Glossary of Bio-Medical Terms



F Factor

MS = A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the bacterial chromosome, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation of genetic material, and the formation of sex pili.

AN = sex factor of bacteria

UI = D005144



MS = Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.

UI = D028441



MS = The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various lectins like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININ from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots.

AN = prefer specific plant; X ref PONGAMIA: PONGAMIA PINNATA see MILLETTIA PINNATA and PONGAMIA ULIGINOSA see DERRIS are also available; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATION or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D007887



MS = A genus of the family COMOVIRIDAE with a wide host range among dicotyledons and some monocotyledons. They are transmitted nonpersistently by aphids. The type species is broad bean wilt virus 1.

AN = a genus of plant viruses; from FABA (Latin for bean) virus; coord IM with specific plant /virol (IM or NIM)

UI = D019181


Fabry Disease

MS = Lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A and resulting in an accumulation of globotriaosylceramide in the renal and cardiovascular systems. The disease is X-linked and is characterized by telangiectatic skin lesions, renal failure, and disturbances of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems.

AN = a lysosomal storage dis; do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; do not confuse X ref ANDERSON-FABRY DISEASE with ANDERSEN'S DISEASE see GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE IV

UI = D000795



MS = The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.

AN = usually NIM as site; soft parts = FACE, bones = FACIAL BONES or specifics; /abnorm permitted but FACIAL BONES /abnorm is more likely; facial fractures: see note on FACIAL BONES; craniofacial dysmorphism & craniofacial fibrous dysplasia & long face syndrome: see note also on FACIAL BONES

UI = D005145


Facial Asymmetry

MS = Congenital or acquired asymmetry of the face.

AN = if congen use /congen; do not confuse with FACIAL HEMIATROPHY; since asymmetry is lateral, long face syndrome does not go here: index under FACIAL BONES /abnorm (IM) + MALOCCLUSION or specific type (IM) + SYNDROME (NIM)

UI = D005146


Facial Bones

MS = The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)

AN = consider specifics; do not confuse with FACE (locational & soft tissue) or its specifics; /abnorm: consider also CRANIOFACIAL ABNORMALITIES; fractures: coord FACIAL BONES /inj (IM) + SKULL FRACTURES (IM); neopl: coord IM + SKULL NEOPLASMS; craniofacial dysmorphism: index under CRANIOFACIAL ABNORMALITIES; craniofacial dysplasia or craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: index under FACIAL BONES (IM) + SKULL (IM) + FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, POLYOSTOTIC (IM)

UI = D005147


Facial Dermatoses

AN = consider synonym for dermatitis of face & do not add DERMATITIS unless one of the specific DERMATITIS terms in MeSH; does not include neopl of face ( = FACIAL NEOPLASMS)

UI = D005148


Facial Expression

MS = Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.

AN = human & animal; a psychol response: do not confuse with FACIES, phys appearance characteristic of various dis; no qualif

UI = D005149


Facial Hemiatrophy

MS = A syndrome characterized by slowly progressive unilateral atrophy of facial subcutaneous fat, muscle tissue, skin, cartilage, and bone. The condition typically progresses over a period of 2-10 years and then stabilizes.


UI = D005150


Facial Injuries

MS = General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.

AN = GEN or unspecified for soft tissue or bony portions of face; consider also /inj with FACIAL BONES or specific facial bones; fractures: see note on FACIAL BONES; TN 115: use of FACIAL INJURIES & jaw inj

UI = D005151


Facial Muscles

MS = Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = /growth: coord with MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT; /embryol: coord with MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT if pertinent

UI = D005152


Facial Neoplasms

AN = usually of soft part of face; not for facial bone neopl ( = FACIAL BONES (IM) + SKULL NEOPLASMS (IM) ); HEAD AND NECK NEOPLASMS is also available; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with site (NIM) as merely locational + histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D005153


Facial Nerve

MS = The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and salivary glands, and convey afferent information for taste from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and for touch from the external ear.

AN = 7th cranial nerve; neopl: coord FACIAL NERVE DISEASES (IM) + CRANIAL NERVE NEOPLASMS (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D005154


Facial Nerve Diseases

MS = Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

UI = D005155


Facial Nerve Injuries

MS = Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.

UI = D020220


Facial Neuralgia

MS = Neuralgic syndromes and other conditions which feature chronic or recurrent FACIAL PAIN as the primary manifestation of disease. Disorders of the trigeminal and facial nerves are frequently associated with these conditions.

UI = D005156


Facial Pain

MS = Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.

UI = D005157


Facial Paralysis

MS = Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.

UI = D005158



MS = The appearance of the face that is often characteristic of a disease or pathological condition, as the elfin facies of Williams syndrome or the mongoloid facies of Down syndrome. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

AN = phys appearance characteristic of various dis: do not confuse with FACIAL EXPRESSION, a psychol response; no qualif; coord IM with assoc dis (IM)

UI = D019066


Facility Design and Construction

MS = Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.

AN = facilities other than hosp; HOSPITAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION is available; DF: FACILITY DESIGN

UI = D005160


Facility Regulation and Control

MS = Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.

AN = coord IM with facility (IM); DF: FACILITY REG

UI = D005161


Factitious Disorders

MS = Disorders characterized by physical or psychological symptoms that are not real, genuine, or natural.

AN = differentiate from SOMATOFORM DISORDERS: factitious are phys or psychol sympt under voluntary control, somatoform are phys sympt linked to psychol factors but not under voluntary control

UI = D005162


Factor Analysis, Statistical

MS = A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.

AN = a specific statist technique: not a synonym for "analysis of various factors..."; IM GEN only; coord NIM with specific disease or other concept (IM); no qualif

UI = D005163


Factor For Inversion Stimulation Protein

MS = A highly abundant DNA binding protein whose expression is strongly correlated with the growth phase of bacteria. The protein plays role in regulating DNA topology and activation of ribosomal RNA transcription. It was originally identified as a factor required for inversion stimulation by the Hin recombinase of SALMONELLA and Gin site-specific recombinase of BACTERIOPHAGE MU.

UI = D035021


Factor IX

MS = Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).

UI = D005164


Factor IXa

MS = Activated form of factor IX. This activation can take place via the intrinsic pathway by the action of factor XIa and calcium, or via the extrinsic pathway by the action of factor VIIa, thromboplastin, and calcium. Factor IXa serves to activate factor X to Xa by cleaving the arginyl-leucine peptide bond in factor X.


UI = D015949


Factor V

MS = Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.

AN = a blood coag factor

UI = D005165


Factor V Deficiency

MS = A deficiency of blood coagulation factor V (known as proaccelerin or accelerator globulin or labile factor) leading to a rare hemorrhagic tendency known as Owren's disease or parahemophilia. It varies greatly in severity. Factor V deficiency is an autosomal recessive trait. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = a blood coag disord; DF: FACTOR V DEFIC

UI = D005166


Factor Va

MS = Activated form of factor V. It is an essential cofactor for the activation of prothrombin catalyzed by factor Xa.

AN = a blood coag factor; /defic = FACTOR V DEFICIENCY

UI = D015943


Factor VII

MS = Heat- and storage-stable plasma protein that is activated by tissue thromboplastin to form factor VIIa in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. The activated form then catalyzes the activation of factor X to factor Xa.

AN = a blood coag factor

UI = D005167


Factor VII Deficiency

MS = An autosomal recessive characteristic or a coagulation disorder acquired in association with VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY. FACTOR VII is a Vitamin K dependent glycoprotein essential to the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.


UI = D005168


Factor VIIa

MS = Activated form of factor VII. Factor VIIa activates factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.

AN = a blood coag factor; a serine proteinase; /defic = FACTOR VII DEFICIENCY

UI = D015942


Factor VIII

MS = Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.

AN = a blood coag factor

UI = D005169


Factor VIIIa

MS = Activated form of factor VIII. The B-domain of factor VIII is proteolytically cleaved by thrombin to form factor VIIIa. Factor VIIIa exists as a non-covalent dimer in a metal-linked (probably calcium) complex and functions as a cofactor in the enzymatic activation of factor X by factor IXa. Factor VIIIa is similiar in structure and generation to factor Va.

AN = a blood coag factor; /defic = HEMOPHILIA

UI = D015944


Factor X

MS = Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.

AN = a blood coag factor

UI = D005170


Factor X Deficiency

MS = Blood coagulation disorder usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, though it can be acquired. It is characterized by defective activity in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, impaired thromboplastin time, and impaired prothrombin consumption.

AN = a blood coag disord; DF: FACTOR X DEFIC

UI = D005171


Factor Xa

MS = Activated form of factor X that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. It catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in conjunction with other cofactors.


UI = D015951


Factor XI

MS = Stable blood coagulation factor involved in the intrinsic pathway. The activated form XIa activates factor IX to IXa. Deficiency of factor XI is often called hemophilia C.

AN = a blood coag factor

UI = D005172


Factor XI Deficiency

MS = A deficiency of blood coagulation factor XI (known as plasma thromboplastin antecedent or PTA or antihemophilic factor C) resulting in a systemic blood-clotting defect called hemophilia C or Rosenthal's syndrome, that may resemble classical hemophilia. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = a blood coag disord; DF: FACTOR XI DEFIC

UI = D005173


Factor XIa

MS = Activated form of factor XI. In the intrinsic pathway, Factor XI is activated to XIa by factor XIIa in the presence of cofactor HMWK; (HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT KININOGEN). Factor XIa then activates factor IX to factor IXa in the presence of calcium.


UI = D015945


Factor XII

MS = Stable blood coagulation factor activated by contact with the subendothelial surface of an injured vessel. Along with prekallikrein, it serves as the contact factor that initiates the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Kallikrein activates factor XII to XIIa. Deficiency of factor XII, also called the Hageman trait, leads to increased incidence of thromboembolic disease.

AN = a blood coag factor

UI = D005174


Factor XII Deficiency

MS = An absence or reduced level of blood coagulation factor XII. It normally occurs in the absence of patient or family history of hemorrhagic disorders and is marked by prolonged clotting time.

AN = a blood coag disord; DF: FACTOR XII DEFIC

UI = D005175


Factor XIIa

MS = Activated form of factor XII. In the initial event in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation, kallikrein (with cofactor HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT KININOGEN) cleaves factor XII to XIIa. Factor XIIa is then further cleaved by kallikrein, plasmin, and trypsin to yield smaller factor XII fragments (Hageman-Factor fragments). These fragments increase the activity of prekallikrein to kallikrein but decrease the procoagulant activity of factor XII.


UI = D015956


Factor XIII

MS = A fibrin-stabilizing plasma enzyme (TRANSGLUTAMINASES) that is activated by THROMBIN and CALCIUM to form FACTOR XIIIA. It is important for stabilizing the formation of the fibrin polymer (clot) which culminates the coagulation cascade.

AN = activated form use FACTOR XIIIA

UI = D005176


Factor XIII Deficiency

MS = A deficiency of blood coagulation FACTOR XIII or fibrin stabilizing factor (FSF) that prevents blood clot formation and results in a clinical hemorrhagic diathesis.


UI = D005177


Factor XIIIa

MS = Activated form of FACTOR XIII, a transglutaminase, which stabilizes the formation of the fibrin polymer (clot) culminating the blood coagulation cascade.


UI = D026122



MS = The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.

AN = not for Faculté de Médecine nor Facultad de Medicina ( = SCHOOLS, MEDICAL); do not confuse FACULTY with TEACHING: FACULTY suggests differentiation from student or administrator, teaching suggests the imparting of knowledge (Manual 30.10); Manual 30.9, 34.14

UI = D005178


Faculty, Dental

MS = The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.

AN = Manual 30.9; DF: FACULTY DENT

UI = D005179


Faculty, Medical

MS = The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.

AN = Manual 30.9; see also note under FACULTY; DF: FACULTY MED

UI = D005180


Faculty, Nursing

MS = The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a nursing school.

AN = Manual 30.9; DF: FACULTY NURS

UI = D005181



MS = A selective aromatase inhibitor effective in the treatment of estrogen-dependent disease including breast cancer.

UI = D017316



MS = A plant family of the order Fagales subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida.

AN = prefer specific plant; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D029962



MS = A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D029964


Failure to Thrive

MS = A condition in which an infant or child's weight gain and growth are far below usual levels for age.

UI = D005183


Faith Healing

MS = The use of faith and spirit to cure disease.

UI = D029221


Falkland Islands

MS = A British colony in the Atlantic Islands, comprising two principal islands, East Falkland and West Falkland. Its capital is Stanley. Discovered in 1592, it was not occupied until the French settled there briefly in 1764. Later the English settled there but were expelled by the Spanish in 1770. The Falklands were claimed by Argentina but were occupied in 1833 by the British who, after an April 1982 invasion by Argentina, regained them in June. The islands were named by British Captain John Strong in 1690 for the fifth Viscount Falkland who financed Strong's expedition. The Spanish name for the islands, Malvinas, is from the French Malouins, inhabitants of St. Malo who attempted to colonize the islands in 1764. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p389 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p182)

AN = a Brit colony in the Atlantic Islands

UI = D019432


Fallopian Tube Diseases

MS = Diseases involving the FALLOPIAN TUBES including neoplasms (FALLOPIAN TUBE NEOPLASMS), SALPINGITIS, tubo-ovarian abscess and blockage.

