sudden intense aggravation of asthma ID#: D013224

Status Epilepticus

Definition: A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30) Annotation: note X ref petit mal status: do not confuse with PETIT MAL EPILEPSY see EPILEPSY, ABSENCE ID#: D013226


Definition: A disease of cats and mink characterized by a marked inflammation of adipose tissue and the deposition of "ceroid" pigment in the interstices of the adipose cells. It is believed to be caused by feeding diets containing too much unsaturated fatty acid and too little vitamin E. (Merck Veterinary Manual, 5th ed; Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: inflamm of adipose tissue in cats & minks; coord IM with CAT DISEASES (IM) or MINKS (IM); check tags CATS if cat & ANIMAL for cat or mink ID#: D013231

Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

Definition: A variant of bullous erythema multiforme. It ranges from mild skin and mucous membrane lesions to a severe, sometimes fatal systemic disorder. Ocular symptoms include ulcerative conjunctivitis, keratitis, iritis, uveitis, and sometimes blindness. The cause of the disease is unknown. Annotation: a sometimes fatal form of erythema multiforme ID#: D013262

Stiff-Person Syndrome

Definition: A condition characterized by persistent spasms (SPASM) involving multiple muscles, primarily in the lower limbs and trunk. The illness tends to occur in the fourth to sixth decade of life, presenting with intermittent spasms that become continuous. Minor sensory stimuli, such as noise and light touch, precipitate severe spasms. Spasms do not occur during sleep and only rarely involve cranial muscles. Respiration may become impaired in advance cases. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1492; Neurology 1998 Jul;51(1):85-93) Annotation: ID#: D016750

Still's Disease, Adult-Onset

Definition: Systemic-onset rheumatoid arthritis in adults. It differs from classical rheumatoid arthritis in that it is more often marked by acute febrile onset, and generalized lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly are more prominent. Annotation: a type of rheum arthritis; do not confuse with STILL'S DISEASE, JUVENILE-ONSET see ARTHRITIS, JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ID#: D016706

Stomach Dilatation

Definition: Distention of the stomach with retained secretions, food, and/or gas due to obstruction, ileus, or denervation. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: ID#: D013271

Stomach Diseases

Definition: Annotation: GEN; inflamm dis = GASTRITIS; gastric varix or varices = ESOPHAGEAL AND GASTRIC VARICES & see note there ID#: D013272

Stomach Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM); neopl of ruminant stomach or its parts: coord STOMACH, RUMINANT or indention (IM) with STOMACH NEOPLASMS /vet (IM) + histol type of neopl /vet (IM) ID#: D013274

Stomach Rupture

Definition: Annotation: traumatic or spontaneous; if spontaneous coord IM with RUPTURE, SPONTANEOUS (NIM); differentiate from traumatic stomach perforation ( = STOMACH /inj) ID#: D013275

Stomach Ulcer

Definition: Ulceration of the mucous membrane of the stomach. (From Dorland, 28th ed) Annotation: perforated = STOMACH ULCER /compl (IM) + PEPTIC ULCER PERFORATION (IM); hemorrhage = STOMACH ULCER /compl (IM) + PEPTIC ULCER HEMORRHAGE (IM); "gastroduodenal ulcer" = GASTRODUODENAL ULCER see PEPTIC ULCER ID#: D013276

Stomach Volvulus

Definition: Twisting of the stomach that may result in obstruction and impairment of the blood supply to the organ. It can occur in paraesophageal hernia and occasionally in eventration of the diaphragm. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: twisting of the stomach ID#: D013277


Definition: Inflammation of the oral mucosa, due to local or systemic factors, which may involve the buccal and labial mucosa, palate, tongue, floor of the mouth, and the gingivae. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: inflamm of oral mucosa; mycotic stomatitis = CANDIDIASIS, ORAL; mucositis: coord IM with MOUTH MUCOSA (NIM) ID#: D013280

Stomatitis, Aphthous

Definition: A recurrent disease of the oral mucosa of unknown etiology. It is characterized by small white ulcerative lesions, single or multiple, round or oval. Two to eight crops of lesions occur per year, lasting for 7 to 14 days and then heal without scarring. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p742) Annotation: do not confuse X refs ULCER, APHTHOUS or CANKER SORE with "oral ulcers" ( = ORAL ULCER ) ID#: D013281

