Index of Diseases


T-Lymphocytopenia, Idiopathic CD4-Positive

Definition: Reproducible depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes below 300 per cubic millimeter in the absence of HIV infection or other known causes of immunodeficiency. This is a rare, heterogeneous syndrome and does not appear to be caused by a transmissible agent. Annotation: DF: CD4 LYMPHOCYTOPENIA ID#: D018344

Tabes Dorsalis

Definition: Parenchymatous NEUROSYPHILIS marked by slowly progressive degeneration of the posterior columns, posterior roots, and ganglia of the spinal cord. The condition tends to present 15 to 20 years after the initial infection and is characterized by lightening-like pains in the lower extremities, URINARY INCONTINENCE, ATAXIA, severely impaired position and vibratory sense, abnormal gait (see GAIT DISORDERS, NEUROLOGIC), OPTIC ATROPHY, Argyll-Robertson pupils, hypotonia, hyperreflexia, and trophic joint degeneration (Charcot's Joint; see ARTHROPATHY, NEUROGENIC). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p726) Annotation: ID#: D013606


Definition: Excessive rapidity in the action of the heart, usually with a heart rate above 100 beats per minute. Annotation: GEN or unspecified: prefer specific types; exercise tachycardia = HEART RATE (IM) + EXERTION (NIM) ID#: D013610

Tachycardia, Atrioventricular Nodal Reentry

Definition: A tachycardia characterized by rates between 150 and 250 beats per minute and a QRS complex of supraventricular origin. Annotation: a supraventric tachycardia; DF: AVNRT ID#: D013611

Tachycardia, Ectopic Atrial

Definition: A tachycardia originating in the atrial myocardium and characterized by rates between 135 and 175 beats per minute. Annotation: a supraventric tachycardia ID#: D013612

Tachycardia, Ectopic Junctional

Definition: A tachycardia arising in the conduction tissues surrounding the atrioventricular node. It usually occurs during myocardial infarction, after heart surgery, or in digitalis intoxication. The rate may range from 140 to 250 beats per minute. Annotation: a supraventric tachycardia ID#: D013613

Tachycardia, Paroxysmal

Definition: Condition marked by attacks of rapid action of the heart having sudden onset and cessation. Annotation: tachycardia of sudden onset & cessation ID#: D013614

Tachycardia, Sinoatrial Nodal Reentry

Definition: A tachycardia arising from the sinus node region and characterized by rates between 115 and 140 beats per minute. It is paroxysmal rather than constant. Annotation: a supraventric tachycardia ID#: D013615

Tachycardia, Sinus

Definition: A simple tachycardia with origin in the sinus node with gradual onset and termination. Annotation: sinus refers to sinus node; a supraventric tachycardia ID#: D013616

Tachycardia, Supraventricular

Definition: A generic expression for any tachycardia that originates above the BUNDLE OF HIS. Annotation: GEN: prefer specific types of supraventric tachycardia; originates above the bundle of His: do not confuse with TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR which originates below the bundle of His ID#: D013617

Tachycardia, Ventricular

Definition: An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm with wide QRS complexes, usually in excess of 150 per minute. It is generated within the ventricle, below the BUNDLE OF HIS, and is most commonly associated with atrioventricular dissociation. Annotation: originates below the bundle of His: do not confuse with TACHYCARDIA, SUPRAVENTRICULAR which originates above the bundle of His ID#: D017180


Definition: Infection with tapeworms of the genus Taenia. Annotation: tapeworm infect by Taenia but infect by Taenia larva (cysticerci) = CYSTICERCOSIS or NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS & by Taenia echinococcus or T. granulosus = ECHINOCOCCOSIS ID#: D013622

Takayasu's Arteritis

Definition: A thrombo-obliterative process of the great vessels stemming from the aortic arch, occurring generally in young women. Radial and carotid pulses are typically obliterated. Skin changes are due to the disturbed circulation. There may be loss of hair and atrophy of the skin and its appendages with underlying muscle atrophy. (Andrews' Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed) Annotation: an aortic arch syndrome ID#: D013625

Tangier Disease

Definition: A rare autosomal recessive familial disorder of cholesterol metabolism, characterized by extremely low HDL-cholesterol, reduced total cholesterol, and increased triglyceride levels in serum. Clinical features include the onset before age 20 years of HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; the deposition of cholesterol in each TONSIL (creating a yellow-orange appearance); and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. A sensorimotor or distal sensory POLYNEUROPATHY occurs in approximately 50% of affected individuals. The condition is associated with decreased synthesis and increased catabolism of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II, and a defect in cellular signaling and mobilization of lipids. (From Nat Genet 1998 Sep;20(1):96-8; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1347-8; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p118) Annotation: ID#: D013631

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Definition: Entrapment of the distal branches of the posterior TIBIAL NERVE (which divides into the medial plantar, lateral plantar, and calcanial nerves) in the tarsal tunnel, which lies posterior to the internal malleolus and beneath the retinaculum of the flexor muscles of the foot. Symptoms include ankle pain radiating into the foot which tends to be aggravated by walking. Examination may reveal Tinel's sign (radiating pain following nerve percussion) over the tibial nerve at the ankle, weakness and atrophy of the small foot muscles, or loss of sensation in the foot. (From Foot Ankle 1990;11(1):47-52) Annotation: ID#: D013641

Taste Disorders

Definition: Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases). Annotation: ID#: D013651


Definition: Neurodegenerative disorders involving deposition of abnormal tau protein isoforms (TAU PROTEINS) in neurons and glial cells in the brain. Pathological aggregations of tau proteins are associated with mutation of the tau gene on chromosome 17 in patients with ALZHEIMER DISEASE, DEMENTIA, PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS, progressive supranuclear palsy (SUPRANUCLEAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), and corticobasal degeneration. Annotation: ID#: D024801

Tay-Sachs Disease

Definition: An autosomal recessive inherited gangliosidosis characterized by the onset in the first 6 months of life of an exaggerated startle response, delay in psychomotor development, hypotonia (followed by spasticity), visual loss, and a macular cherry red spot. Hexosaminidase A (see BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASE) is deficient, leading to the accumulation of GM2 ganglioside in neurons of the central nervous system and retina. This condition is strongly associated with Askenazic Jewish ancestory. (Menkes, Textbook of Pediatric Neurology, 5th ed pp89-96) Annotation: ID#: D013661

Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic

Definition: An autosomal dominant vascular anomaly characterized by the presence of multiple small telangiectases of the skin, mucous membranes, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs, associated with recurrent episodes of bleeding from affected sites and gross or occult melena. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: multiple telangiectases; note short X ref ID#: D013683


Definition: Permanent dilation of preexisting blood vessels (capillaries, arterioles, venules) creating small focal red lesions, usually in the skin or mucous membranes. The lesion may present as a coarse or fine red line or as a punctum with radiating limbs. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: note specifics; CAPILLARY TELANGICTASIA, BRAIN and PONTINE CAPILLARY TELANGIECTASIAS see CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS are also available ID#: D013684

Temporal Arteritis

Definition: A systemic autoimmune vasculitis occurring primarily in people over the age of 50. Pathologic features include a necrotizing panarteritis including granulomas and giant cells. There is a predilection for involvement of central nervous system blood vessels and the most frequent neurologic complication is an OPTIC NEUROPATHY, ISCHEMIC. Large blood vessels may become involved, including the aorta. Clinical manifestations may include myalgias, weight loss, headache, visual loss, necrosis of the skin or tongue, and chest discomfort. Superficial scalp arteries may become tender and enlarged. A related condition, juvenile temporal arteritis, tends to occur in the first or second decade of life. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p856) Annotation: ID#: D013700

Temporomandibular Joint Disorders

Definition: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600) Annotation: GEN or unspecified; TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME is also available; DF: TMJ DIS ID#: D013705

Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome

Definition: A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors. Annotation: DF: note short X ref TMJ SYNDROME ID#: D013706


Definition: Inflammation of tendons and of tendon-muscle attachments. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: inflamm of tendons: do not confuse with TENOSYNOVITIS, inflamm of tendon sheath ID#: D013707

Tendon Injuries

Definition: Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures. Annotation: ID#: D013708

Tennis Elbow

Definition: A condition characterized by pain in or near the lateral humeral epicondyle or in the forearm extensor muscle mass as a result of unusual strain. It occurs in tennis players as well as housewives, artisans, and violinists. Annotation: in "housewives, artisans & violinists" as well as in tennis players; do not coord with TENNIS (NIM) unless the sport is particularly discussed; do not coord with ATHLETIC INJURIES (IM) unless tennis elbow is discussed as an athletic inj ID#: D013716


Definition: Inflammation of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced. Friction rubs may be felt or heard (with a stethoscope) on movement. Calcium deposits may occur in the tendon and its sheath, leading to opacities on radiographs of the affected area. (Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984) Annotation: inflamm of a tendon sheath: do not confuse with TENDINITIS (inflamm of tendon) or SYNOVITIS (inflamm of synovial membrane); do not confuse X ref DE QUERVAIN DISEASE with de Quervain's dis of thyroid ( = DE QUERVAIN THYROIDITIS see THYROIDITIS, SUBACUTE) ID#: D013717

Tension Headache

Definition: A common condition characterized by recurrent occipital, temporal, or frontal pressure-like HEADACHE associated with nuchal discomfort. Mid-life onset and bilateral pain are features which tend to distinguish this condition from COMMON MIGRAINE. ANXIETY and DEPRESSION may aggravate this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp182-3) Annotation: ID#: D018781


Definition: A malignant neoplasm consisting of elements of teratoma with those of embryonal carcinoma or choriocarcinoma, or both. It occurs most often in the testis. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct; coord IM with probably TESTICULAR NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D018243


Definition: A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They may be solid or cystic and are classified histologically as mature, immature, and malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed & DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM) ID#: D013724

Testicular Diseases

Definition: Annotation: inflamm dis = ORCHITIS ID#: D013733

Testicular Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D013736


Definition: A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form. Annotation: caused by Clostridium tetani; do not confuse with TETANY; do not use for tonic spasm of muscle ( = SPASM) or for tetanic contraction ( = MUSCLE CONTRACTION) ID#: D013742


Definition: A disorder characterized by muscle twitches, cramps, and carpopedal spasm, and when severe, laryngospasm and seizures. This condition is associated with unstable depolarization of axonal membranes, primarily in the peripheral nervous system. Tetany usually results from HYPOCALCEMIA or reduced serum levels of MAGNESIUM that may be associated with HYPERVENTILATION; HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; RICKETS; UREMIA; or other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1490) Annotation: hyperexcitability of nerves & muscles; do not confuse with TETANUS (a Clostridium tetani infect) & do not confuse with tetanic spasm of muscle ( = SPASM) or with tetanic contraction ( = MUSCLE CONTRACTION); coord with cause if given ID#: D013746

Tetralogy of Fallot

Definition: A combination of congenital cardiac defects consisting of pulmonary stenosis, interventricular septal defects, dextroposition of the aorta so that it overrides the interventricular septum and receives venous as well as arterial blood, and right ventricular hypertrophy. Annotation: multiple heart defects; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; do not confuse with TRILOGY OF FALLOT ID#: D013771

Thalamic Diseases

Definition: Disorders of the centrally located thalamus, which integrates a wide range of cortical and subcortical information. Manifestations include sensory loss, MOVEMENT DISORDERS; ATAXIA, pain syndromes, visual disorders, a variety of neuropsychological conditions, and COMA. Relatively common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; BRAIN HYPOXIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and infectious processes. Annotation: ID#: D013786


Definition: A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia. Annotation: a congen hemolytic anemia; GEN or unspecified: prefer specifics; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D013789

Thanatophoric Dysplasia

Definition: A severe form of neonatal dwarfism with very short limbs. All cases have died at birth or in the neonatal period. Annotation: a form of dwarfism; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D013796


Definition: A sex cord-stromal tumor of the postmenopausal ovary that is yellow, large, and unilateral, composed of fascicles of lipid-rich spindle cells interspersed with collagen, reticulin fibers, and hyaline plaques. Thecomas and other estrogen-producing tumors (e.g., granulosa cell tumors) may induce adenomatous hyperplasia of the endometrium or well-differentiated endometrial carcinoma in 3%-20% of the cases. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992) Annotation: coord IM with OVARIAN NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D013798


Definition: Infection of cattle, sheep, or goats with protozoa of the genus THEILERIA. This infection results in an acute or chronic febrile condition. Annotation: ID#: D013801