AN = inflamm dis = SALPINGITIS

UI = D005184


Fallopian Tube Neoplasms

MS = Benign or malignant neoplasms of the FALLOPIAN TUBES. They are uncommon. If they develop, they may be located in the wall or within the lumen as a growth attached to the wall by a stalk.

AN = coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D005185


Fallopian Tube Patency Tests

MS = Methods for assessing the patency of the fallopian tubes.


UI = D005186


Fallopian Tubes

MS = A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.

AN = mammalian only; non-mammalian use OVIDUCTS; inflammation = SALPINGITIS; tubal sterilization = STERILIZATION, TUBAL; "fallopian" is not capitalized in titles or translations

UI = D005187


False Negative Reactions

MS = Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

AN = NIM; no qualif

UI = D005188


False Positive Reactions

MS = Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

AN = NIM; no qualif

UI = D005189


Familial Mediterranean Fever

MS = An autosomal recessive inherited disease characterized by episodic fever, severe abdominal pain, pleurisy, arthritis, and a characteristic ankle rash. Disease flare-ups tend to last 3 days, and individuals are asymptomatic between attacks. Orchitis, a benign recurrent MENINGITIS, headaches, and amyloid nephropathy may also occur. (From Medicine (Baltimore) 1998 Jul;77(4):268-97)

AN = a specific disease entity: do not use X ref PERIODIC DISEASE for periodically occurring dis ( = PERIODICITY (IM) + disease (IM))

UI = D010505



MS = A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.

AN = X ref FAMILY LIFE CYCLES refers to stages through which the family evolves (e.g., marriage, childbearing & death): do not confuse with LIFE CHANGE EVENTS

UI = D005190


Family Characteristics

MS = Size and composition of the family.

UI = D005191


Family Health

MS = The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.

AN = health status of family as a unit & impact on individual members; /ethnol permitted

UI = D005192


Family Leave

MS = The authorized absence from work of a family member to attend the illness or participate in the care of a parent, a sibling, or other family member. For the care of a parent for a child or for pre- or postnatal leave of a parent, PARENTAL LEAVE is available.

AN = to care for sibs, parents or other family members: do not confuse with PARENTAL LEAVE

UI = D017407


Family Nursing

MS = The provision of care involving the nursing process, to families and family members in health and illness situations. From Lippincott Manual of Nursing Practice. 6th ed.

UI = D022143


Family Planning

MS = Programs or services designed to assist the family in controlling reproduction by either improving or diminishing fertility.

AN = /legis: consider also FAMILY PLANNING POLICY

UI = D005193


Family Planning Policy

MS = A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.

AN = by government: for planning on family or personal level index under FAMILY PLANNING; specify state or country

UI = D016656


Family Practice

MS = A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif; articles with titles reading, e.g., "cortisone in general practice" are indexed under FAMILY PRACTICE as NIM if indexed there at all: use circumspectly

UI = D005194


Family Relations

MS = Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; DF: FAMILY RELAT

UI = D005195


Family Therapy

MS = A form of group psychotherapy. It involves treatment of more than one member of the family simultaneously in the same session.

AN = a group psychother technique; DF: FAMILY THER

UI = D005196



MS = A competitive histamine H2-receptor antagonist. Its main pharmacodynamic effect is the inhibition of gastric secretion.

UI = D015738


Famous Persons

AN = IM; no qualif; Manual 32.16.11, 32.16.12; when not to use: 32.16.7

UI = D005197


Fanconi Anemia

MS = Congenital disorder affecting all bone marrow elements, resulting in anemia, leukopenia, and thrombopenia, and associated with cardiac, renal, and limb malformations as well as dermal pigmentary changes. Spontaneous chromosome breakage is a feature of this disease along with predispostion to leukemia. There are at least 7 complementation groups in Fanconi anemia: FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man,, MIM# 227650, April 23, 2001)

AN = do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; do not confuse with FANCONI SYNDROME, a dysfunction of proximal renal tubules

UI = D005199


Fanconi Syndrome

MS = Constellation of clinical and laboratory manifestations produced by generalized proximal tubular insufficiency in the presence of normal, or nearly normal, glomerular filtration.

AN = TN 79: Fanconi syndromes not in MeSH: how to index; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; do not confuse with FANCONI ANEMIA which is sometimes refered to as Fanconi syndrome

UI = D005198



MS = A potent nitrofuran derivative tumor initiator. It causes bladder tumors in all animals studied and is mutagenic to many bacteria.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D005200



MS = An imagined sequence of events or mental images, e.g., daydreams.

AN = no qualif

UI = D005201


Far East

MS = A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.

AN = a geog area of east & southeast Asia; prefer specific countries

UI = D005202


Farmer's Lung

MS = Systemic and pulmonary reactions resulting from inhalation of dust from moldy hay, threshing dust, or moldy straw, by persons who have become hypersensitive to antigens in the dust. It is most often associated with inhalation of spores of Micromonospora faeni or Thermoactinomyces vulgaris. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = caused by bacteria Micropolyspora & Thermoactinomyces (see MICROMONOSPORACEAE)

UI = D005203



MS = A colorless liquid extracted from oils of plants such as citronella, neroli, cyclamen, and tuberose. It is an intermediate step in the biological synthesis of cholesterol from mevalonic acid in verterbrates. It has a delicate odor and is used in perfumery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

UI = D005204



UI = D005205


Fascia Lata

UI = D005206



MS = Involuntary contraction of the muscle fibers innervated by a motor unit. Fasciculations can often by visualized and take the form of a muscle twitch or dimpling under the skin, but usually do not generate sufficient force to move a limb. They may represent a benign condition or occur as a manifestation of MOTOR NEURON DISEASE or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1294)

AN = note category: do not confuse with axonal fasciculation (index under AXONS /physiol)

UI = D005207



MS = Inflammation of the fascia. There are three major types: 1) Eosinophilic fasciitis, an inflammatory reaction with eosinophilia, producing hard thickened skin with an orange-peel configuration suggestive of scleroderma and considered by some a variant of scleroderma; 2) Necrotizing fasciitis (FASCIITIS, NECROTIZING), a serious fulminating infection (usually by a beta hemolytic streptococcus) causing extensive necrosis of superficial fascia; 3) Nodular/Pseudosarcomatous /Proliferative fasciitis, characterized by a rapid growth of fibroblasts with mononuclear inflammatory cells and proliferating capillaries in soft tissue, often the forearm; it is not malignant but is sometimes mistaken for fibrosarcoma.

AN = see MeSH definition for major types; eosinophilic fasciitis: coord IM with EOSINOPHILIA (IM); FASCIITIS, NECROTIZING is available

UI = D005208


Fasciitis, Necrotizing

MS = A fulminating group A streptococcal infection beginning with severe or extensive cellulitis that spreads to involve the superficial and deep fascia, producing thrombosis of the subcutaneous vessels and gangrene of the underlying tissues. A cutaneous lesion usually serves as a portal of entry for the infection, but sometimes no such lesion is found. (Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = a fulminating Streptococcus pyogenes infect

UI = D019115


Fasciitis, Plantar

MS = Inflammation of the thick tissue on the bottom of the foot (plantar fascia) causing HEEL pain. The plantar fascia (also called plantar aponeurosis) are bands of fibrous tissue extending from the calcaneal tuberosity to the TOES. The etiology of plantar fasciitis remains controversial but is likely to involve a biomechanical imbalance.Though often presenting along with HEEL SPUR, they do not appear to be causally related.

UI = D036981



MS = A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Fasciolidae. Two species of this genus are F. hepatica and F. gigantica. The parasites are found in the liver and gallbladder and associated ducts in mammals and occasionally man. F. gigantica occurs rarely in man.

AN = infection = FASCIOLIASIS; for antigens, coord with ANTIGENS, HELMINTH, for antibodies, coord with ANTIBODIES, HELMINTH

UI = D005209


Fasciola hepatica

MS = A species of helminth commonly called the sheep liver fluke. It occurs in the biliary passages, liver, and gallbladder during various stages of development. Snails and aquatic vegetation are the intermediate hosts. Occasionally seen in man, it is most common in sheep and cattle.

AN = infection = FASCIOLIASIS & do not bother to coord with FASCIOLA HEPATICA unless particularly discussed (index IM); for antigens, coord with ANTIGENS, HELMINTH, for antibodies, coord with ANTIBODIES, HELMINTH

UI = D005210



MS = Helminth infection of the liver caused by species of Fasciola.

AN = trematode infect of liver caused by FASCIOLA; do not confuse with FASCIOLOIDIASIS (caused by Fascioloides) or FASCIOLOPSIASIS (caused by Fasciolopsis)

UI = D005211



MS = A family of flukes of the class Trematoda occurring primarily in the liver of animals and man. There are six genera: Fasciola, Fasciolopsis, Fascioloides, Tenuifasciola, Parafasciolopsis, and Protofasciola. The adult form of Fasciolopsis occurs in the intestines of pigs and man.

AN = a family of trematodes; infection: coord IM with TREMATODE INFECTIONS (IM) but note specific FASCIOL- disease terms; for antigens, coord with ANTIGENS, HELMINTH, for antibodies, coord with ANTIBODIES, HELMINTH

UI = D005212



MS = Infection of cattle and other herbivores with the giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna. It is characterized by extensive destruction of the liver parenchyma.

AN = trematode infect; usually animal; check tag ANIMAL; caused by FASCIOLOIDES; do not confuse with FASCIOLIASIS (caused by FASCIOLA) or FASCIOLOPSIASIS (caused by FASCIOLOPSIS)

UI = D005213


Fast Neutrons

MS = Neutrons, the energy of which exceeds some arbitrary level, usually around one million electron volts.

AN = elementary particles; IM

UI = D005214



MS = Abstaining from all food.

AN = human & animal; differs from STARVATION in matter of degree: TN 80; FOOD DEPRIVATION is also available

UI = D005215


Fat Body

MS = A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.

AN = in amphibia & insects

UI = D005216


Fat Emulsions, Intravenous

MS = Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D005217


Fat Necrosis

MS = A condition in which the death of adipose tissue results in neutral fats being split into fatty acids and glycerol.

UI = D005218


Fat Substitutes

MS = Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.

AN = IM; coord with specific substitute (IM) if pertinent; D25-26 qualif

UI = D019358


Fatal Outcome

MS = Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.

AN = never IM; used only for individual fatalities: do not confuse with MORTALITY or /mortal, both epidemiol & statist concepts, or with DEATH, a physiol process; do not use for animal toxicity studies ( = /toxicity); coord NIM with specific dis or procedure with no qualif (IM); check tag CASE REPORT

UI = D017809


Father-Child Relations

MS = Interaction between the father and the child.


UI = D005219



MS = Male parents, human or animal.

AN = human & animal; /psychol: consider also FATHER-CHILD RELATIONS

UI = D005220



MS = The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.

AN = do not use for fatigue of isolated muscle fibers in physiol exper ( = MUSCLE FATIGUE)

UI = D005221


Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic

MS = A syndrome characterized by persistent or recurrent fatigue, diffuse musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbances, and subjective cognitive impairment of 6 months duration or longer. Symptoms are not caused by ongoing exertion; are not relieved by rest; and result in a substantial reduction of previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities. Minor alterations of immune, neuroendocrine, and autonomic function may be associated with this syndrome. There is also considerable overlap between this condition and FIBROMYALGIA. (From Semin Neurol 1998;18(2):237-42; Ann Intern Med 1994 Dec 15;121(12): 953-9)

AN = a clinical entity: do not confuse with "chronic fatigue" ( = FATIGUE (IM) + CHRONIC DISEASE (NIM)); DF: CFIDS

UI = D015673



MS = The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

AN = table fats only or fats "outside the body"; differentiate from LIPIDS ("inside the body" but not body fat which = ADIPOSE TISSUE); do not confuse with DIETARY FATS

UI = D005223


Fats, Unsaturated

MS = Fats containing one or more double bonds, as from oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid.

UI = D005224


Fatty Acid Desaturases

MS = Enzymes that catalyze the conversion of saturated fatty acid CoA complexes to unsaturated fatty acid CoA complexes in the presence of any acceptor. They include EC, EC and EC

UI = D005225


Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex

UI = D005226


Fatty Acids

MS = Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

UI = D005227


Fatty Acids, Essential

MS = Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specific groups or specific acid

UI = D005228


Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated

MS = Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.

UI = D005229


Fatty Acids, Nonesterified

MS = FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.

AN = DF: note short X ref

UI = D005230


Fatty Acids, Omega-3

MS = A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.

AN = "often of marine origin": specify source if pertinent

UI = D015525


Fatty Acids, Unsaturated

MS = FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specific groups or specific acid

UI = D005231


Fatty Acids, Volatile

MS = Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specific groups or specific acid

UI = D005232


Fatty Alcohols

MS = Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

UI = D005233


Fatty Liver

MS = Yellow discoloration of the liver due to fatty degeneration of liver parenchymal cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = fatty degeneration of liver cells

UI = D005234


Fatty Liver, Alcoholic

MS = Fatty liver in alcoholics. It is potentially reversible and may be associated with alcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis.

UI = D005235



MS = Hemolytic anemia due to the ingestion of fava beans or after inhalation of pollen from the Vicia fava plant by persons with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient erythrocytes.