Stomatitis, Denture

Definition: Inflammation of the mouth due to denture irritation. Annotation: coord with specific denture /adv eff; unspecified mycotic denture-sore mouth: coord IM with CANDIDIASIS, ORAL (IM) ID#: D013282

Stomatitis, Herpetic

Definition: Stomatitis caused by Herpesvirus hominis. It usually occurs as acute herpetic stomatitis (or gingivostomatitis), an oral manifestation of primary herpes simplex seen primarily in children and adolescents. Annotation: Herpes simplex virus infect of the mouth; "cold sore" & "fever blister" of the mouth go here but of the lips & nares = HERPES LABIALIS ID#: D013283

Stomatognathic Diseases

Definition: General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx. Annotation: includes dis of mouth, teeth, jaws & pharynx; GEN: prefer specifics; index here for "stomatol dis" of foreign lit ID#: D009057

Stomatognathic System Abnormalities

Definition: Congenital structural abnormalities of the mouth and jaws, including the dentition. Annotation: for congen struct abnorm only; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics or specific organ /abnorm; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; DF: STOMATOGNATHIC SYSTEM ABNORM ID#: D018640


Definition: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641) Annotation: ID#: D013285

Streptococcal Infections

Definition: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS. Annotation: gram-pos bact infect; coord IM with species (IM); DF: STREP INFECT ID#: D013290


Definition: A pathological process resulting from the reaction of the body to external forces and abnormal conditions that tend to disturb the organism's homeostasis. Annotation: includes "aggressology" (French: agressologie) & the French "agression"; stress ulcer: index under PEPTIC ULCER or specific (IM) + STRESS or STRESS, PSYCHOLOGICAL (IM or NIM); not for stress in lower animals, plants or microorganisms ID#: D013312

Striatonigral Degeneration

Definition: A sporadic neurodegenerative disease with onset in middle-age characterized clinically by Parkinsonian features (e.g., MUSCLE RIGIDITY; HYPOKINESIA; stooped posture) and HYPOTENSION. This condition is considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Pathologic features include a prominent loss of neurons in the zona compacta of the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and PUTAMEN. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1075-6) Annotation: ID#: D020955

Strongyle Infections, Equine

Definition: Infection of horses with parasitic nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA. Characteristics include the development of hemorrhagic nodules on the abdominal peritoneum. Annotation: nematode infect; don't forget also HORSES (NIM) & check tag ANIMAL; for organism coord IM with STRONGYLUS (NIM) or other genus of superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA & its taxonomic families (NIM) ID#: D013319

Strongylida Infections

Definition: Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA. Annotation: nematode infect ID#: D017206


Definition: Infection with nematodes of the genus STRONGYLOIDES. The presence of larvae may produce pneumonitis and the presence of adult worms in the intestine could lead to moderate to severe diarrhea. Annotation: nematode infect caused by STRONGYLOIDES, not STRONGYLOIDEA ID#: D013322

Struma Ovarii

Definition: A rare teratoid tumor of the ovary composed almost entirely of thyroid tissue, with large follicles containing abundant colloid. Occasionally there are symptoms of hyperthyroidism. 5-10% of struma ovarii become malignant, the only absolute criterion for which is the presence of metastasis. (Dorland, 27th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992) Annotation: benign or malignant; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with OVARIAN NEOPLASMS (IM); struma carcinoid = STRUMA OVARII (IM) + CARCINOID TUMOR (IM) + OVARIAN NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D013330

Sturge-Weber Syndrome

Definition: A congenital syndrome characterized by a port-wine nevus covering portions of the face and cranium (in the distribution of the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE) and angiomas of the meninges and choroid. Clinical manifestations include the onset of focal SEIZURES, progressive hemiparesis, GLAUCOMA, hemianopsia, and cognitive deficits in the first decade of life. By age two years, skull radiographs reveal "tramline calcifications" of the margins of the occipital and parietal lobes. Pathologically cortical neurons are replaced by glial tissue that undergoes calcification. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1018-9) Annotation: ID#: D013341


Definition: A disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech that is inappropriate for the individual's age. This disturbance is characterized by frequent repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables. Various other types of speech dysfluencies may also be involved including interjections, broken words, audible or silent blocking, circumlocutions, words produced with an excess of physical tension, and monosyllabic whole word repetitions. Stuttering may occur as a developmental condition in childhood or as an acquired disorder which may be associated with BRAIN INFARCTIONS and other BRAIN DISEASES. (From DSM-IV, 1994) Annotation: ID#: D013342

Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis

Definition: A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8) Annotation: ID#: D013344

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

Definition: Hemorrhage within the intracranial or spinal subarachnoid space, most often resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture or CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA (see also SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurologic deficits, intraocular subhyaloid hemorrhages, and a reduced level of consciousness which may progress to coma or death. Spasm of intracranial arteries (see VASOSPASM, INTRACRANIAL) frequently accompanies this condition and may lead to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or CEREBRAL INFARCTION. (From N Engl J Med 1997 Jan 2;336(1):28-40) Annotation: ID#: D013345

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Traumatic

Definition: Bleeding into the subarachnoid space following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Minor hemorrhages may be asymptomatic; moderate to severe hemorrhages may be associated with INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION and VASOSPASM, INTRACRANIAL. Annotation: ID#: D020206

Subclavian Steal Syndrome

Definition: A clinically significant reduction in blood supply to the BRAIN STEM and CEREBELLUM (i.e., VERTEBROBASILAR INSUFFICIENCY) resulting from reversal of blood flow through the VERTEBRAL ARTERY from occlusion or stenosis of the proximal subclavian or brachiocephalic artery. Common symptoms include VERTIGO; SYNCOPE; and INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION of the involved upper extremity. Subclavian steal may also occur in asymptomatic individuals. (From J Cardiovasc Surg 1994;35(1):11-4; Acta Neurol Scand 1994;90(3):174-8) Annotation: ID#: D013349

Subcutaneous Emphysema

Definition: Presence of air or gas in the subcutaneous tissues of the body. Annotation: ID#: D013352

Subdural Effusion

Definition: Leakage and accumulation of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID in the subdural space which may be associated with an infectious process; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; INTRACRANIAL HYPOTENSION; and other conditions. Annotation: Coord IM with specific infection (IM) ID#: D013353

Sublingual Gland Neoplasms

Definition: Neoplasms of the sublingual glands. Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D013362

Submandibular Gland Diseases

Definition: Annotation: ID#: D013364

Submandibular Gland Neoplasms

Definition: Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D013365

Subphrenic Abscess

Definition: An abscess beneath the diaphragm. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: for coord read note on ABSCESS ID#: D013369

Sudden Infant Death

Definition: The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84) Annotation: ID#: D013398


Definition: A morbid condition due to the presence of sulfmethemoglobin in the blood. It is marked by persistent cyanosis, but the blood count does not reveal any special abnormality in the blood. It is thought to be caused by the action of hydrogen sulfide absorbed from the intestine. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: sulfmethemoglobin (see Dorland) in the blood ID#: D013436


Definition: An injury to the skin causing erythema, tenderness, and sometimes blistering and resulting from excessive exposure to the sun. The reaction is produced by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. Annotation: /prev: consider also SUNSCREENING AGENTS ID#: D013471


Definition: A condition produced by exposure to the sun, and marked by convulsions, coma, and a high temperature of the skin. It is distinguished from HEAT STROKE which is caused by excessive heat, natural or artificial, and is marked by dry skin, vertigo, headache, thirst, nausea and muscular cramps. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: a form of heat exhaustion ID#: D013474


Definition: A frequent complication of drug therapy for microbial infection. It may result from opportunistic colonization following immunosuppression by the primary pathogen and can be influenced by the time interval between infections, microbial physiology, or host resistance. Experimental challenge and in vitro models are sometimes used in virulence and infectivity studies. Annotation: opportunistic infect; IM; coord with specific infect (IM) ID#: D015163

Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome

Definition: Duodenal obstruction caused by compression of the third part of the duodenum by the root of the intestinal mesentery which contains the superior mesenteric artery, vein, and nerve. Annotation: duodenal compression by the superior mesenteric artery ID#: D013478

Superior Vena Cava Syndrome

Definition: Obstruction of the superior vena cava caused by neoplasm, thrombosis, aneurysm, or external compression and causing suffusion and/or cyanosis of the face, neck, and upper arms. Annotation: caval obstruction ID#: D013479


Definition: A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus. Annotation: NIM; TN 178: for suppurative dis & coord ID#: D013492