Thiamine Deficiency

Definition: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, BERIBERI prevalence is very high. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1171) Annotation: a vitamin B defic; DF: THIAMINE DEFIC ID#: D013832

Thoracic Diseases

Definition: Disorders affecting the organs of the thorax. Annotation: GEN: prefer specifics; CHEST PAIN is available ID#: D013896

Thoracic Injuries

Definition: General or unspecified injuries to the chest area. Annotation: GEN or unspecified only: prefer specifics like HEART INJURIES, LUNG /inj, etc.; consider also /inj with specific parts of the chest ID#: D013898

Thoracic Neoplasms

Definition: Annotation: GEN or unspecified only; prefer specifics like HEART NEOPLASMS; LUNG NEOPLASMS; etc; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D013899

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Definition: A neurovascular syndrome associated with compression of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS; SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY; and SUBCLAVIAN VEIN at the superior thoracic outlet. This may result from a variety of anomalies such as a cervical rib (CERVICAL RIB SYNDROME), anomalous fascial bands, and abnormalities of the origin or insertion of the anterior or medial scalene muscles. Clinical features may include pain in the shoulder and neck region which radiates into the arm, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of brachial plexus innervated muscles, PARESTHESIA, loss of sensation, reduction of arterial pulses in the affected extremity, ISCHEMIA, and EDEMA. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp214-5). Annotation: ID#: D013901


Definition: A congenital bleeding disorder with prolonged bleeding time, absence of aggregation of platelets in response to most agents, especially ADP, and impaired or absent clot retraction. Platelet membranes are deficient in or have a defect in the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex (PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX). Annotation: ID#: D013915

Thromboangiitis Obliterans

Definition: Annotation: TN 11: differentiate from other obliterative dis ID#: D013919

Thrombocythemia, Hemorrhagic

Definition: A clinical syndrome characterized by repeated spontaneous hemorrhages and a remarkable increase in the number of circulating platelets. Annotation: ID#: D013920


Definition: A decrease in the number of blood platelets. Annotation: ID#: D013921


Definition: Increased numbers of platelets in the peripheral blood. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: note X ref but hemorrhagic thrombocythemia = THROMBOCYTHEMIA, HEMORRHAGIC ID#: D013922


Definition: Obstruction of a vessel by a blood clot that has been transported from a distant site by the blood stream. Annotation: ID#: D013923


Definition: A disorder of HEMOSTASIS in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of THROMBOSIS. Annotation: ID#: D019851


Definition: Inflammation of a vein associated with thrombus formation. Annotation: assume to be of the legs so do not coord with LEG ID#: D013924


Definition: Formation and development of a thrombus. (From Dorland, 28th ed) Annotation: GEN: prefer specifics; mural thrombus: coord IM with HEART DIS (IM) ID#: D013927


Definition: A neoplasm originating from thymic tissue, usually benign, and frequently encapsulated. Although it is occasionally invasive, metastases are extremely rare. It consists of any type of thymic epithelial cell as well as lymphocytes that are usually abundant and probably not neoplastic. Malignant lymphomas that involve the thymus, e.g., lymphosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease (previously termed granulomatous thymoma), should not be regarded as thymoma. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: coord IM with THYMUS NEOPLASMS (IM) ID#: D013945

Thymus Hyperplasia

Definition: Enlargement of the thymus. A condition described in the late 1940's and 1950's as pathological thymic hypertrophy was status thymolymphaticus and was treated with radiotherapy. Unnecessary removal of the thymus was also practiced. It later became apparent that the thymus undergoes normal physiological hypertrophy, reaching a maximum at puberty and involuting thereafter. The concept of status thymolymphaticus has been abandoned. Thymus hyperplasia is present in two thirds of all patients with myasthenia gravis. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992; Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1486) Annotation: ID#: D013952

Thymus Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D013953

Thyroglossal Cyst

Definition: A cyst in the neck caused by persistence of portions of, or by lack of closure of, the primitive thyroglossal duct. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: non-neoplastic; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; "thyroglossal duct" probably goes here ID#: D013955

Thyroid Crisis

Definition: Sudden and dangerous increase of the symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Annotation: "sudden & dangerous increase of the symptoms of thyrotoxicosis" ID#: D013958

Thyroid Diseases

Definition: Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; inflamm dis = THYROIDITIS; thyroid crisis & thyroid storm = THYROID CRISIS; thyroid nodule = THYROID NODULE; chronic thyroiditis = THYROIDITIS, CHRONIC see THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE; subacute thyroiditis = THYROIDITIS, SUBACUTE; suppurative or infect thyroiditis = THYROIDITIS, SUPPURATIVE ID#: D013959

Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome

Definition: An inherited syndrome of peripheral resistance to thyroid hormones, transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait, characterized by increased serum concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine, increased thyroid hormone binding ratio, and normal to slightly increased thyroid-stimulating hormone and its response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. The affected persons are euthyroid to slightly hypothyroid. The absence of hypermetabolism and the presence of possible hypothyroidism indicate the existence of partial resistance to the peripheral action of thyroid hormone. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of syndromes & eponymic diseases, 1991) Annotation: in euthyroid or slightly hypothyroid persons because of unresponsiveness to thyroid hormones; differentiate from EUTHYROID SICK SYNDROME where a non-thyroid disease is also present ID#: D018382

Thyroid Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM); neoplastic thyroid nodule = THYROID NODULE but see note there ID#: D013964

Thyroid Nodule

Definition: A small circumscribed mass of differentiated tissue associated with the thyroid gland. It can be pathogenic or non-pathogenic. The growth of nodules can lead to a condition of GOITER, NODULAR. Most nodules appear between the ages of 30 and 50 years and most are benign. Annotation: "pathogenic or non-pathogenic", neoplastic or non-neoplastic; if neoplastic, /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted ID#: D016606


Definition: Annotation: inflamm of thyroid; GEN or unspecified: prefer specifics ID#: D013966

Thyroiditis, Autoimmune

Definition: Progressive enlargement of the thyroid gland, often associated with hypothyroidism. Annotation: ID#: D013967

Thyroiditis, Subacute

Definition: Spontaneously remitting inflammatory condition of the thyroid gland characterized by fever, weakness, sore throat, and painful enlargement of the thyroid gland. Annotation: remits spontaneously; do not confuse X ref DE QUERVAIN THYROIDITIS with de Quervain's dis of tendon sheath of thumb muscles ( = TENOSYNOVITIS) ID#: D013968