AN = a hemolytic anemia caused by fava bean or its pollen

UI = D005236



MS = The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.

AN = human & animal

UI = D005239


Feasibility Studies

MS = Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.

AN = IM GEN only; coord NIM with specific subject (IM); no qualif

UI = D005240



UI = D005241


Fecal Incontinence

MS = Failure of voluntary control of the anal sphincters, with involuntary passage of feces and flatus.

AN = of organic origin: differentiate from ENCOPRESIS, of psychol origin

UI = D005242



AN = /parasitol: often coord with PARASITE EGG COUNT; consider also DEFECATION; CONSTIPATION; DIARRHEA; FECES, IMPACTED & FECAL INCONTINENCE; fecalith: index FECES, IMPACTED; fecal blood: index under OCCULT BLOOD & not also here

UI = D005243


Feces, Impacted

MS = A large firm mass of stool formed in the rectum or distal colon.

AN = note category

UI = D005244


Federal Government

MS = The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.

AN = not restricted to the U.S.; use when legislation or regulation at the national, as opposed to the state, provincial, or local level, is under discussion; specify country

UI = D035082


Fee Schedules

MS = A listing of established professional service charges, for specified dental and medical procedures.

UI = D005245


Fee-for-Service Plans

MS = Method of charging whereby a physician or other practitioner bills for each encounter or service rendered. In addition to physicians, other health care professionals are reimbursed via this mechanism. Fee-for-service plans contrast with salary, per capita, and prepayment systems, where the payment does not change with the number of services actually used or if none are used. (From Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)

UI = D018588



MS = A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.

AN = note category; FEEDBACK, BIOCHEMICAL and FEEDBACK, PSYCHOLOGICAL are also available

UI = D005246


Feedback, Biochemical

MS = A mechanism of communication among life processes to coordinate development, reproduction, and homeostasis. In humans, feedback loops are especially important for communication between organs that are spatially separated. Virtually all hormones from the nervous and endocrine systems are under feedback control: by peripheral hormones, cations, metabolites, osmolarity or extracellular fluid volume.

UI = D025461


Feedback, Psychological

MS = A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)

AN = FEEDBACK and FEEDBACK, BIOCHEMICAL are also available

UI = D030141


Feeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood

MS = Mental disorders related to feeding and eating that are usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.


UI = D019959


Feeding Behavior

MS = Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.

AN = human & animal; = manner of eating or feeding (TN 63): differentiate from EATING, the act of eating or feeding; permitted for feeding behavior of insects, as mosquitoes on skin, ticks sucking blood, maggots on flesh, etc., but NIM with feeding organism IM

UI = D005247


Feeding Methods

MS = Methods of giving food to humans or animals.

AN = human & animal; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D005248


Fees and Charges

MS = Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.


UI = D005249


Fees, Dental

MS = Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.


UI = D005250


Fees, Medical

MS = Amounts charged to the patient as payer for medical services.


UI = D005251


Fees, Pharmaceutical

MS = Amounts charged to the patient or third-party payer for medication. It includes the pharmacist's professional fee and cost of ingredients, containers, etc.

AN = costs to the patient or third-party payer: do not confuse with DRUG COSTS which are costs to a health facility or organiz; DF: FEES PHARM

UI = D005252



MS = A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE that is cultivated for the edible fruit, which is different from the ordinary guava (PSIDIUM).

AN = GUAVA see PSIDIUM is also available; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031646


Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

MS = Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).

AN = caused by a lentivirus; coord IM with FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (IM) or LEUKEMIA VIRUS, FELINE (IM) if pertinent; don't forget also CATS (NIM) & check tag ANIMAL; DF: note short X ref

UI = D016181


Feline Infectious Peritonitis

MS = Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.


UI = D016766


Feline Panleukopenia

MS = A highly contagious DNA virus infection of the cat family and of mink, characterized by fever, enteritis and bone marrow changes. It is also called feline ataxia, feline agranulocytosis, feline infectious enteritis, cat fever, cat plague, show fever.

AN = caused by a parvovirus; don't forget also CATS (NIM) & check tag ANIMAL; in minks, coord with MINK (IM)

UI = D005254


Feline panleukopenia virus

MS = A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.

AN = infection = FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA but see note there

UI = D028301


Fellowships and Scholarships

MS = Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.

AN = SPEC qualif; specify agency or govt & geog if possible; DF: FELLOWSHIPS

UI = D005257



MS = A dihydropyridine calcium antagonist with positive inotropic effects. It lowers blood pressure by reducing peripheral vascular resistance through a highly selective action on smooth muscle in arteriolar resistance vessels.

UI = D015736


Felty's Syndrome

MS = A combination of rheumatoid arthritis, splenomegaly, leukopenia, pigmented spots on lower extremities, and other evidence of hypersplenism (anemia and thrombocytopenia). (From Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = a type of rheum arthritis

UI = D005258



MS = Synthetic analog of LYPRESSIN with more vasoconstrictor than antidiuretic action. It is used as a hemostatic.

AN = a vasoconstrictor

UI = D005259



AN = check tag only for female organs, diseases, physiol processes, genetics, etc.; do not confuse with WOMEN as a social, cultural, political, economic force; Manual 18.9+, 34.12; 35.6.2 CATALOG: do not use: for indexers only

UI = D005260


Female Genital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications

AN = not used for indexing CATALOG: do not use

UI = D005261



MS = The theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes and organized activity on behalf of women's rights and interests. (Webster New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)

AN = polit, econ & social equality of women to men

UI = D019513



AN = develop of female secondary sex characteristics in the male; check the tag MALE

UI = D005262


Femoral Artery

MS = The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.

UI = D005263


Femoral Fractures

MS = Fractures of the femur.

AN = of femoral shaft only; see X refs & note at HIP FRACTURES

UI = D005264


Femoral Neck Fractures

MS = Fractures of the short, constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters. It excludes intertrochanteric fractures which are HIP FRACTURES.

UI = D005265


Femoral Neoplasms

AN = /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with specific FEMUR HEAD or FEMUR NECK (NIM) as merely locational + histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D005266


Femoral Nerve

MS = A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.

AN = dis = FEMORAL NEUROPATHY; neopl = FEMORAL NEUROPATHY (IM) + PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM NEOPLASMS (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM); posterior femoral cutaneous nerve: index under PERIPHERAL NERVES

UI = D005267


Femoral Neuropathy

MS = Disease involving the femoral nerve. The femoral nerve may be injured by ISCHEMIA (e.g., in association with DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES), nerve compression, trauma, COLLAGEN DISEASES, and other disease processes. Clinical features include MUSCLE WEAKNESS or PARALYSIS of hip flexion and knee extension, ATROPHY of the quadriceps muscles, reduced or absent patellar reflex, and impaired sensation over the anterior and medial thigh.

UI = D020428


Femoral Vein

MS = The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.

UI = D005268



MS = The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.

AN = fractures: FEMORAL FRACTURES & FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES are available but see note under HIP FRACTURES; do not index under FEMUR when THIGH is meant: see note there

UI = D005269


Femur Head

MS = The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)

AN = fract = FEMUR HEAD /inj (IM) + HIP FRACTURES (IM); avascular or aseptic necrosis of hip goes under FEMUR HEAD NECROSIS

UI = D005270


Femur Head Necrosis

MS = Aseptic or avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The major types are idiopathic (primary), as a complication of fractures or dislocations, and LEGG-PERTHES DISEASE.

UI = D005271


Femur Neck


UI = D005272



MS = Antinematodal benzimidazole used in veterinary medicine.

UI = D005273



MS = A selective and irreversible inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin (5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE). Fenclonine acts pharmacologically to deplete endogenous levels of serotonin.

UI = D010134



MS = Coronary vasodilator; inhibits calcium function in muscle cells in excitation-contraction coupling; proposed as antiarrhythmic and antianginal agents.

UI = D005275


Fenestration, Labyrinth

MS = The surgical creation of a new opening in the labyrinth of the ear for the restoration of hearing in cases of OTOSCLEROSIS. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = to cure otosclerosis; do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D005276



MS = A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.

UI = D005277



MS = An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.

AN = TN 111 for eff on insects

UI = D005278



MS = A dopamine D1 receptor agonist that is used as an antihypertensive agent. It lowers blood pressure through arteriolar vasodilation.

UI = D018818



MS = An anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic highly bound to plasma proteins. It is pharmacologically similar to ASPIRIN, but causes less gastrointestinal bleeding.

UI = D005279



MS = An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.

UI = D005280



MS = A synthetic retinoid that is used orally as a chemopreventive against prostate cancer and in women at risk of developing contralateral breast cancer. It is also effective as an antineoplastic agent.

UI = D017313



MS = A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)

UI = D005283



MS = Potent cholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide and acaricide.

AN = TN 111 for eff on insects

UI = D005284



MS = An enzyme-induced chemical change in organic compounds that takes place in the absence of oxygen. The change usually results in the production of ETHANOL or LACTIC ACID, and the production of energy.

AN = almost never IM; enzymatic fermentation: coord NIM with specific enzyme (IM) + substrate (NIM)

UI = D005285



MS = Fermium. A man-made radioactive actinide with atomic symbol Fm, atomic number 100, and atomic weight 257. Its known isotopes range from 244-254 and 256-258. Its valence can be +2 or +3. Like einsteinium, it was discovered in 1952 in the debris from a thermonuclear explosion.

AN = man-made radioactive element; IM

UI = D005286



MS = Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are in the division, or phylum, Tracheophyta.

AN = prefer specific plant; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D029624


Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of ferredoxin or adrenodoxin in the presence of NADP. EC

UI = D005287



MS = Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

AN = bact & plant proteins; /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted

UI = D005288



MS = Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting rodents and/or rabbits and as a laboratory animal.

AN = IM; qualif permitted

UI = D005289


Ferric Compounds

MS = Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.

AN = = iron(III) or Fe(III), as Fe2O3, FeCl3; iron(II) or Fe(II) = FERROUS COMPOUNDS; hematinics; DF: FERRIC CPDS

UI = D005290



MS = A cyclic peptide consisting of three residues of delta-N-hydroxy-delta-N-acetylornithine. It acts as an iron transport agent in Ustilago sphaerogena.

UI = D005291



MS = Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.

AN = do not confuse with FERROCYANIDES

UI = D005292



MS = An iron-containing protein complex that is formed by a combination of ferric iron with the protein APOFERRITIN.

UI = D005293



MS = An enzyme widely distributed in cells and tissues. It is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane and catalyzes the formation of heme from protoporphyrin IX and ferrous ions during the terminal step in the heme biosynthetic pathway. EC

UI = D005294



MS = Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).

AN = do not confuse with FERRICYANIDES

UI = D005295


Ferrous Compounds

MS = Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.

AN = = iron(II) or Fe(II), as FeO, FeCl2; iron(III) or Fe(III) = FERRIC COMPOUNDS; DF: FERROUS CPDS

UI = D005296



MS = A ferroin compound that forms a stable magenta-colored solution with the ferrous ion. The complex has an absorption peak at 562 nm and is used as a reagent and indicator for iron.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D005297



MS = The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.

AN = IM for human, other mammals, birds & fish, NIM for animals lower than fish, plants & micro-organisms; /drug eff: consider also FERTILITY AGENTS

UI = D005298


Fertility Agents

MS = Drugs used to increase fertility or to treat infertility.

AN = consider also FERTILITY /drug eff

UI = D005299


Fertility Agents, Female

MS = Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.

UI = D005300


Fertility Agents, Male

MS = Compounds which increase the capacity of the male to induce conception.

UI = D005303



MS = The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.

AN = physiol fertilization only: FERTILIZATION IN VITRO (Cat E2 and E5) is also available

UI = D005306


Fertilization in Vitro

MS = An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.

AN = do not check the tags IN VITRO, PREGNANCY or FEMALE

UI = D005307



MS = Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.

UI = D005308



MS = A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. It contains pungent oils and resins. It is used to flavor curries, as a carminative, and as cat and dog repellent. The occasionally used common name of 'giant fennel' should not be confused with true fennel (FOENICULUM).

AN = distinguish from true Fennel = FOENICULUM; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D005309


Festschrift [Publication Type]

MS = Work consisting of a collection of essays or other writings contributed by students, teachers, colleagues, and admirers to honor a scholar, physician, or other scientist on a special occasion noting an event of importance in his or her life.

AN = publication type only; check appropriate hist tags; Manual 32.18.8

UI = D016221



MS = A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of fescue is also used with some other grasses.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031751


Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

MS = A disorder occurring in children born to alcoholic women who continue to drink heavily during pregnancy. Common abnormalities are growth deficiency (prenatal and postnatal), altered morphogenesis, mental deficiency, and characteristic facies - small eyes and flattened nasal bridge. Fine motor dysfunction and tremulousness are observed in the newborn.

AN = in inf born to alcoholic mother; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D005310


Fetal Anoxia

MS = Fetal oxygen deficiency.

AN = do not confuse with ASPHYXIA NEONATORUM

UI = D005311


Fetal Blood

MS = Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.

UI = D005312


Fetal Death

MS = Death of the young developing in utero.

AN = Cat C qualif; must refer to fetus only & not to mother

UI = D005313


Fetal Diseases

AN = GEN: prefer specifics; FETAL DISTRESS is available; anoxia = FETAL ANOXIA: do not confuse with ASPHYXIA NEONATORUM

UI = D005315


Fetal Distress

MS = Adverse or threatening condition of the fetus identified by fetal bradycardia or tachycardia and passage of meconium in vertex presentation.