Supranuclear Palsy, Progressive

Definition: A degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by balance difficulties; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS (supranuclear ophthalmoplegia); DYSARTHRIA; swallowing difficulties; and axial DYSTONIA. Onset is usually in the fifth decade and disease progression occurs over several years. Pathologic findings include neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal loss in the dorsal MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS; RED NUCLEUS; pallidum; dentate nucleus; and vestibular nuclei. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1076-7) Annotation: ID#: D013494

Supratentorial Neoplasms

Definition: Primary and metastatic (secondary) tumors of the brain located above the tentorium cerebelli, a fold of dura mater separating the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM from the cerebral hemispheres and DIENCEPHALON (i.e., THALAMUS and HYPOTHALAMUS and related structures). In adults, primary neoplasms tend to arise in the supratentorial compartment, whereas in children they occur more frequently in the infratentorial space. Clinical manifestations vary with the location of the lesion, but SEIZURES; APHASIA; HEMIANOPSIA; hemiparesis; and sensory deficits are relatively common features. Metastatic supratentorial neoplasms are frequently multiple at the time of presentation. Annotation: GEN: prefer specifics; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D015173

Surgical Wound Dehiscence

Definition: Pathologic process consisting of a partial or complete disruption of the layers of a surgical wound. Annotation: ID#: D013529

Surgical Wound Infection

Definition: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision. Annotation: do not coord with POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS; do not coord with BACTERIAL INFECTIONS unless particularly discussed but coord IM with specific bact infect (IM) ID#: D013530


Definition: Congenital locomotor ataxia of lambs, thought to be associated with copper deficiency. It is characterized clinically by progressive incoordination of the hind limbs and pathologically by disruption of neuron and myelin development in the central nervous system. It is caused by a deficiency of metabolizable copper in the ewe during the last half of her pregnancy. (Dorland, 28th ed; Stedman, 26th ed) Annotation: animal only: disease of sheep; check tag ANIMAL; don't forget also SHEEP (NIM) but do not index under SHEEP DISEASES ID#: D013540

Sweat Gland Diseases

Definition: Diseases of the SWEAT GLANDS. Annotation: inflamm dis = HIDRADENITIS ID#: D013543

Sweat Gland Neoplasms

Definition: Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D013544

Sweating Sickness

Definition: A clinical condition characterized by fever and profuse sweating and associated with high mortality. It occurred in epidemic form five times in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in England, first in 1485 and last in 1551, specially during the summer and early autumn, attacking the relatively affluent adult male population. The etiology was unknown. Annotation: a hist epidemic dis ID#: D018614

Sweating, Gustatory

Definition: An autonomic disorder characterized by excessive sweating of the forehead, upper lip, perioral region, or sternum subsequent to gustatory stimuli. The auriculotemporal syndrome features facial flushing or sweating limited to the distribution of the auriculotemporal nerve and may develop after trauma to the parotid gland, in association with PAROTID NEOPLASMS, or following their surgical removal. (From Ann Neurol 1997 Dec;42(6):973-5) Annotation: ID#: D013547

Sweet's Syndrome

Definition: Condition characterized by large, rapidly extending, erythematous, tender plaques on the upper body usually accompanied by fever and dermal infiltration of neutrophilic leukocytes. It occurs mostly in middle-aged women, is often preceded by an upper respiratory infection, and clinically resembles erythema multiforme. Sweet's syndrome may herald the appearance of leukemia. Annotation: a form of erythema nodosum with upper resp infect ID#: D016463

Swine Diseases

Definition: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus. Annotation: IM GEN or unspecified; coord IM with specific dis /vet (IM) or specific swine dis (IM); for abnormalities or injuries, index under SWINE /abnorm or SWINE /inj; don't forget also SWINE (NIM) & check tag ANIMAL; swine fever & swine plague = CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER; DF: SWINE DIS ID#: D013553

Swine Erysipelas

Definition: An acute and chronic contagious disease of young pigs caused by Erysipelothrix insidiosa. Annotation: Erysipelothrix infect; don't forget also SWINE (NIM) & check tag ANIMAL ID#: D013554

Swine Vesicular Disease

Definition: An enterovirus infection of swine clinically indistinguishable from FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, vesicular stomatitis, and VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE. It is caused by a strain of HUMAN ENTEROVIRUS B. Annotation: ID#: D013555