Thyroiditis, Suppurative

Definition: Inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland caused by bacteria, fungi, protozoa, or flatworms. Annotation: caused by bact, fungus, protozoon or flatworm; coord IM with specific infect causing this dis (IM) ID#: D013969


Definition: The clinical syndrome that reflects the response of the peripheral tissues to an excess of thyroid hormone. Annotation: excessive thyroid hormones, endogenous or exogenous ID#: D013971

Tibial Fractures

Definition: Annotation: ID#: D013978

Tibial Neuropathy

Definition: Disease of the TIBIAL NERVE (also referred to as the posterior tibial nerve). The most commonly associated condition is the TARSAL TUNNEL SYNDROME. However, LEG INJURIES; ISCHEMIA; and inflammatory conditions (e.g., COLLAGEN DISEASES) may also affect the nerve. Clinical features include PARALYSIS of plantar flexion, ankle inversion and toe flexion as well as loss of sensation over the sole of the foot. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p32) Annotation: ID#: D020429

Tick Infestations

Definition: Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks. Annotation: ID#: D013984

Tick Paralysis

Definition: Paralysis caused by a neurotropic toxin secreted by the salivary glands of ticks. Annotation: paralysis caused by tick bite; see note under TICKS ID#: D013985

Tick Toxicoses

Definition: Toxicoses caused by toxic substances secreted by the salivary glands of ticks; include tick paralysis (neurotropic toxin), sweating sickness (dermotropic toxin), and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus toxicosis (leukotropic toxin). Annotation: see note under TICKS ID#: D013986

Tick-Borne Diseases

Definition: Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic. Annotation: can be bacterial, viral or protozoan; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; for GEN articles specifying type, coord IM with GEN organism/infect term (IM), as "tick-borne arbovirus diseases" = TICK-BORNE DISEASES (IM) + ARBOVIRUS INFECTIONS (IM) ID#: D017282


Definition: Habitual, repeated, rapid contraction of certain muscles, resulting in stereotyped individualized actions that can be voluntarily suppressed for only brief periods. They often involve the face, vocal cords, neck, and less often the extremities. Examples include repetitive throat clearing, vocalizations, sniffing, pursing the lips, and excessive blinking. Tics tend to be aggravated by emotional stress. When frequent they may interfere with speech and INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS. Conditions which feature frequent and prominent tics as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as TIC DISORDERS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp109-10) Annotation: TIC DISORDERS is available ID#: D020323

Tietze's Syndrome

Definition: Idiopathic painful nonsuppurative swellings of one or more costal cartilages, especially of the second rib. The anterior chest pain may mimic that of coronary artery disease. (Dorland, 27th ed.) Annotation: painful swelling of rib cartilage ID#: D013991


Definition: A general term describing various dermatophytoses. Specific types include TINEA CAPITIS (ringworm of the scalp), TINEA FAVOSA (of scalp and skin), TINEA PEDIS (athlete's foot), and tinea unguium (see ONYCHOMYCOSIS, ringworm of the nails). (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: the disease ringworm: do not confuse with TAENIA, tapeworm; GEN or unspecified: prefer specifics ID#: D014005

Tinea Capitis

Definition: Ringworm of the scalp caused by species of Microsporum and Trichophyton, which may occasionally involve the eyebrows and eyelashes. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: ringworm of the scalp; do not coord with SCALP or SCALP DERMATOSES ID#: D014006

Tinea Favosa

Definition: A disease of the scalp that may affect the glabrous skin and the nails and is recognized by the concave sulfur-yellow crusts that form around loose, wiry hairs. Atrophy ensues, leaving a smooth, glossy, thin, paper-white patch. This type of disease is rare in the United States and more frequently seen in the Middle East, Africa, Southeastern Europe, and other countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. (Arnold, Odom, and James, Andrew's Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p319) Annotation: ringworm of the scalp; caused by Trichophyton schoenleini ID#: D014007

Tinea Pedis

Definition: Dermatological pruritic lesion in the feet, caused by Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, or Epidermophyton floccosum. Annotation: do not coord with FOOT or FOOT DERMATOSES ID#: D014008

Tinea Versicolor

Definition: A common chronic, noninflammatory and usually symptomless disorder, characterized by the occurrence of multiple macular patches of all sizes and shapes, and varying in pigmentation from fawn-colored to brown. It is seen most frequently in hot, humid, tropical regions, and is caused by Pityrosporon orbiculare. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: caused by PITYROSPORUM ORBICULARE see MALASSEZIA ID#: D014010


Definition: Sounds that are perceived in the absence of any external noise source which may take the form of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions. Annotation: ID#: D014012

Togaviridae Infections

Definition: Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D014036

Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome

Definition: An idiopathic syndrome characterized by the formation of granulation tissue in the anterior cavernous sinus or superior orbital fissure, producing a painful ophthalmoplegia. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p271) Annotation: ID#: D020333

Tongue Diseases

Definition: Annotation: inflamm dis = GLOSSITIS ID#: D014060

Tongue Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D014062

Tongue, Fissured

Definition: Annotation: ID#: D014063

Tongue, Hairy

Definition: A benign condition of the tongue characterized by hypertrophy of the filiform papillae that give the dorsum of the tongue a furry appearance. The color of the elongated papillae varies from yellowish white to brown or black, depending upon staining by substances such as tobacco, food, or drugs. (Dorland, 27th ed) Annotation: hairy refers to appearance of hypertrophied papillae on tongue ID#: D014064

Tonic Pupil

Definition: A pupillary abnormality characterized by a poor pupillary light reaction, reduced accommodation, iris sector palsies, an enhanced pupillary response to near effort that results in a prolonged, "tonic" constriction, and slow pupillary redilation. This condition is associated with injury to the postganglionic parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp492-500) Annotation: ID#: D015845

Tonsillar Neoplasms

Definition: Tumors or cancer of the TONSIL. Annotation: coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D014067


Definition: Inflammation of the tonsils, especially the palatine tonsils. It is often caused by a bacterium. Tonsillitis may be acute, chronic, or recurrent. Annotation: coord IM with infection (IM) if specified; lingual tonsillitis: coord IM with TONGUE (NIM) ID#: D014069