AN = manifested by fetal bradycardia or tachycardia; do not confuse with RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME (postnatal)

UI = D005316


Fetal Growth Retardation

MS = The failure of a fetus to attain its expected growth potential at any gestational stage.

UI = D005317


Fetal Heart

MS = The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.

AN = mammals only; use all pertinent qualif (except /blood supply) & do not coord with MYOCARDIUM for HEART/MYOCARDIUM restrictions; not for chick embryo heart ( = CHICK EMBRYO + HEART /embryol)

UI = D005318


Fetal Hemoglobin

MS = The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.


UI = D005319


Fetal Macrosomia

MS = A complication of several conditions including DIABETES MELLITUS and prolonged pregnancy. A macrosomic fetus is defined as weighing more than 4000 grams.

AN = do not confuse with INFANT, POSTMATURE (born after 42 wks of gestation)

UI = D005320


Fetal Membranes

MS = Thin layers of tissue which surround the embryo or fetus and provide for its nutrition, respiration, excretion and protection; they are the yolk sac, allantois, amnion, and chorion.

AN = mammalian only but specifics may be used with non-mammalian (e.g., CHICK EMBRYO); induced rupture = LABOR, INDUCED; premature rupture = FETAL MEMBRANES, PREMATURE RUPTURE; rupture in normal labor = FETAL MEMBRANES (IM) + LABOR (IM)

UI = D005321


Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture

MS = Spontaneous rupture of amniotic sac before the onset of uterine contractions.

AN = before onset of uterine contractions; DF: PROM

UI = D005322


Fetal Monitoring

MS = Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.

AN = during LABOR, OBSTETRIC or during prenatal maternal surg

UI = D005323


Fetal Movement

MS = Motion of the fetus perceived by the mother and felt by palpation of the abdomen.

UI = D005324


Fetal Organ Maturity

MS = Functional competence of specific fetal organs or body systems. In humans, it is usually assessed by analysis of amniotic fluid, as in the assessment of fetal lung maturity by analysis for components of pulmonary surfactant.

AN = coord NIM with organ /embryol (IM)

UI = D005325


Fetal Proteins

UI = D005326


Fetal Research

MS = Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, this corresponds to the period from the third month after fertilization until birth.

AN = mammalian only; IM for ethical, legal, moral, social, or religious aspects of research on fetuses; do not routinely add for research involving fetuses; X ref Fetal Cell Research: coord with specific type of cell

UI = D033042


Fetal Resorption

MS = Death and resorption of the fetus at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of gestation. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).

AN = "after completion of organogenesis": does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS)

UI = D005327


Fetal Tissue Transplantation

MS = Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.

AN = fetal or embryonic; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; coord IM with specific tissue in Cat A16 /transpl (IM or NIM) or specific fetal organ /embryol (IM or NIM) + specific fetal organ /transpl (IM or NIM); do not coord with TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS unless particularly discussed; transpl of fetal brain tissue: coord IM with BRAIN TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION (IM) + specific brain tissue /transpl + /embryol if pertinent (IM or NIM)

UI = D016332


Fetal Viability

MS = The potential of the fetus-in-utero to survive after birth.

UI = D005328


Fetal Weight

MS = The weight of the fetus in utero, which is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.

AN = mammalian only

UI = D020567


Fetishism (Psychiatric)

MS = A condition in which inanimate objects are utilized as a preferred or exclusive method of stimulating erotic arousal.

AN = belief in religious or magic fetishes goes under RELIGION; SUPERSTITION & its indentions, ANTHROPOLOGY, CULTURAL or other pertinent term; DF: FETISHISM

UI = D005329


Fetofetal Transfusion

MS = Passage of blood from one fetus to another via an arteriovenous communication or other shunt, in a monozygotic twin pregnancy. It results in anemia in one twin and polycythemia in the other. (Lee et al., Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p737-8)

AN = "passage of blood from one fetus to another via an arteriovenous communication or other shunt"; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; do not coord with DISEASES IN TWINS; TN 186: differentiate among various "transfusion" concepts

UI = D005330


Fetomaternal Transfusion

MS = Transplacental passage of fetal blood into the circulation of the maternal organism. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = transplacental passage of blood from fetus to mother's circ; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; TN 186: differentiate among various "transfusion" concepts; transfer of immunity from mother to fetus = IMMUNITY, MATERNALLY-ACQUIRED

UI = D005331



MS = Endoscopes for viewing the embryo, fetus and amniotic cavity.

UI = D020669



MS = Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the fetus and amniotic cavity through abdominal or uterine entry.

UI = D005332



MS = The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO.

AN = mammalian only; human: 3d month to term; fetus in fetu: index under FETUS /abnorm; FETUS and PREGNANCY: Manual 18.4.3, 21.55; definition & use: 21.53; specialty for fetus & newborn inf = PERINATOLOGY; retained fetus: index under ABORTION, MISSED; for mummified fetus, consider also ABORTION, MISSED; lithopedion: coord FETUS (IM) + CALCINOSIS (IM); intrauterine surg goes under FETUS /surg; fetal organs & tissues in tissue & cell cultures: coord FETUS + organ or tissue without qualif (not with /embryol) + culture term, all probably NIM

UI = D005333



MS = An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.

AN = /ther = treatment of FEVER: differentiate from FEVER THERAPY see HYPERTHERMIA, INDUCED ( = high body temp induced to treat dis); /chem ind: consider also HYPERTHERMIA, INDUCED or PYROGENS

UI = D005334


Fever of Unknown Origin

MS = Fever in which the etiology cannot be ascertained.

AN = referred to as FUO; for ultimate determ of cause or origin coord FEVER OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN /etiol (IM) (not /diag) + disease /compl (IM) (not /diag)

UI = D005335


Fiber Optics

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif

UI = D005336


Fibril-Associated Collagens

MS = A family of non-fibrillar collagens that interact with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS. They contain short triple helical domains interrupted by short non-helical domains and do not form into collagen fibrils.


UI = D024021


Fibrillar Collagens

MS = A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.

AN = GEN; prefer specifics; do not confuse with FIBRIL-ASSOCIATED COLLAGENS or MICROFIBRIL COLLAGEN HEMOSTAT see COLLAGEN; precusors: coord IM with PROCOLLAGEN (IM)

UI = D024022



MS = A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.

UI = D005337


Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products

MS = Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.

AN = in texts as FDP; DF: FFDP

UI = D005338


Fibrin Foam

MS = A dry artificial sterile sponge of fibrin prepared by clotting with thrombin a foam or solution of fibrinogen. It is used in conjunction with thrombin as a hemostatic in surgery at sites where bleeding cannot be controlled by more common methods. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p648)

AN = a hemostatic

UI = D005339


Fibrin Tissue Adhesive

MS = An autologous or commercial tissue adhesive containing fibrinogen and thrombin. The commercial product is a two component system from human plasma that contains more than fibrinogen and thrombin. The first component contains highly concentrated fibrinogen, Factor VIII, fibronectin, and traces of other plasma proteins. The second component contains thrombin, calcium chloride, and antifibrinolytic agents such as aprotinin. Mixing of the two components promotes clotting and the formation and cross-linking of fibrin. The tissue adhesive is used for tissue sealing, hemostasis, and wound healing.

UI = D015718



MS = Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.

AN = a blood coag factor: do not confuse X ref FACTOR I with COMPLEMENT FACTOR I

UI = D005340


Fibrinogens, Abnormal

MS = Fibrinogens which have a functional defect as the result of one or more amino acid substitutions in the amino acid sequence of normal fibrinogen. Abnormalities of the fibrinogen molecule may impair any of the major steps involved in the conversion of fibrinogen into stabilized fibrin, such as cleavage of the fibrinopeptides by thrombin, polymerization and cross-linking of fibrin. The resulting dysfibrinogenemias can be clinically silent or can be associated with bleeding, thrombosis or defective wound healing.

AN = "have a functional defect as the result of one or more amino acid substitutions in the amino acid seq of normal fibrinogen"; DF: FIBRINOGENS ABNORM

UI = D015241



MS = The natural enzymatic dissolution of FIBRIN.

UI = D005342


Fibrinolytic Agents

MS = Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to fibrinolysin (PLASMIN).

UI = D005343


Fibrinopeptide A

MS = Two small peptide chains removed from the N-terminal segment of the alpha chains of fibrinogen by the action of thrombin during the blood coagulation process. Each peptide chain contains 18 amino acid residues. In vivo, fibrinopeptide A is used as a marker to determine the rate of conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by thrombin.

UI = D005344


Fibrinopeptide B

MS = Two small peptide chains removed from the N-terminal segment of the beta chains of fibrinogen by the action of thrombin. Each peptide chain contains 20 amino acid residues. The removal of fibrinopeptides B is not required for coagulation.

UI = D005345



MS = An adenoma containing fibrous tissue. It should be differentiated from ADENOFIBROMA which is a tumor composed of connective tissue (fibroma) containing glandular (adeno-) structures. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = do not confuse with ADENOFIBROMA; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with organ/neopl term (IM)

UI = D018226


Fibroblast Growth Factor 1

MS = A 17 kD single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).


UI = D016220


Fibroblast Growth Factor 2

MS = A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).


UI = D016222


Fibroblast Growth Factors

MS = A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.

UI = D005346



MS = Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.

UI = D005347


Fibrocystic Disease of Breast

MS = A chronic disorder comprising three variants which range from lesions consisting primarily of an overgrowth of fibrous tissue to those characterized by dominance of the proliferation of the epithelial parenchyma to a form of dysplasia characterized by both stromal and epithelial hyperplasia with the formation of cysts.

AN = commonly chronic so do not coord with CHRONIC DISEASE; breast cyst fluid: coord IM with EXUDATES AND TRANSUDATES with pertinent qualif (NIM)

UI = D005348



AN = /biosyn /physiol permitted

UI = D005349



MS = A benign tumor of fibrous or fully developed connective tissue.

AN = not for uterine fibroma ( = LEIOMYOMA + UTERINE NEOPLASMS); note X ref FIBROMATOSIS but FIBROMATOSIS, ABDOMINAL; FIBROMATOSIS, AGGRESSIVE & FIBROMATOSIS, GINGIVAL are available; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM)

UI = D005350


Fibroma Virus, Rabbit

MS = A species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing subcutaneous localized swellings in rabbits, usually on the feet.

AN = X ref SHOPE FIBROMA VIRUS, described by Shope in 1932: do not confuse with SHOPE PAPILLOMA VIRUS; infection: coord IM with POXVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM) + TUMOR VIRUS INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D012776


Fibroma, Desmoplastic

MS = A extremely rare bone tumor characterized by abundant collagen formation and a fibrous stroma, without evidence of mitosis or pleomorphism. It appears on x-rays as an osteolytic lesion with well-defined margins and must be differentiated from primary fibrosarcoma of bone. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1441)

AN = /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with BONE NEOPLASMS (IM) or specific precoord bone/neopl term (IM) or specific bone (IM) + BONE NEOPLASMS (IM)

UI = D018220


Fibroma, Ossifying

MS = A benign, relatively slow-growing, central bone tumor, usually of the jaws (especially the mandible) which is composed of fibrous connective tissue within which bone is formed. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with BONE NEOPLASMS (IM) or specific precoord bone/neopl term (IM) or specific bone (IM) + BONE NEOPLASMS (IM)

UI = D018214


Fibromatosis, Abdominal

MS = A relatively large mass of unusually firm scarlike connective tissue resulting from active participation of fibroblasts, occurring most frequently in the abdominal muscles of women who have borne children. The fibroblasts infiltrate surrounding muscle and fascia. (Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = abdom refers to the abdom muscles; multiple; solitary = probably FIBROMA; do not use /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct; do not coord with ABDOMINAL MUSCLES or ABDOMINAL NEOPLASMS (see note there)

UI = D018221


Fibromatosis, Aggressive

MS = A childhood counterpart of abdominal or extra-abdominal desmoid tumors, characterized by firm subcutaneous nodules that grow rapidly in any part of the body but do not metastasize. The adult form of abdominal fibromatosis is FIBROMATOSIS, ABDOMINAL. (Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = in children; do not use /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term if specified (IM)

UI = D018222


Fibromatosis, Gingival

MS = Generalized or localized diffuse fibrous overgrowth of the gingival tissue, usually transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, but some cases are idiopathic and others produced by drugs. The enlarged gingiva is pink, firm, and has a leather-like consistency with a minutely pebbled surface and in severe cases the teeth are almost completely covered and the enlargement projects into the oral vestibule. (Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = non-neoplastic; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D005351


Fibromuscular Dysplasia

MS = An idiopathic, segmental, nonatheromatous disease of the musculature of arterial walls, leading to stenosis of small and medium-sized arteries. Most commonly affected are the renal arteries; involvement of the axillary, iliac, basilar, carotid, hepatic and intracranial arteries have been reported.

AN = affects musculature of arterial walls: do not confuse with various musc dis in Cat C5; coord IM with specific artery or pre-coord arterial dis (IM)

UI = D005352



MS = A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)

UI = D005356



MS = Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.

AN = extracellular matrix proteins; /biosyn /physiol permitted

UI = D005353



MS = A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM)

UI = D005354



MS = Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.