Definition: A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9) Annotation: ID#: D013575

Syncope, Vasovagal

Definition: Loss of consciousness due to a reduction in blood pressure that is associated with an increase in vagal tone and peripheral vasodilation. Annotation: ID#: D019462


Definition: The most common congenital anomaly of the hand or foot, marked by persistence of the webbing between adjacent fingers or toes, so they are more or less completely attached. It is called complicated syndactyly if the bones or nails of the involved digits are fused. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; do not confuse with POLYDACTYLY; coord IM with FINGERS /abnorm (IM) or TOES /abnorm (IM); ACROCEPHALOSYNDACTYLIA is also available ID#: D013576


Definition: A symptom complex of unknown etiology, that is characteristic of a particular abnormality. Annotation: NIM; no qualif; policy: Manual, 23.26+ ID#: D013577

Syndrome X

Definition: ANGINA PECTORIS or angina-like chest pain with a normal coronary arteriogram and positive exercise test. The cause of the syndrome is unknown. While its recognition is of clinical importance, its prognosis is excellent. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed, p1346; Jablonski Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed) Annotation: ID#: D017566


Definition: A union between adjacent bones or parts of a single bone formed by osseous material, such as ossified connecting cartilage or fibrous tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: abnorm union between bones or parts of bones; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D013580

Synovial Cyst

Definition: A nodular, tumorlike lesion in or about a tendon sheath or joint capsule, especially of the hands, wrists, or feet. It is not a true cyst as it lacks an epithelial wall, and it does not communicate with the underlying synovial space. The lesion represents a focal accumulation of mucin in the dermis of the dorsal aspect of the distal phalanges or, less often, other portions of the extremities. Annotation: non-neoplastic; wrist ganglion = WRIST (IM) + SYNOVIAL CYST (IM); /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted ID#: D013581


Definition: Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: inflamm of synovial membrane: do not confuse with TENOSYNOVITIS, inflamm of tendon sheath ID#: D013585

Synovitis, Pigmented Villonodular

Definition: Outgrowths of synovial membrane composed of villi and fibrous nodules characterized histologically by hemosiderin- and lipid-containing macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. It usually occurs in the knee. Annotation: usually in the knee ID#: D013586


Definition: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM. Annotation: Treponema infect; /diag will probably be SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS: check for serol method; NEUROSYPHILIS & its indentions are also available ID#: D013587

Syphilis, Cardiovascular

Definition: Annotation: coord IM with specific cardiovasc organ or dis (IM) but note X ref below ID#: D013589

Syphilis, Congenital

Definition: Syphilis acquired in utero and manifested by any of several characteristic tooth (Hutchinson's teeth) or bone malformations and by active mucocutaneous syphilis at birth or shortly thereafter. Ocular and neurologic changes may also occur. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D013590

Syphilis, Cutaneous

Definition: Cutaneous lesions arising from infection with Treponema pallidum. In the primary stage, 18-21 days following infection, one or more chancres appear. If untreated, the subsequent stages of the disease appear as syphilids. These eruptions are superficial, nondestructive, exanthematic, transient, macular roseolas that may later be maculopapular or papular polymorphous or scaly, pustular, pigmented eruptions.(Arnold, Odom, and James, Andrew's Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p409) Annotation: ID#: D013591

Syphilis, Latent

Definition: Annotation: ID#: D013592


Definition: A benign tumor of the sweat glands which is usually multiple and results from malformation of sweat ducts. It is uncommon and more common in females than in males. It is most likely to appear at adolescence, and further lesions may develop during adult life. It does not appear to be hereditary. (Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, pp2407-8) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with SWEAT GLAND NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018252


Definition: Longitudinal cavities in the spinal cord, most often in the cervical region, which may extend for multiple spinal levels. The cavities are lined by dense, gliogenous tissue and may be associated with SPINAL CORD NEOPLASMS; spinal cord traumatic injuries; and vascular malformations. Syringomyelia is marked clinically by pain and PARESTHESIA, muscular atrophy of the hands, and analgesia with thermoanesthesia of the hands and arms, but with the tactile sense preserved (sensory dissociation). Lower extremity spasticity and incontinence may also develop. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1269) Annotation: ID#: D013595