Tooth Abnormalities

Definition: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; duplication of teeth = TOOTH, SUPERNUMERARY; abnorm in congen syphilis = HUTCHINSON'S TEETH see SYPHILIS, CONGENITAL; X ref ODONTOME (a form of developmental dental anomaly): do not confuse with ODONTOMA ID#: D014071

Tooth Abrasion

Definition: The pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes. It is differentiated from TOOTH ATTRITION in that this type of wearing away is the result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It differs also from TOOTH EROSION, the progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes not involving bacterial action. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p2) Annotation: loss of substance caused by friction: differentiate from TOOTH ATTRITION (wearing away by tooth-to-tooth contact like mastication) & TOOTH EROSION (loss of substance by chemical action without bact action) ID#: D014072

Tooth Ankylosis

Definition: Solid fixation of a tooth resulting from fusion of the cementum and alveolar bone, with obliteration of the periodontal ligament. It is uncommon in the deciduous dentition and very rare in permanent teeth. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992) Annotation: ID#: D020254

Tooth Attrition

Definition: The wearing away of a tooth as a result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It is chiefly associated with aging. It is differentiated from TOOTH ABRASION (the pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by friction, as brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes) and from TOOTH EROSION (the loss of substance caused by chemical action without bacterial action). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p86) Annotation: result of tooth-to-tooth contact as in mastication: do not confuse with TOOTH EROSION (result of chem action without bact action) or TOOTH ABRASION (loss of substance from friction like bruxism): read MeSH definitions ID#: D019217

Tooth Avulsion

Definition: Partial or complete displacement of a tooth from its alveolar support. It is commonly the result of trauma. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p312) Annotation: partial or complete displacement of tooth from socket; coord IM with specific tooth /inj (IM) ID#: D014084

Tooth Demineralization

Definition: A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries. Annotation: a tooth dis; white spots or white lesions do not go here: note WHITE SPOTS see DENTAL CARIES ID#: D017001

Tooth Discoloration

Definition: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253) Annotation: external staining or staining within pulp; from any cause; coord IM with cause if pertinent (IM or NIM); do not confuse with FLUOROSIS, DENTAL (C7: occurring during tooth calcification) ID#: D014075

Tooth Diseases

Definition: Annotation: GEN: prefer specifics ID#: D014076

Tooth Erosion

Definition: Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296) Annotation: loss of substance caused by chem action without bact action: differentiate from TOOTH ABRASION (loss of substance caused by friction) & TOOTH ATTRITION (wearing away through tooth-to-tooth contact) ID#: D014077

Tooth Eruption, Ectopic

Definition: Annotation: note category ID#: D014079

Tooth Fractures

Definition: Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root. Annotation: coord IM with specific tooth /inj (IM) ID#: D014082

Tooth Injuries

Definition: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION). Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer /inj with specific tooth, as CUSPID /inj; also available are TOOTH FRACTURES & TOOTH AVULSION; DF: TOOTH INJ ID#: D018677

Tooth Loss

Definition: The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury. Annotation: from dis or inj; note category ID#: D016388

Tooth, Impacted

Definition: A tooth that is prevented from erupting by a physical barrier, usually other teeth. Impaction may also result from orientation of the tooth in an other than vertical position in the periodontal structures. Annotation: do not confuse with TOOTH, UNERUPTED ID#: D014095

Tooth, Nonvital

Definition: A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed) Annotation: a devitalized tooth: note X ref ID#: D019553

Tooth, Supernumerary

Definition: An extra tooth, erupted or unerupted, resembling or unlike the other teeth in the group to which it belongs. Its presence may cause malposition of adjacent teeth or prevent their eruption. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; may refer to erupted or unerupted tooth: if erupted do not use TOOTH ERUPTION; if unerupted coord IM with TOOTH, UNERUPTED (NIM) ID#: D014096

Tooth, Unerupted

Definition: A normal developing tooth which has not yet perforated the oral mucosa or one that fails to erupt in the normal sequence or time interval expected for the type of tooth in a given gender, age, or population group. Annotation: note categories; do not confuse with TOOTH, IMPACTED ID#: D014097


Definition: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth. Annotation: ID#: D014098

Torovirus Infections

Definition: Infections with viruses of the genus TOROVIRUS, family CORONAVIRIDAE. Annotation: caused by a member of the family Coronaviridae ID#: D018176

Torsades de Pointes

Definition: A ventricular tachycardia characterized by periodic twisting of the points of the QRS complexes and rates between 200 and 250 beats per minute. It may be self-limited or may progress to ventricular fibrillation. Annotation: a ventric tachycardia; in transl "torsade" or "torsades" is acceptable: use word of author ID#: D016171


Definition: A twisting or rotation of a bodily part or member on its axis. Annotation: never IM; when NIM, use any Cat C qualif pertinent; coord with organ/dis precoord (IM) ID#: D014102


Definition: A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors. Annotation: ID#: D014103


Definition: Infections with nematodes of the genus TOXASCARIS. Annotation: an Ascaridida infect but differentiate from TOXOCARIASIS, also an Ascaridida infect ID#: D017227


Definition: A generalized intoxication produced by toxins and other substances elaborated by an infectious agent. Annotation: ID#: D014115


Definition: Infection by round worms of the genus TOXOCARA, usually found in wild and domesticated cats and dogs and foxes, except for the larvae, which may produce visceral and ocular larva migrans in man. Annotation: an Ascaridida infect but differentiate from TOXASCARIASIS, also an Ascaridida infect; coord IM with species (IM); in animals but check tag ANIMAL; in man, probably is LARVA MIGRANS, VISCERAL ID#: D014120


Definition: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man. Annotation: GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics ID#: D014123

Toxoplasmosis, Animal

Definition: Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA. Annotation: exper or vet; /congen permitted: do not coord with TOXOPLASMOSIS, CONGENITAL ID#: D014124

Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral

Definition: Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3) Annotation: coord IM with specific brain disease (IM) or specific site (IM) if pertinent; congenital: coord IM with TOXOPLASMOSIS, CONGENITAL (IM) ID#: D016781

Toxoplasmosis, Congenital

Definition: Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735) Annotation: /vet = TOXOPLASMOSIS, ANIMAL /congen ID#: D014125