AN = NIM only as pathol process with no qualif: coord with Cat A term /pathol (IM); several specific fibrosis terms are also available

UI = D005355


Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone

MS = A disease of bone marked by thinning of the cortex and replacement of bone marrow by gritty fibrous tissue containing bony spicules, producing pain, disability, and gradually increasing deformity. Only one bone may be involved (FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, MONOSTOTIC) or several (FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, POLYOSTOTIC). (From Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; periapical fibrous dysplasia = CEMENTOMA; craniofacial fibrous dysplasia = FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, POLYOSTOTIC (IM) + SKULL (IM) + FACIAL BONES (IM)

UI = D005357


Fibrous Dysplasia, Monostotic

MS = FIBROUS DYSPLASIA OF BONE involving only one bone.

AN = Jaffe-Lichtenstein usually goes here but check text for possible "polyostotic"

UI = D005358


Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic

MS = FIBROUS DYSPLASIA OF BONE affecting several or many bones. When associated with melanotic pigmentation of the skin and endocrine disorders, it is known as Albright's syndrome. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = sometimes Jaffe-Lichtenstein (usually monostotic) goes here: check text; craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: coord IM with FACIAL BONES (IM) + SKULL (IM)

UI = D005359



MS = The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.

UI = D005360



MS = A sulfhydryl proteinase with cysteine at the active site from ficus latex. Preferential cleavage is at tyrosine and phenylalanine residues. EC

UI = D005361



MS = A sucrose polymer of high molecular weight.

UI = D005362


Fictional Works [Publication Type]

MS = Works consisting of creative writing, not presented as factual.

UI = D022922



MS = A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.

AN = X ref RUBBER PLANT: RUBBER TREE see HEVEA is also available; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D030681



MS = A naturally occuring furocoumarin, found in PSORALEA. After photoactivation with UV radiation, it binds DNA via single and double-stranded cross-linking.

AN = do not confuse X ref PSORALEN, this specific drug, with PSORALENS;

UI = D005363


Field Dependence-Independence

MS = The ability to respond to segments of the perceptual experience rather than to the whole.

AN = no qualif

UI = D005364



MS = A urine test for formiminoglutamic acid, an intermediate metabolite in L-histidine catabolism in the conversion of L-histidine to L-glutamic acid. It may be an indicator of vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency or liver disease.

UI = D005365


Figural Aftereffect

MS = A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.

AN = usually involves displacement of afterimage of geometric pattern in shape & space: differentiate from AFTERIMAGE; while both are in the field of perception, AFTERIMAGE is likely to be in ophthalmol jrnls, FIGURAL AFTEREFFECT, in psychol jrnls

UI = D005366



MS = A republic consisting of an island group in Melanesia, in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Suva. It was discovered by Abel Tasman in 1643 and was visited by Captain Cook in 1774. It was used by escaped convicts from Australia as early as 1804. It was annexed by Great Britain in 1874 but achieved independence in 1970. The name Fiji is of uncertain origin. In its present form it may represent that of Viti, the main island in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p396 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p186)

AN = an island group in Melanesia

UI = D005367



MS = Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischaemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.

AN = GEN: prefer specifics; drug ther: consider FILARICIDES

UI = D005368



MS = Pharmacological agents destructive to nematodes in the superfamily Filarioidea.

AN = consider also FILARIOIDEA /drug eff & FILARIASIS /drug ther or pertinent specifics

UI = D005369



MS = A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.

AN = infection = FILARIASIS but see note there; coord with specific helminth term (ANTIGENS, HELMINTH, etc) if pertinent: /drug eff: consider FILARICIDES

UI = D005370



MS = A hematopoietic growth factor which promotes proliferation and maturation of neutrophil granulocytes. Clinically it is effective in decreasing the incidence of febrile neutropenia in patients with non-myeloid malignancies receiving myelosuppressive therapy or in reducing the duration of neutropenia and neutropenia-related clinical sequelae in patients with non-myeloid malignancies undergoing myeloblastive chemotherapy followed by BMT. It has also been used in AIDS patients with CMV retinitis being treated with GANCICLOVIR. (Gelman CR, Rumack BH & Hess AJ (eds): DRUGDEX(R) System. MICROMEDEX, Inc., Englewood, Colorado (Edition expires 11/30/95))

AN = /drug eff permitted

UI = D019376



MS = Collections of related records treated as a unit; ordering of such files.


UI = D005371



MS = A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE. Members contain TANNINS.

AN = X ref DROPWORT: WATER DROPWORT = OENANTHE is also available; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031984



MS = A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.

UI = D005372


Film Dosimetry

MS = Use of a device (film badge) for measuring exposure of individuals to radiation. It is usually made of metal, plastic, or paper and loaded with one or more pieces of x-ray film.

UI = D005373



MS = A family of viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, containing filamentous virions. Although they resemble RHABDOVIRIDAE in possessing helical nucleocapsids, Filoviridae differ in the length and degree of branching in their virions. There are two genera: EBOLA-LIKE VIRUSES and MARBURG-LIKE VIRUSES.


UI = D016563


Filoviridae Infections

MS = Infections with viruses of the family FILOVIRIDAE. The infections in humans consist of a variety of clinically similar viral hemorrhagic fevers but the natural reservoir host is unknown.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D018702


Filtering Surgery

MS = A surgical procedure used in treatment of glaucoma in which an opening is created through which aqueous fluid may pass from the anterior chamber into a sac created beneath the conjunctiva, thus lowering the pressure within the eye. (Hoffman, Pocket Glossary of Ophthalmologic Terminology, 1989)

AN = in glaucoma surg; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; DF: FILTERING SURG

UI = D018463



MS = A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

AN = NIM; includes filtration of fluids, gases & radiations; not for electrical or electronic filtering; filters: index FILTRATION /instrum; HEMOFILTRATION & ULTRAFILTRATION are available; note ACETATE-FREE BIOFILTRATION see HEMODIAFILTRATION

UI = D005374


Fimbriae Proteins

MS = Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).

AN = Coordinate with PILI, SEX if involved in BACTERIAL CONJUGATION, otherwise coordinate with FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL

UI = D036781


Fimbriae, Bacterial

MS = Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).

AN = appendages of gram-neg bact; coord IM with specific bacterium (IM or NIM) if pertinent; A 11 qualif except /cytol; /genet permitted; DF: FIMBRIAE BACT

UI = D010861


Financial Audit

MS = An examination, review and verification of all financial accounts.

UI = D005375


Financial Management

MS = The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.

UI = D005376


Financial Management, Hospital

MS = The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.

UI = D005377


Financial Support

MS = The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)

UI = D005378


Financing, Construction

MS = Funding resources and procedures for capital improvement or the construction of facilities.

UI = D005379


Financing, Government

MS = Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.

AN = specify geog for the govt

UI = D005380


Financing, Organized

MS = All organized methods of funding.


UI = D005381


Financing, Personal

MS = Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.

AN = restricted to a person's payment of health care expenditures: read MeSH definition; not for the personal finances of physicans & other health care professionals: index under PHYSICIANS; DENTISTS; NURSES; PHARMACISTS; etc., for personal non-professional expenses or under PRACTICE MANAGEMENT, MEDICAL; PRACTICE MANAGEMENT, DENTAL & similar headings for finances assoc with professional practice

UI = D005382



MS = An orally active TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE inhibitor. It is used as a surgical alternative for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

UI = D018120


Finger Injuries

MS = General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.

AN = consider also THUMB /inj

UI = D005383


Finger Joint

AN = primates only: TN 117; TN 238: differentiation from FINGERS & indexing instructions

UI = D005384



AN = primates only: TN 117; /inj = FINGER INJURIES but consider also THUMB /inj; TN 238: differentiation from FINGER JOINT & indexing instructions; NIM when merely locational as in HAND DERMATOSES (IM)

UI = D005385



MS = Sucking of the finger. This is one of the most common manipulations of the body found in young children.

UI = D005386


Finite Element Analysis

MS = A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.

AN = DF: Finite Element Anal

UI = D020342



UI = D005387


Fire Extinguishing Systems

MS = Automatic or hand operated equipment used to control and extinguish fires.

UI = D005388



MS = Small-arms weapons, including handguns, pistols, revolvers, rifles, shotguns, etc.

AN = ballistics goes here only if pertinent to nature of firearm; wound ballistics goes under BALLISTICS, WOUND see WOUNDS, GUNSHOT & FORENSIC MEDICINE if pertinent

UI = D005389



UI = D005390


Firesetting Behavior

MS = A compulsion to set fires.

UI = D005391


First Aid

UI = D005392


Fish Diseases

MS = Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).

AN = IM GEN or unspecified; coord IM with specific dis /vet (IM) & specific fish (IM); for abnormalities or injuries, index under FISHES /abnorm or FISHES /inj; don't forget also FISHES (NIM) & check tag ANIMAL; DF: FISH DIS

UI = D005393


Fish Flour

MS = A flour made of pulverized, dried fish or fish parts.

AN = not for "fish meal", which is indexed under FISH PRODUCTS

UI = D005394


Fish Oils

MS = Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the livers. Those from the liver are usually high in vitamin A. The oils are used as dietary supplements, in soaps and detergents, as protective coatings, and as a base for other food products such as vegetable shortenings.

AN = coord IM with specific fish (NIM)

UI = D005395


Fish Products

MS = Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).

AN = "food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal)" but for canned fish coord FISHES (IM) or specific fish (IM) + FOOD PRESERVATION (IM); coord IM with fish source (NIM)

UI = D005396


Fish Proteins

MS = Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).

AN = coorrd IM with specific protein (IM) + specific fish (IM)

UI = D029941


Fish Venoms

MS = Venoms produced by fishes, including sharks and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the heart specifically and all muscles generally.

AN = /antag permitted but consider also ANTIVENINS; /enzymol permitted

UI = D005397



MS = Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

AN = specify geog if pertinent

UI = D005398



MS = A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; canned fish: see note on FISH PRODUCTS

UI = D005399


Fishes, Poisonous

AN = IM; qualif permitted

UI = D005400


Fissure in Ano

MS = A painful linear ulcer at the margin of the anus. It appears as a crack or slit in the mucous membrane of the anus and is very painful and difficult to heal. (Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = ulcer at margin of anus; do not confuse X ref ANAL FISSURE with ANAL FISTULA see RECTAL FISTULA

UI = D005401



MS = Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; coord IM with organ (IM) or precoord organ/dis term (IM); policy: Manual 23.19+; anal fistula or fistula in ano: index RECTAL FISTULA, not FISSURE IN ANO; artificial fistula: Manual 23.19.7; ECK FISTULA see PORTACAVAL SHUNT, SURGICAL is also available

UI = D005402


Fitness Centers

MS = Facilities having programs intended to promote and maintain a state of physical well-being for optimal performance and health.

UI = D020446


Fixation, Ocular

MS = The positioning and accomodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.

UI = D005403



MS = Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.

AN = do not restrict to histol techniques: may be microbiol techniques also; D25-26 qualif

UI = D005404


FK 33-824

MS = A stable synthetic analog of methionine enkephalin (ENKEPHALIN, METHIONINE). Actions are similar to those of methionine enkephalin. Its effects can be reversed by narcotic antagonists such as naloxone.

AN = DF: note short X ref

UI = D005405



MS = The Indian plum plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae class Magnoliopsida, that are tropical and subtropical trees and shrubs.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031308



MS = A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

AN = do not confuse with FLAGELLATA see MASTIGOPHORA, a subphylum of protozoa

UI = D005407



MS = A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.

AN = a bact protein

UI = D005408


Flail Chest

MS = A complication of multiple rib fractures, rib and sternum fractures, or thoracic surgery. A portion of the chest wall becomes isolated from the thoracic cage and exhibits paradoxical respiration.

AN = compl of chest inj

UI = D005409


Flame Ionization

MS = Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.

AN = a type of gas chromatogr; NIM

UI = D005410


Flame Retardants

MS = Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.

UI = D005411


Flank Pain

MS = Pain emanating from below the RIBS and above the ILIUM.

UI = D021501



MS = Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.

AN = sole may be SOLEA see FLATFISHES or FLOUNDER (Pleuronectidae); check text

UI = D005412



MS = A condition in which one or more of the arches of the foot have flattened out.

AN = congen or acquired

UI = D005413



MS = Production or presence of gas in the gastrointestinal tract which may be expelled through the anus.

AN = /drug ther: consider also ANTIFOAMING AGENTS; see note on "intestinal gases" under GASES

UI = D005414



MS = A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that is used for experiments in molecular genetic studies in plant physiology and development.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D037142


Flavin Mononucleotide

MS = A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.

UI = D005486


Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide

MS = A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)

UI = D005182



AN = pigments; do not confuse with FLAVONES, bioflavonoids

UI = D005415



MS = A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.


UI = D018067


Flaviviridae Infections

MS = Infections with viruses of the family FLAVIVIRIDAE.

AN = caused by members of the Flaviviridae family: do not confuse with FLAVIVIRUS INFECTIONS caused by members of the Flavivirus genus; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D018178



MS = A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.


UI = D005416


Flavivirus Infections

MS = Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.

AN = caused by members of the Flavivirus genus: do not confuse with FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS caused by members of the Flaviviridae family; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D018177



MS = A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in soil and water. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, milk and other foods, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.