Toxoplasmosis, Ocular

Definition: Infection caused by the protozoan parasite TOXOPLASMA in which there is extensive connective tissue proliferation, the retina surrounding the lesions remains normal, and the ocular media remain clear. Chorioretinitis may be associated with all forms of toxoplasmosis, but is usually a late sequel of congenital toxoplasmosis. The severe ocular lesions in infants may lead to blindness. Annotation: /congen permitted: do not coord with TOXOPLASMOSIS, CONGENITAL ID#: D014126

Tracheal Diseases

Definition: Annotation: inflamm dis = TRACHEITIS ID#: D014133

Tracheal Neoplasms

Definition: Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D014134

Tracheal Stenosis

Definition: Annotation: ID#: D014135


Definition: Annotation: ID#: D014136


Definition: A rare and probably congenital condition characterized by great enlargement of the lumen of the trachea and the larger bronchi. Annotation: enlarged trachea lumen & larger bronchi; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D014137

Tracheoesophageal Fistula

Definition: Abnormal communication between the esophagus and the trachea, acquired or congenital, often associated with ESOPHAGEAL ATRESIA. Annotation: fistula policy: Manual 23.19+ ID#: D014138


Definition: A chronic infection of the conjunctiva and cornea caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Annotation: caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, a bacterium, not a virus ("trachoma virus") ID#: D014141

Transposition of Great Vessels

Definition: A congenital cardiovascular malformation in which the aorta arises entirely from the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery from the left ventricle, so that the venous return from the peripheral circulation is recirculated by the right ventricle via the aorta to the systemic circulation without being oxygenated in the lungs. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D014188

Trauma, Nervous System

Definition: Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures. Annotation: GEN: prefer specific precoord organ/injuries term or organ/inj; DF: NERVOUS SYSTEM INJ ID#: D020196

Trematode Infections

Definition: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda. Annotation: GEN: prefer specific trematode infections in MeSH or coord of specific trematode in MeSH with infection term as directed under name of trematode ID#: D014201


Definition: Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE. Annotation: ID#: D014202

Trench Fever

Definition: An intermittent fever characterized by intervals of chills, fever, and splenomegaly each of which may last as long as 40 hours. It is caused by BARTONELLA QUINTANA and transmitted by the human louse. Annotation: caused by Bartonella quintana; do not confuse with TRENCH FOOT ID#: D014205

Treponemal Infections

Definition: Infections with bacteria of the genus TREPONEMA. Annotation: gram-neg bact infect; Treponema pallidum infection = SYPHILIS or YAWS ID#: D014211


Definition: A disease due to infection with TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS. It is caused by eating undercooked meat, usually pork. Annotation: nematode infect caused by Trichina or Trichinella: do not confuse with TRICHURIASIS, caused by Trichuris ID#: D014235

Trichomonas Infections

Definition: Infections in birds and mammals produced by various species of Trichomonas. Annotation: protozoan infect; /drug ther: consider also ANTITRICHOMONAL AGENTS ID#: D014245

Trichomonas Vaginitis

Definition: Inflammation of the vagina, marked by a purulent discharge. This disease is caused by the protozoan TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS. Annotation: do not confuse with the organism TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS ID#: D014247


Definition: Infection by roundworms of the superfamily TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA, including the genera TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; OSTERTAGIA; Cooperia, HAEMONCHUS; Nematodirus, Hyostrongylus, and DICTYOCAULUS. Annotation: roundworm infect; caused by various genera of the superfamily TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA: do not confuse with TRICHOSTRONGYLOSIS, caused by the genus TRICHOSTRONGYLUS ID#: D014252


Definition: Infestation with nematode worms of the genus TRICHOSTRONGYLUS. Man and animals become infected by swallowing larvae, usually with contaminated food or drink, although the larvae may penetrate human skin. Annotation: nematode infect caused by TRICHOSTRONGYLUS, a genus: do not confuse with TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDIASIS, caused by genera of the superfamily TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA ID#: D014253


Definition: Infection with nematodes of the genus TRICHURIS, formerly called Trichocephalus. Annotation: nematode infect caused by Trichuris: do not confuse with TRICHINOSIS, caused by Trichina or Trichinella ID#: D014257

Tricuspid Atresia

Definition: Absence of the orifice between the right atrium and ventricle, with the presence of an atrial defect through which all the systemic venous return reaches the left heart. As a result, there is left ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR) because the right ventricle is absent or not functional. Annotation: do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D018785

Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency

Definition: Backflow of blood from the right ventricle into the right atrium, owing to imperfect functioning of the tricuspid valve. Annotation: imperfect closing of valve ID#: D014262

Tricuspid Valve Prolapse

Definition: Abnormal protrusion of one or more of the leaflets of the tricuspid valve into the right atrium during systole. Annotation: ID#: D014263

Tricuspid Valve Stenosis

Definition: The pathologic narrowing of the orifice of the tricuspid valve. (Stedman, 25th ed) Annotation: /congen permitted ID#: D014264

Trigeminal Nerve Diseases

Definition: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA. Annotation: neopl: coord IM with CRANIAL NERVE NEOPLASMS (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D020433

Trigeminal Neuralgia

Definition: A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the trigeminal nerve. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURSYMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187) Annotation: ID#: D014277

Trilogy of Fallot

Definition: Combination of pulmonary valve stenosis and atrial septal defect with right ventricular hypertrophy. Annotation: pulm stenosis with atrial septal defect & right ventric hypertrophy; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; do not confuse with TETRALOGY OF FALLOT ID#: D014286


Definition: Spasmodic contraction of the masseter muscle resulting in forceful jaw closure. This may be seen with a variety of diseases, including TETANUS, as a complication of radiation therapy, trauma, or in association with neoplastic conditions. Annotation: ID#: D014313

Trochlear Nerve Diseases

Definition: Diseases of the fourth cranial (trochlear) nerve or its nucleus in the midbrain. The nerve crosses as it exits the midbrain dorsally and may be injured along its course through the intracranial space, cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure, or orbit. Clinical manifestations include weakness of the superior oblique muscle which causes vertical DIPLOPIA that is maximal when the affected eye is adducted and directed inferiorly. Head tilt may be seen as a compensatory mechanism for diplopia and rotation of the visual axis. Common etiologies include CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS. Annotation: neopl: coord IM with CRANIAL NERVE NEOPLASMS (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM) ID#: D020432