AN = found in soil, water, raw meats, milk, hosp environments & humans; infection: coord IM with GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIAL INFECTIONS (IM); DF: FLAVOBACT

UI = D005417



MS = A low-molecular-weight (16,000) iron-free flavoprotein containing one molecule of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and isolated from bacteria grown on an iron-deficient medium. It can replace ferredoxin in all the electron-transfer functions in which the latter is known to serve in bacterial cells.

AN = a bact protein

UI = D005418



AN = bioflavonoids; do not confuse with FLAVINS, pigments

UI = D005419



UI = D005420


Flavoring Agents

MS = Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.

AN = IM; coord with specific substance if pertinent (IM)

UI = D005421



MS = A drug that has been used in various urinary syndromes and as an antispasmodic. Its therapeutic usefulness and its mechanism of action are not clear. It may have local anesthetic activity and direct relaxing effects on smooth muscle as well as some activity as a muscarinic antagonist.

UI = D005422



MS = A plant genus of the family LINACEAE that is cultivated for its fiber (manufactured into linen cloth). It contains a trypsin inhibitor and the seed is the source of LINSEED OIL.

AN = despite X ref FLAXSEED, coord IM with SEEDS (IM); coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D019597



MS = Parasitic, blood-sucking, wingless insects comprising the order Siphonaptera.

AN = do not use /drug eff for insecticides: TN 111; /microbiol /parasitol /virol permitted

UI = D005423



MS = A potent anti-arrhythmia agent, effective in a wide range of ventricular and atrial arrhythmias and tachycardias. Paradoxically, however, in myocardial infarct patients with either symptomatic or asymptomatic arrhythmia, flecainide exacerbates the arrhythmia and is not recommended for use in these patients.

UI = D005424



MS = A broad-spectrum antimicrobial fluoroquinolone. The drug strongly inhibits the DNA-supercoiling activity of DNA gyrase.

UI = D016576


Flicker Fusion

MS = The point or frequency at which all flicker of an intermittent light stimulus disappears.

AN = also called flicker fusion frequency (FFF)

UI = D005425


Flight, Animal

AN = flight is the use of wings to pass through air: do not confuse with FLIGHT REACTION see ESCAPE REACTION

UI = D005426



AN = almost never IM; no qualif

UI = D005427


Flocculation Tests

MS = Precipitin tests in which precipitation occurs over a narrow range of antigen-antibody ratio, due chiefly to peculiarities of the antibody (precipitin). (From Stedman, 26th ed)


UI = D005428


Floors and Floorcoverings

MS = The surface of a structure upon which one stands or walks.

AN = for houses, commerc estab, hosp, institutions, etc.; DF: FLOORS

UI = D005430



UI = D005431



MS = Common name for two families of FLATFISHES belonging to the order Pleuronectiformes: left-eye flounders (Bothidae) and right-eye flounders (Pleuronectidae). The latter is more commonly used in research.

AN = sole may be FLOUNDER (Pleuronectidae) or SOLEA see FLATFISHES

UI = D005432



AN = restrict to wheat or other grains; FISH FLOUR is available

UI = D005433


Flow Cytometry

MS = Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.


UI = D005434


Flow Injection Analysis

MS = The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.

AN = an anal chem technique; NIM; DF: FLOW INJECT ANAL

UI = D017022


Flowering Tops

MS = Tops of plants when in flower, including the stems, leaves and blooms.

AN = coord with specific plant

UI = D035263



MS = The reproductive organs of plants.

AN = coord with specific plant

UI = D035264



MS = Antibiotic analog of CLOXACILLIN.

UI = D005436



MS = An antineoplastic antimetabolite that is metabolized to fluorouracil when administered by rapid injection; when administered by slow, continuous, intra-arterial infusion, it is converted to floxuridine monophosphate. It has been used to treat hepatic metastases of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas and for palliation in malignant neoplasms of the liver and gastrointestinal tract.

AN = an antiviral & antineoplastic antimetabolite

UI = D005467



MS = Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal candidiasis and cryptococcal meningitis in AIDS.

UI = D015725



MS = A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.

UI = D005437


Fludeoxyglucose F 18

MS = The compound is given by intravenous injection for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)

UI = D019788



MS = A synthetic mineralocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity.

UI = D005438


Flufenamic Acid

MS = An anthranilic acid derivative with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is used in musculoskeletal and joint disorders and administered by mouth and topically. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p16)

UI = D005439


Fluid Shifts

MS = Translocation of body fluids. Shifts from the lower body to the upper part of the body occur under conditions of actual and simulated weightlessness and have the effect of reducing the total body water content and producing a temporary hypovolemic state. Shifts are also seen following hemodialysis and are caused by electrolyte imbalances. (From Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, p151)

AN = shift of body fluids; often a result of weightlessness

UI = D018495


Fluid Therapy

MS = Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to water-electrolyte balance. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by hypodermoclysis.

AN = "to restore volume & composition of body fluids...with respect to water-electrolyte balance"; for other nourishment use PARENTERAL FEEDING or specifics; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; coord IM with dis /ther (IM), not dis /diet ther; do not specify route of admin unless particularly significant (& then only NIM)

UI = D005440


Fluids and Secretions

MS = Liquid substances produced by living organisms to fulfill specific functions or excreted as waste. Secretions do not include hormones or enzymes.

AN = not used for indexing CATALOG: do not use

UI = D005441



MS = A potent benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Since it reverses the sedative and other actions of benzodiazepines, it has been suggested as an antidote to benzodiazepine overdoses.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D005442



MS = An anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used in veterinary practice.

AN = a steroidal anti-inflamm agent

UI = D005443



MS = Flunarizine is a selective calcium entry blocker with calmodulin binding properties and histamine H1 blocking activity. It is effective in the prophylaxis of migraine, occlusive peripheral vascular disease, vertigo of central and peripheral origin, and as an adjuvant in the therapy of epilepsy.

UI = D005444



MS = Benzodiazepine with pharmacologic actions similar to those of DIAZEPAM. The United States Government has banned the importation of this drug. Steps are being taken to reclassify this substance as a Schedule 1 drug with no accepted medical use.

AN = colloquially called "rophies" & "roofies" from X ref ROHYPNOL

UI = D005445


Fluocinolone Acetonide

MS = One of the GLUCOCORTICOIDS used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. It is usually employed as a cream, gel, lotion, or ointment. It has also been used topically in the treatment of inflammatory eye, ear, and nose disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p732)

UI = D005446



MS = A topical glucocorticoid used in the treatment of eczemas.

UI = D005447



MS = A topical glucocorticoid (GLUCOCORTICOIDS, TOPICAL) with anti-inflammatory activity used for various skin disorders.

UI = D005448



MS = A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.

AN = carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons; do not confuse with FLUORINE; D25-26 qualif

UI = D005449



MS = A nonfluorescent reagent for the detection of primary amines, peptides and proteins. The reaction products are highly fluorescent.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D005450



MS = A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium, such as the aqueous humor, and is used therapeutically as a diagnostic aid in corneal injuries and corneal trauma. It has been approved by FDA for use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 12th ed; American Medical Association Drug Evaluations; 1995, p2275)

UI = D019793


Fluorescein Angiography

MS = Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.

AN = /drug eff /rad eff permitted; coord disease with /diag, not /radiogr since this is not a radiogr technique; DF: FLUORESCEIN ANGIOGR

UI = D005451



MS = Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.

AN = DF: note short X ref

UI = D016650



MS = A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.

UI = D005452



MS = The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.

AN = no qualif; IM for principle of physics but be careful of use of word describing many "fluorescence" techniques as main headings; fluorescence-activated cell sorting: index under CELL SEPARATION + FLOW CYTOMETRY

UI = D005453


Fluorescence Polarization

MS = Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.

AN = determ of polarization of fluorescent light: do not confuse with FLUORESCENCE POLARIZATION IMMUNOASSAY, its application to hapten-antibody reaction; NIM

UI = D005454


Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay

MS = Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.

AN = NIM; application of fluorescence polarization to hapten-antibody reaction: do not confuse with FLUORESCENCE POLARIZATION, determ of polarization of fluorescent light; DF: FPIA

UI = D016231


Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching

MS = A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).

UI = D036681


Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer

MS = A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.

AN = coord as appropriate with MICROSCOPY and its indentations

UI = D031541


Fluorescent Antibody Technique

MS = Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.

AN = NIM; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; DF: FANA TEST

UI = D005455


Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct

MS = A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)


UI = D019085


Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect

MS = A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)


UI = D019084


Fluorescent Dyes

MS = Dyes that emit light when exposed to light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags. They are used as markers in biochemistry and immunology.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D005456


Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody-Absorption Test

MS = Serologic assay that detects antibodies to Treponema pallidum, the etiologic agent of syphilis. After diluting the patient's serum to remove non-specific antibodies, the serum is mixed on a glass slide with Nichol's strain of Treponema pallidum. An antigen-antibody reaction occurs if the test is positive and the bound antibodies are detected with fluoresceinated antihuman gamma-globulin antibody.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; DF: note short X ref

UI = D016508



AN = /adv eff permitted but more likely is FLUORIDES /adv eff or specific fluoride terms /adv eff; = "fluoridation of water supply" so do not also coord with WATER SUPPLY

UI = D005457


Fluoride Poisoning

MS = GEN or unspecified fluoride; prefer /pois with specific fluoride term

UI = D005458



MS = Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.

AN = only for inorganic cpds or fluoride ion; /admin: consider also FLUORIDES, TOPICAL

UI = D005459


Fluorides, Topical

MS = Fluorides, usually as pastes or gels, used for topical application to reduce the incidence of dental caries.

AN = cariostatic agents; D25-26 qualif; fluoride-containing toothpastes: index TOOTHPASTE (IM) + FLUORIDES (IM), not here; fluoride-containing mouthwashes: index MOUTHWASHES (IM) + FLUORIDES (IM), not here

UI = D005460



MS = A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.

AN = F-19; F-17, 18, 20-22 = FLUORINE RADIOISOTOPES (IM)

UI = D005461


Fluorine Compounds

MS = Inorganic compounds that contain fluorine as an integral part of the molecule.

AN = inorganic; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; DF: FLUORINE CPDS

UI = D017611


Fluorine Radioisotopes

MS = Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.

AN = F-17, 18, 20-22; /blood-csf-urine /metab permitted but not for tracer studies ( = /diag use)

UI = D005462



MS = Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)

UI = D005463



UI = D005464


Fluorocarbon Polymers

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D005465



MS = Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.


UI = D005466



MS = 5-Fluoro-2'-deoxyuridylate. An inhibitor of thymidylate synthetase. Formed from 5-fluorouracil or 5-fluorodeoxyuridine.

UI = D005468



MS = The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.

AN = used with reference to the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE where it is indented; NIM

UI = D015200



MS = A glucocorticoid employed, usually as eye drops, in the treatment of allergic and inflammatory conditions of the eye. It has also been used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p732)

AN = a steroidal anti-inflamm & topical glucocorticoid

UI = D005469




UI = D005470



MS = Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.

AN = NIM; note X refs & read MeSH definition: restrict to ophthalmology

UI = D015590



MS = A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.

UI = D024841



MS = Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.

AN = NIM; do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D005471


Fluorosis, Dental

MS = A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)


UI = D009050



MS = A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.

UI = D005472



MS = The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.

UI = D005473



MS = An anabolic steroid that has been used in the treatment of male hypogonadism, delayed puberty in males, and in the treatment of breast neoplasms in women.

UI = D005474



MS = A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)

UI = D005475



MS = A phenothiazine used in the treatment of psychoses. Its properties and uses are generally similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.

UI = D005476



MS = A synthetic glucocorticoid with anti-inflammatory properties.

AN = a steroidal anti-inflamm agent

UI = D005477



MS = A corticosteroid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. It is usually employed as a cream or an ointment, and is also used as a polyethylene tape with an adhesive. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p733)

AN = a steroidal anti-inflamm & dermatol agent

UI = D005478



MS = A benzodiazepine derivative used mainly as a hypnotic.

UI = D005479



MS = An anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic of the phenylalkynoic acid series. It has been shown to reduce bone resorption in periodontal disease by inhibiting carbonic anhydrase.

UI = D005480


Flurogestone Acetate

MS = A synthetic fluorinated steroid that is used as a progestational hormone.

UI = D003425



MS = A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.

UI = D005481



MS = A transient reddening of the face that may be due to fever, certain drugs, exertion, stress, or a disease process.

AN = note category: do not confuse with BLUSHING (F1 & F2) nor HOT FLASHES in menopause (C23)

UI = D005483



MS = A long-acting injectable antipsychotic agent used for chronic schizophrenia.

UI = D005484



MS = An antiandrogen with about the same potency as cyproterone in rodent and canine species.

UI = D005485



MS = A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. It is effective in the treatment of depression, obsessive-compulsive disorders, anxiety, panic disorders, and alcohol amnestic disorders.

UI = D016666



MS = A molluscan neuroactive peptide which induces a fast excitatory depolarizing response due to direct activation of amiloride-sensitive SODIUM CHANNELS. (From Nature 1995; 378(6558): 730-3)

UI = D019835


Foam Cells

MS = Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.

AN = "lipid-laden macrophages"; A 11 qualif

UI = D005487


Focal Adhesions

MS = An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of MICROFILAMENTS terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.

UI = D022001


Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

MS = A genetic skin disease characterized by hypoplasia of the dermis, herniations of fat, and hand anomalies. It is found exclusively in females and transmitted as an X-linked dominant trait.

AN = sometimes called Goltz-Gorlin syndrome but do not confuse with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome which is same as GORLIN SYNDROME see BASAL CELL NEVUS SYNDROME; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D005489


Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia

MS = Hyperplasia of the mucous membrane of the lips, tongue, and less commonly, the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, and palate, presenting soft, painless, round to oval sessile papules about 1 to 4 mm in diameter. The condition usually occurs in children and young adults and has familial predilection, lasting for several months, sometimes years, before running its course. A viral etiology is suspected, the isolated organism being usually the human papillomavirus. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry; Belshe, Textbook of Human Virology, 2d ed, p954)

AN = a mouth dis; DF: note short X ref

UI = D017573


Focal Infection

AN = IM; coord with precoord organ/dis site of infection (IM) + name of infection (IM)

UI = D005490


Focal Infection, Dental

MS = Secondary or systemic infections due to dissemination throughout the body of microorganisms whose primary focus of infection lies in the periodontal tissues.

AN = IM; coord with precoord organ/dis site of infection (IM) + name of infection (IM); DF: FOCAL INFECT DENT

UI = D005491


Focal Nodular Hyperplasia

MS = Benign, usually asymptomatic nodule of the liver, occurring chiefly in women. It is a firm, highly vascular mass resembling cirrhosis, usually with a stellate fibrous core containing numerous small bile ducts, and having vessels lined by Kupffer cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)

UI = D020518


Focus Groups

MS = A method of data collection and a qualitative research tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.

AN = a method of data collection & qualitative research

UI = D017144



MS = A plant genus of the family APIACEAE used in SPICES.

AN = X ref FENNEL: GIANT FENNEL see FERULA and DOG FENNEL see ANTHEMIS are also available; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D030001


Folic Acid

MS = A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.

AN = /biosyn permitted for bact & yeasts; /physiol permitted

UI = D005492


Folic Acid Antagonists

MS = Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)


UI = D005493


Folic Acid Deficiency

MS = A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)

AN = a vitamin B defic; DF: FOLIC ACID DEFIC

UI = D005494



MS = The common orally transmitted traditions, myths, festivals, songs, superstitions, and stories of all peoples.

AN = no qualif

UI = D005495


Follicle Stimulating Hormone

MS = A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.


UI = D005640


Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit

MS = The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15 kD glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.

UI = D037201


Follicular Atresia

MS = The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.

UI = D005496


Follicular Cyst

MS = Cyst due to the occlusion of the duct of a follicle or small gland.

AN = non-neoplastic; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted

UI = D005497


Follicular Fluid

MS = The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.

UI = D015571


Follicular Phase

MS = The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.

UI = D005498



MS = Inflammation of follicles, primarily hair follicles.

AN = inflammation of hair follicles

UI = D005499



MS = A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37 kD and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.

UI = D038681


Follistatin-Related Proteins

MS = Broadly distributed glycoproteins that are homologous to the activin-binding protein, FOLLISTATIN. These follistatin-related proteins are encoded by a number of genes.

AN = note species-specific terms in SCR

UI = D038702


Follow-Up Studies

MS = Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.

AN = IM GEN only; coord NIM with specific disease (IM); no qualif; specify geog if pertinent; TN 86: definition & use: usually epidemiol in concept; relation to age tag: Manual 18.5.13, relation to CASE REPORT: Manual 18.11.6

UI = D005500



MS = An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.

AN = TN 111 for eff on insects

UI = D004397


Fontan Procedure

MS = A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.

UI = D018729



MS = Anything which, when taken into the body, serves to nourish or build up the tissues or to supply body heat. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = /adv eff = probably FOOD HYPERSENSITIVITY or FOOD POISONING; /rad eff = probably FOOD IRRADIATION or FOOD CONTAMINATION, RADIOACTIVE; Manual 31.5-31.12; food consumption = FOOD or EATING or FOOD SUPPLY; food for animals = ANIMAL FEED; refeeding after starvation goes here; microbes found in food: consider FOOD MICROBIOLOGY (IM) + specific microbe (IM); parasites found in food: consider FOOD PARASITOLOGY (IM) + specific parasite (IM); differentiation from DIET & NUTRITION: see note under NUTRITION & Manual 31.5

UI = D005502


Food Additives

MS = Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D005503


Food Analysis

AN = GEN only; prefer /anal with specific food item in Cat J2

UI = D005504


Food and Beverages

MS = Edible or potable substances.

AN = not used for indexing CATALOG: do not use

UI = D019602


Food Chain

MS = The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of food. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. Plants, which convert solar energy to food by photosynthesis, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.

UI = D020387


Food Coloring Agents

MS = Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D005505


Food Contamination

MS = The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.

AN = coord IM with specific food item probably NIM; contamination by dirt, dust, chemicals & toxic substances, organisms; contamination by microbes: consider FOOD MICROBIOLOGY (IM) + specific microbe (IM) + specific food item (IM or NIM); contamination by parasites: consider FOOD PARASITOLOGY (IM) + specific parasite (IM) + specific food item (IM or NIM)

UI = D005506


Food Contamination, Radioactive

AN = do not confuse with FOOD IRRADIATION: food preservation by irradiation

UI = D005507


Food Deprivation

MS = The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.

AN = human & animal; /physiol permitted for physiol & metab eff

UI = D005508


Food Dispensers, Automatic

MS = Mechanical food dispensing machines.

UI = D005509


Food Habits

MS = Acquired or learned food preferences.


UI = D005510


Food Handling

MS = Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.

AN = includes prep, processing, handling, transport, serving, delivering, etc.

UI = D005511


Food Hypersensitivity

MS = Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.

AN = GEN: Prefer specific precoord; coord IM with specific food /adv eff (IM): Manual 31.12

UI = D005512


Food Industry

MS = The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specific activities; DF: FOOD INDUST

UI = D019649


Food Inspection

MS = Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.

AN = IM; coord with milieu (IM) or specific food (IM) if pertinent

UI = D005513


Food Irradiation

AN = food preservation by irradiation: do not confuse with FOOD CONTAMINATION, RADIOACTIVE; DF: FOOD IRRAD

UI = D005514


Food Labeling

MS = Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, nutritional value, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.

UI = D005515


Food Microbiology

MS = The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.

AN = coord with specific food /microbiol or /virol and specific microbe; FOOD PARASITOLOGY is also available; DF: FOOD MICROBIOL

UI = D005516


Food Packaging

MS = Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.

AN = includes containers, packaging methods, packaging materials; IM; coord with specific food (IM); FOOD LABELING is also available

UI = D018857


Food Parasitology

MS = The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.

AN = coord with specific food /parasitol and specific parasite; DF: FOOD PARASITOL

UI = D016266


Food Poisoning

AN = GEN only; prefer /pois with specific food items in Cat J2: Manual 31.11; MUSHROOM POISONING; PLANT POISONING; SALMONELLA FOOD POISONING & STAPHYLOCOCCAL FOOD POISONING are also available

UI = D005517


Food Preferences

MS = The selection of one food over another.

AN = human & animal

UI = D005518


Food Preservation

UI = D005519


Food Preservatives

MS = Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D005520


Food Service, Hospital

MS = Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.


UI = D005521


Food Services

MS = Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.

AN = includes food distribution programs, food stamp plans, school lunches, child feeding programs; do not confuse with DIETARY SERVICES where nutrition is emphasized; DF: FOOD SER

UI = D005522


Food Supply

AN = specify geog if pertinent

UI = D005523


Food Technology

MS = The application of knowledge to the food industry.

AN = IM; usually in ref to the food industry & food manufacture or prep on a large scale; covers aroma, flavor, color, texture, temperature, preparability, cookability, packaging, etc.; SPEC: SPEC qualif; DF: FOOD TECHNOL

UI = D005524


Food, Formulated

MS = Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.

AN = includes imitation eggs, meat, dairy prod, space diets, weight reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets; does not include infant formulas and baby foods ( = INFANT FOOD); do not confuse with FOOD, FORTIFIED which emphasizes addition of essential nutrients

UI = D005526


Food, Fortified

MS = Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the fortified food. The supplementation of cereals with iron and vitamins is an example of fortified food. Fortified food includes also enriched food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those essential nutrients removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

AN = coord IM with added nutrient if relevant (IM); do not confuse with FOOD, FORMULATED or DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS: read MeSH definitions

UI = D005527


Food, Genetically Modified

MS = Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).

AN = coord with specific food

UI = D030841


Food-Drug Interactions

MS = The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = IM; coord with specific food (IM) + specific drug (IM) with pertinent qualif

UI = D018565


Food-Processing Industry

MS = The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.


UI = D005525


Foods, Specialized

MS = Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specific groups

UI = D019648



MS = The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE), METATARSUS, phalanges, and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.

AN = vertebrates only: for invertebrates use EXTREMITIES: dis of foot = FOOT DISEASES; skin dis on foot = FOOT DERMATOSES: see note there; neopl of foot: use neopl coords (IM) + FOOT DISEASES (IM); foot prints (like finger prints) = PLANTAR PRINTS see DERMATOGLYPHICS

UI = D005528


Foot Bones

MS = The TARSAL BONES, METATARSAL BONES, and phalanges. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS, TALUS, cuboid, navicular, internal, middle, and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D005529


Foot Deformities

MS = Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D005530


Foot Deformities, Acquired

MS = Distortion or disfigurement of the foot, or a part of the foot, acquired through disease or injury after birth.

AN = deformity of bone, joint, muscle, etc.

UI = D005531


Foot Deformities, Congenital

MS = Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot occurring at or before birth.

AN = do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D005532


Foot Dermatoses

MS = Skin diseases of the foot, general or unspecified.

AN = GEN & coord for specific diseases of the foot; not as coord for neoplasms of the foot (use neopl coords (IM) with FOOT DISEASES (IM)); consider synonym for dermatitis of foot & do not add DERMATITIS unless one of the specific DERMATITIS terms in MeSH

UI = D005533


Foot Diseases

MS = Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.

AN = skin dis on foot = FOOT DERMATOSES; neopl of foot: use neopl coords (IM) + FOOT DISEASES (IM)

UI = D005534


Foot Injuries

MS = General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.

AN = GEN or unspecified; consider also /inj with specific sites of foot

UI = D018409


Foot Joints

MS = The articulations extending from the ANKLE distally to the TOES. These include the ANKLE JOINT; TARSAL JOINTS; METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and TOE JOINT.

AN = prefer specifics

UI = D033023


Foot Rot

MS = A disease of the horny parts and of the adjacent soft structures of the feet of cattle, swine, and sheep. It is usually caused by Corynebacterium pyogenes or Bacteroides nodosus (see DICHELOBACTER NODOSUS). It is also known as interdigital necrobacillosis. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 18th ed)

AN = coord IM with appropriate infection term (IM) + precoord animal/dis term (IM) + animal (NIM) or animal (IM) in absence of precoord + check tag ANIMAL

UI = D005535


Foot Ulcer

MS = Lesion on the surface of the skin of the foot, usually accompanied by inflammation. The lesion may become infected or necrotic and is frequently associated with diabetes or leprosy.

AN = DIABETIC FOOT is also available

UI = D016523


Foot-and-Mouth Disease

AN = caused by a picornavirus: do not confuse with HAND, FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE, a Coxsackie virus infect; check tag ANIMAL; DF: FOOT MOUTH DIS

UI = D005536


Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

MS = The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.


UI = D029544



MS = A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).

AN = /inj: coord IM with specific inj (IM); /physiol permitted; Manual 30.15+; note X ref RUGBY; does not include non-North American "football" ( = SOCCER)

UI = D005538


Foramen Magnum

UI = D005539


Forced Expiratory Flow Rates

MS = Measurements of rates of airflow during a forced vital capacity determination.

AN = a vital capacity test; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; do not confuse with FORCED EXPIRATORY VOLUME, a specific test of pulm ventilation; NIM

UI = D005540


Forced Expiratory Volume

MS = Measure of the maximum amount of air during a forced vital capacity determination that can be expelled in a given number of seconds. It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.


UI = D005541



AN = primates only: use FORELIMB for non-primate vertebrates & EXTREMITIES for invertebrates: TN 117; for bones use RADIUS or ULNA; NIM when merely locational as in skin dis (IM)

UI = D005542


Forearm Injuries

MS = Injuries to the part of the upper limb of the body between the wrist and elbow.

AN = GEN & unspecified for soft tissue & bones; consider also /inj with specific bones & also specific fracture terms; available also are HAND INJURIES; FINGER INJURIES & WRIST INJURIES

UI = D005543



MS = The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.

AN = IM general only; consider also as IM coord with specific subject /trends (IM) if future is particularly significant: Manual 19.8.76, 35.2.9

UI = D005544


Forefoot, Human

MS = The forepart of the foot including the metatarsals and the TOES.

AN = do not confuse with FORELIMB for non-primate vertebrates

UI = D005545



MS = The part of the face above the eyes.

AN = NIM as locational, no qualif

UI = D005546


Foreign Bodies

AN = coord IM with organ (IM), not organ/dis: Manual 21.39; EYE FOREIGN BODIES is available; FOREIGN-BODY MIGRATION & FOREIGN-BODY REACTION are also available

UI = D005547


Foreign Medical Graduates

MS = Physicians who hold degrees from medical schools in countries other than the ones in which they practice.