Definition: Infestation with mites of the genus Trombicula, whose larvae carry the rickettsial agent of scrub typhus. Annotation: mite infestation ID#: D014323

Trophoblastic Neoplasms

Definition: Trophoblastic growth, which may be gestational or nongestational in origin. Trophoblastic neoplasia resulting from pregnancy is often described as gestational trophoblastic disease to distinguish it from germ cell tumors which frequently show trophoblastic elements, and from the trophoblastic differentiation which sometimes occurs in a wide variety of epithelial cancers. Gestational trophoblastic growth has several forms, including HYDATIDIFORM MOLE and CHORIOCARCINOMA. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1691) Annotation: = "trophoblastic disease"; coord IM with UTERINE NEOPLASMS (IM); check the tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY if needed ID#: D014328

Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site

Definition: A tumor that arises from the trophoblast of the placental bed and is composed mainly of cytotrophoblastic cells. It encompasses lesions of low- and high-grade malignancy. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1691) Annotation: /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with UTERINE NEOPLASMS (IM); check the tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY ID#: D018245

Truncus Arteriosus, Persistent

Definition: A congenital anomaly resulting from the failure of the aorticopulmonary system to develop and divide the truncus arteriosus into the aorta and the pulmonary trunk. Annotation: abnormal; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D014339


Definition: Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA. Annotation: protozoan infect; GEN: prefer specific; /drug ther: consider also TRYPANOCIDAL AGENTS; exper trypanosomiasis: TN 187 ID#: D014352

Trypanosomiasis, African

Definition: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the tsetse fly. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals. Annotation: for trypanosomiasis in tropical Africa caused by any species of Trypanosoma: TN 188; coord IM with TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI GAMBIENSE (IM) for Gambian trypanosomiasis; X ref NAGANA: see MeSH definition & index under TRYPANOSOMIASIS, AFRICAN /vet (IM) + specific Trypanosoma genus (IM) + animal/dis precoord (IM) + animal (IM or NIM) + check tag ANIMAL; specify geog if pertinent ID#: D014353

Trypanosomiasis, Bovine

Definition: Infection in cattle caused by various species of trypanosomes. Annotation: don't forget also CATTLE (NIM) & check tag ANIMAL; coord IM with specific type of trypanosomiasis /vet (NIM) ID#: D014354


Definition: A tumor-like mass resulting from the enlargement of a tuberculous lesion. Annotation: not a neoplasm; coord IM with precoord tuberculosis term (IM) or organ/dis precoord (IM) if tuberc term is not available ID#: D014375

Tuberculoma, Intracranial

Definition: A well-circumscribed mass composed of tuberculous granulation tissue that may occur in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brain stem, or perimeningeal spaces. Multiple lesions are quite common. Management of intracranial manifestations vary with lesion site. Intracranial tuberculomas may be associated with SEIZURES, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Spinal cord tuberculomas may be associated with localized or radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. Tuberculomas may arise as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS, but also occur in immunocompetent individuals. Annotation: not a neoplasm; coord IM with specif part of brain or precoord brain/dis (IM) ID#: D016862


Definition: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM. Annotation: caused by various species of Mycobacterium; GEN: prefer specifics; if unspecified as just "tuberculosis", TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY is probably the correct heading but check text carefully; tuberculid: index under TUBERCULOSIS, CUTANEOUS; /drug ther: consider also ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS; indexing policy: Manual 23.13.2 ID#: D014376

Tuberculosis, Avian

Definition: A variety of TUBERCULOSIS affecting various birds, including chickens and ducks. It is caused by MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM and characterized by tubercles consisting principally of epithelioid cells. Annotation: coord IM with BIRDS (NIM) or specific bird (IM) ID#: D014379

Tuberculosis, Bovine

Definition: An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals. Annotation: caused by Mycobacterium bovis; don't forget also CATTLE (NIM) & check tag ANIMAL ID#: D014380

Tuberculosis, Cardiovascular

Definition: Tuberculosis of the heart, pericardium, or blood vessels. Annotation: IM; coord IM with specific organ or organ /dis (IM) ID#: D014381

Tuberculosis, Central Nervous System

Definition: Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20) Annotation: DF: TUBERCULOSIS CNS ID#: D020306

Tuberculosis, Cutaneous

Definition: Tuberculosis of the skin. It includes scrofuloderma and tuberculid, but not lupus vulgaris, which is LUPUS. Annotation: ID#: D014382

Tuberculosis, Endocrine

Definition: Tuberculous infection of the endocrine glands. Annotation: IM; coord IM with specific organ /dis (IM) ID#: D014383

Tuberculosis, Female Genital

Definition: Tuberculosis of the genitalia in women. Annotation: IM; coord IM with specific organ or organ /dis (IM) ID#: D014384

Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal

Definition: Gastric and/or enteric tuberculosis. This condition is marked by spreading ulcers and diarrhea. Annotation: IM; coord IM with specific organ or organ /dis (IM) ID#: D014385

Tuberculosis, Hepatic

Definition: Infection of the liver with tubercle bacilli producing localized granulomata, miliary lesions, or tuberculoma. Annotation: ID#: D014386

Tuberculosis, Laryngeal

Definition: Tuberculosis involving the larynx, producing ulceration of the vocal cords and laryngeal mucosa. It is commonly attended by hoarseness, cough, pain on swallowing, and hemoptysis. Annotation: ID#: D014387

Tuberculosis, Lymph Node

Definition: Infection of the lymph nodes by tuberculosis. Tuberculous infection of the cervical lymph nodes is scrofula. Annotation: X ref SCROFULA in hist articles = KING'S EVIL: see MeSH definition there ID#: D014388

Tuberculosis, Male Genital

Definition: Tuberculosis of the genitalia in men. Annotation: IM; coord IM with specific organ or organ /dis (IM) ID#: D014389

Tuberculosis, Meningeal

Definition: A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9) Annotation: ID#: D014390

Tuberculosis, Miliary

Definition: An acute form of TUBERCULOSIS in which minute tubercles are formed in a number of organs of the body due to dissemination of the bacilli through the blood stream. Annotation: ID#: D014391

Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant

Definition: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more antitubercular agents. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculosis as an opportunistic disease in HIV infection. Annotation: IM; coord with specific type of tuberc (IM) + specific antituberc agents (IM or NIM) ID#: D018088

Tuberculosis, Ocular

Definition: Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. Annotation: IM; coord IM with specific eye heading (IM) or eye dis heading (IM) ID#: D014392

Tuberculosis, Oral

Definition: Tuberculosis of the mouth, tongue, and salivary glands. Annotation: "tuberc of the mouth, tongue & salivary glands"; IM; coord IM with specific mouth, tongue or salivary gland heading (IM) or mouth, tongue or salivary dis heading (IM) ID#: D014393

Tuberculosis, Osteoarticular

Definition: Tuberculosis of the bones or joints. Annotation: IM; may be osteo- or artic; coord IM with specific bone or joint (IM) or bone or joint dis (IM) ID#: D014394

Tuberculosis, Peritoneal

Definition: Tuberculosis of the serous lining of the abdomen. Annotation: ID#: D014395

Tuberculosis, Pleural

Definition: Tuberculosis of the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs. Annotation: ID#: D014396

Tuberculosis, Pulmonary

Definition: Tuberculosis of the lungs. Annotation: referred to as just "tuberculosis": check text or x-ray plates; atypical Mycobact infect of lung = TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY (IM) + MYCOBACTERIUM INFECTIONS, ATYPICAL (IM); DF: TUBERCULOSIS PULM ID#: D014397

Tuberculosis, Renal

Definition: Infection of the kidney with species of MYCOBACTERIUM. Annotation: ID#: D014398

Tuberculosis, Spinal

Definition: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs. Annotation: IM; coord IM with specific vertebra (IM) ID#: D014399

Tuberculosis, Splenic

Definition: Infection of the spleen with species of MYCOBACTERIUM. Annotation: ID#: D014400

Tuberculosis, Urogenital

Definition: A general term for tuberculosis of the urinary and/or genital systems or urinary organs other than the kidney, which is TUBERCULOSIS, RENAL. Annotation: IM; GEN or as coord IM for organs (IM) or organ/dis (IM) not covered as TUBERCULOSIS, FEMALE GENITAL or TUBERCULOSIS, MALE GENITAL or TUBERCULOSIS, RENAL ID#: D014401

Tuberous Sclerosis

Definition: An autosomal dominant disorder which is generally classified as a phacomatosis. Pathologically, the condition is characterized by glial cell tumors which arise in the cerebral hemispheres and retina. There is an increased incidence of benign rhabdomyomas of the heart and angiomyolipomas of kidney, liver, lungs, thyroid, and testes. Clinical manifestations include MENTAL RETARDATION; adenoma sebaceum of the face (actually angiofibromas); EPILEPSY; SPASMS; INFANTILE; Shagreen patches on the trunk; and subungual fibromas. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1011) Annotation: ID#: D014402


Definition: A plague-like disease of rodents, transmissible to man. It is caused by FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS and is characterized by fever, chills, headache, backache, and weakness. Annotation: caused by Francisella tularensis (formerly Pasteurella tularensis) ID#: D014406

Tumor Lysis Syndrome

Definition: A syndrome resulting from cytotoxic therapy, occurring generally in aggressive, rapidly proliferating lymphoproliferative disorders. It is characterized by combinations of hyperuricemia, lactic acidosis, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia. Annotation: lymphoproliferative disord caused by anticancer drugs; coord IM with /etiol (not /chem ind) + anticancer drug /adv eff (IM) + required neopl coords /drug ther (IM or NIM) if pertinent ID#: D015275

Tumor Virus Infections

Definition: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses. Annotation: coord IM with specific oncogenic virus (IM) ID#: D014412

Turner Syndrome

Definition: A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic women with a karyotype of sex chromosome monosomy (45,X or 45,XO), associated with the loss of a sex chromosome X or Y. Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated (streak) gonads, sexual infantilism (HYPOGONADISM), webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS (LH and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE) and decreased estradiol level in blood. Studies of Turner Syndrome and its variants have contributed significantly to the understanding of SEX DIFFERENTIATION. Annotation: in females; TURNER SYNDROME, MALE see NOONAN SYNDROME is also available ID#: D014424

Twins, Conjoined

Definition: Annotation: note category; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES ID#: D014428

Tympanic Membrane Perforation

Definition: An opening in the tympanic membrane usually caused by trauma. There are four general categories: compression injuries (the most common and usually the result of a blow to the ear); instrumentation injuries (the second most common, usually inadvertent, caused often by cotton swabs or bobby-pins); burn-slag injuries (frequently seen in industry, from hot metal from machines or welding); and blast injuries (usually seen during war or as a result of terrorist bombing). In the absence of infection, most traumatic tympanic membrane perforations heal spontaneously. Persistent perforation is usually a manifestation of tubotympanitis, an inflammation of the eustachian tube and tympanic cavity (middle ear). (From Paparella, Shumrick, Gluckman, and Meyerhoff: Otolaryngology, vol. II, 3d ed, pp1363-65) Annotation: perf of eardrum; usually traumatic ID#: D018058

Typhoid Fever

Definition: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI. Annotation: ID#: D014435

Typhus, Endemic Flea-Borne

Definition: An infectious disease clinically similar to epidemic louse-borne typhus (TYPHUS, EPIDEMIC LOUSE-BORNE), but caused by RICKETTSIA TYPHI, which is transmitted from rat to man by the rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis. Annotation: caused by Rickettsia typhi ID#: D014437

Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne

Definition: The classic form of typhus, caused by RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII, which is transmitted from man to man by the louse Pediculus humanus corporis. This disease is characterized by the sudden onset of intense headache, malaise, and generalized myalgia followed by the formation of a macular skin eruption and vascular and neurologic disturbances. Annotation: caused by Rickettsia prowazekii ID#: D014438


Definition: A group of disorders which have in common elevations of tyrosine in the blood and urine secondary to an enzyme deficiency. Type I tyrosinemia features episodic weakness, self-mutilation, hepatic necrosis, renal tubular injury, and seizures and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetase. Type II tyrosinemia features mental retardation, painful corneal ulcers, and keratoses of the palms and plantar surfaces and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme TYROSINE TRANSAMINASE. Type III tyrosinemia features mental retardation and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 4-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp42-3) Annotation: note X refs: consider also TYROSINE TRANSAMINASE /defic or other enzymes /defic ID#: D020176