AN = specify geog; DF: FOREIGN MED GRAD

UI = D005550


Foreign Professional Personnel

MS = Persons who have acquired academic or specialized training in countries other than that in which they are working. The concept excludes physicians for which FOREIGN MEDICAL GRADUATES is the likely heading.

AN = specify geog

UI = D005551


Foreign-Body Migration

MS = Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.

AN = note category

UI = D005548


Foreign-Body Reaction

MS = Chronic inflammation and granuloma formation around irritating foreign bodies.

AN = note category: in presence of a dis, use /etiol, not /compl

UI = D005549



MS = A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)

AN = non-primate vertebrates only: for human use ARM; for invertebrates use EXTREMITIES; TN 75: animal extremities; TN 117: table of animal extremities

UI = D005552


Forensic Anthropology

MS = Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)

AN = restrict to identif of skeletal remains; SPEC; NIM as coord; human identif by teeth: coord FORENSIC DENTISTRY (IM) + specific dent heading (IM); DF: FORENSIC ANTHROPOL

UI = D018732


Forensic Dentistry

MS = The application of dental knowledge to questions of law.

AN = SPEC qualif; see note on FORENSIC MEDICINE; for human identif by teeth: coord FORENSIC DENTISTRY (IM) + specific dent heading (IM); DF: FORENSIC DENT

UI = D005553


Forensic Medicine

MS = The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.

AN = SPEC qualif; for crime or identification: differentiate from JURISPRUDENCE, usually civil suits; for human identif of skeletal remains see FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY; for human identif by teeth see FORENSIC DENTISTRY; ballistics goes under BALLISTICS, WOUND see WOUNDS, GUNSHOT but here also if pertinent; DF: FORENSIC MED

UI = D005554


Forensic Psychiatry

MS = Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.

AN = SPEC qualif

UI = D005555



MS = The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif

UI = D016468


Form Perception

MS = The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.

UI = D005556



MS = A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)

UI = D005557



MS = A group of amides with the general formula of R-CONH2.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D005559


Formate Dehydrogenases

MS = Flavoproteins that catalyze reversibly the reduction of carbon dioxide to formate. Many compounds can act as acceptors, but the only physiologically active acceptor is NAD. The enzymes are active in the fermentation of sugars and other compounds to carbon dioxide and are the key enzymes in obtaining energy when bacteria are grown on formate as the main carbon source. They have been purified from bovine blood. EC

UI = D005560


Formate-Tetrahydrofolate Ligase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate from formate and tetrahydrofolate in the presence of ATP. This enzyme has been found in pigeon liver, human erythrocytes and some microorganisms. EC

UI = D005574



UI = D005561



MS = Colored azo compounds formed by the reduction of tetrazolium salts. Employing this reaction, oxidoreductase activity can be determined quantitatively in tissue sections by allowing the enzymes to act on their specific substrates in the presence of tetrazolium salts.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D005562


Formic Acid Esters

UI = D005563


Formic Acids

UI = D005564


Formiminoglutamic Acid

MS = Measurement of this acid in the urine after oral administration of histidine provides the basis for the diagnostic test of folic acid deficiency and of megaloblastic anemia of pregnancy.

UI = D005565



UI = D005566


Forms and Records Control

MS = A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the developing, maintaining, and handling of forms and records.

AN = coord NIM with specific records heading (e.g., MEDICAL RECORDS; NURSING RECORDS) (IM); DF: FORMS CONTROL

UI = D005568


Forms [Publication Type]

MS = Works consisting of or containing a substantial number of blank forms.

UI = D020478



MS = Lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.

AN = IM; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; collections of formulas for compounding medicinal prep: do not confuse with PHARMACOPOEIAS which are far more complete: read MeSH definition; do not confuse with NATIONAL FORMULARY see PHARMACOPOEIAS

UI = D005569


Formularies, Dental


UI = D005570


Formularies, Homeopathic


UI = D005571


Formularies, Hospital

MS = Formularies concerned with pharmaceuticals prescribed in hospitals.


UI = D005572



MS = Pyrazolopyrimidine ribonucleosides isolated from Nocardia interforma. They are antineoplastic antibiotics with cytostatic properties.

AN = antineoplastic antibiotics

UI = D005573



MS = Tetrahydrofolates which are substituted by a formyl group at either the nitrogen atom in the 5 position or the nitrogen atom in the 10 position. N(5)-Formyltetrahydrofolate is leukovorin (citrovorum factor) while N(10)-formyltetrahydrofolate is an active coenzyme which functions as a carrier of the formyl group in a number of enzymatic reactions.

AN = folic acids

UI = D005575


Fornix (Brain)

MS = Heavily myelinated fiber bundle of the TELENCEPHALON projecting from the hippocampal formation to the HYPOTHALAMUS. Some authorities consider the fornix part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM. The fimbria starts as a flattened band of axons arising from the subiculum and HIPPOCAMPUS, which then thickens to form the fornix.

UI = D020712



MS = Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant Coleus forskohlii. Has antihypertensive, positive ionotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.

UI = D005576


Forssman Antigen

MS = A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.

UI = D005577



MS = A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain suspensaside.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031657



MS = An antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Foscarnet also shows activity against human herpesviruses and HIV.

UI = D017245



MS = An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fradiae.

UI = D005578



MS = A phosphinic acid-containing angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of hypertension. It is a prodrug that is converted to its active metabolite fosinoprilat.

UI = D017328


Fossil Fuels

MS = Any hydrocarbon deposit that may be used for fuel. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.

UI = D005579



MS = Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.

AN = no qualif; do not routinely check tags HISTORICAL ARTICLE + ANCIENT: check only when the hist & ancient med aspects are particularly discussed

UI = D005580


Foster Home Care

MS = Private families who care for neglected children or patients unable to care for themselves.

AN = not restricted to children

UI = D005581



MS = Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.

UI = D005582


Founder Effect

MS = A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.


UI = D018703


Fourier Analysis

MS = Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

AN = a math function; named for Jean Baptiste Fourier (1768-1830), French mathematician & physicist; no qualif

UI = D005583


Fournier Gangrene

MS = An acute infective gangrene involving the scrotum, penis, or perineum caused by gram-positive organisms, enteric bacilli, and anaerobes, usually resulting from local trauma, operative procedures, or urinary tract disease.

AN = coord IM with specific site or organ/diseases term (NIM) or with specific bact infect (NIM) only if particularly discussed; usually in male

UI = D018934


Fourth Ventricle

MS = An irregularly shaped cavity in the rhombencephalon, between the medulla oblongata, the pons, and the isthmus in front, and the cerebellum behind. It is continuous with the central canal of the cord below and with the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT above, and through its lateral and median apertures it communicates with the subarachnoid space.


UI = D020546


Fovea Centralis

MS = An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)

AN = a pit in the macula lutea of the retina

UI = D005584


Fowl adenovirus A

MS = The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds.This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.

AN = infection: coord IM with ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D025681


Fowl Plague

MS = Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other birds with INFLUENZA A VIRUS, AVIAN.

AN = caused by a strain of influenza A virus; don't forget also BIRDS or POULTRY (NIM) & check tag ANIMAL

UI = D005585



MS = A poxvirus infection of poultry and other birds characterized by the formation of wart-like nodules on the skin and diphtheritic necrotic masses (cankers) in the upper digestive and respiratory tracts.

AN = caused by a poxvirus; don't forget also BIRDS or POULTRY (NIM) & check tag ANIMAL

UI = D005586


Fowlpox virus

MS = The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.

AN = infection = FOWLPOX: see note there

UI = D005587


Fox-Fordyce Disease

MS = Chronic pruritic disease, usually in women, characterized by small follicular papular eruptions in apocrine areas. It is caused by obstruction and rupture of intraepidermal apocrine ducts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = pruritic apocrine dis in women

UI = D005588



MS = Carnivores of the genus Vulpes of the family Canidae. There are 10 species found in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. The red fox, Vulpes vulpes, whose coloration ranges from yellowish red to deep reddish brown, black, white, or silver, rivals the gray wolf (Canis lupus) for having the greatest natural distribution of any living terrestrial mammal besides man. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1050)

AN = IM; qualif permitted

UI = D005589



MS = Patterns (real or mathematical) which look similar at different scales, for example the network of airways in the lung which shows similar branching patterns at progressively higher magnifications. Natural fractals are self-similar across a finite range of scales while mathematical fractals are the same across an infinite range. Many natural, including biological, structures are fractal (or fractal-like). Fractals are related to "chaos" (see NONLINEAR DYNAMICS) in that chaotic processes can produce fractal structures in nature, and appropriate representations of chaotic processes usually reveal self-similarity over time.

AN = patterns which look similar at different magnifications; used in math & theoret models

UI = D017709


Fractional Precipitation

AN = NIM; no qualif

UI = D005590


Fractionation, Field Flow

MS = Separation of molecules and particles by a simultaneous action of carrier liquid flow and focusing field forces (electrical, sedimentation, or thermal), without a stationary phase.


UI = D031521


Fracture Fixation

MS = The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.

AN = TN 87: various types of fracture surg & related MeSH terms; osteosynthesis in fract surg goes under FRACTURE FIXATION, INTERNAL or FRACTURE FIXATION, INTRAMEDULLARY

UI = D005592


Fracture Fixation, Internal

MS = The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; TN 87; osteosynthesis in fracture surg goes here or under FRACTURE FIXATION, INTRAMEDULLARY

UI = D005593


Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; TN 87: definition

UI = D005594


Fracture Healing

MS = The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.

AN = coord IM with type of fracture (IM) + bone injured (IM)

UI = D017102



MS = Breaks in bones or cartilage. (Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = IM; coord with specific organ /inj (IM) but note many precoord organ/fract terms & note the many clin types; TN 87: various types of fract surg; penile fract: index under PENIS /inj (IM) + RUPTURE (NIM)

UI = D005595


Fractures, Closed

MS = Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.

AN = fract not causing an open wound; IM; coord with precoord organ/fract term (IM), as "closed fract of tibia" = FRACTURES, CLOSED (IM) + TIBIAL FRACTURES (IM); if no precoord organ/fract term is available, coord IM with organ /inj (IM), as "closed fract of fibula" = FRACTURES, CLOSED (IM) + FIBULA /inj (IM)

UI = D005596


Fractures, Comminuted

MS = A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = fract where bone is splintered or crushed; IM; coord with specific organ/inj or precoord organ/fract term (IM)

UI = D018460


Fractures, Malunited

MS = Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position. If two bones parallel to one another unite by osseous tissue, the result is a crossunion. (From Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 4th ed)

AN = faulty union of a fract; do not confuse with FRACTURES, UNUNITED; IM; coord with specific organ/inj or precoord organ/fract term (IM)

UI = D017759


Fractures, Open

MS = Fractures in which there is an external wound communicating with the break of the bone.

AN = fract causing an open wound; IM; coord with specific organ/inj or precoord organ/fract term (IM)

UI = D005597


Fractures, Spontaneous

MS = Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = fract not caused by trauma; IM; coord with specific organ /inj or organ/fract term (IM)

UI = D005598


Fractures, Stress

MS = Fractures due to the strain caused by repetitive exercise. They are thought to arise from a combination of muscle fatigue and bone failure, and occur in situations where bone remodeling predominates over repair. The classical stress fracture is the march fracture of military personnel, in which the metatarsal undergoes repeated stress during marching. The most common sites of stress fractures are the metatarsus, fibula, tibia, and femoral neck.

AN = fract caused by repetitive strain; X ref FATIGUE FRACTURES refers to bone fractures: do not use for metal fatigue as in fatigue fract of amalgams, nails, screw plates, etc (index under STRESS, MECHANICAL); coord IM with specific organ /inj or organ/fract term (IM)

UI = D015775


Fractures, Ununited

MS = A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = fract where union does not occur; do not confuse with FRACTURES, MALUNITED; IM; coord with specific organ/inj or precoord organ/fract term (IM)

UI = D005599



MS = A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031985


Fragile X Syndrome

MS = A condition characterized genotypically by mutation of the distal end of the long arm of the X chromosome (at gene loci FRAXA or FRAXE) and phenotypically by cognitive impairment, hyperactivity, SEIZURES, language delay, and enlargement of the ears, head, and testes. MENTAL RETARDATION occurs in nearly all males and roughly 50% of females with the full mutation of FRAXA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p226)

UI = D005600


Frail Elderly

MS = Older adults or aged individuals who are lacking in general strength and are unusually susceptible to disease or to other infirmity.

AN = check tag AGED; coord IM with AGED, 80 AND OVER (IM or NIM if pertinent)

UI = D016330


Frameshift Mutation

MS = A type of mutation in which a number of nucleotides not divisible by three is deleted from or inserted into a coding sequence, thereby causing an alteration in the reading frame of the entire sequence downstream of the mutation. These mutations may be induced by certain types of mutagens or may occur spontaneously.

AN = non-physiol insertion or deletion of coding sequence nucleotides; do not confuse with FRAMESHIFTING, RIBOSOMAL, physiol process & form of genet translation; do not confuse eff of drug & radiation on frameshift mutation with drug- & radiation-induced frame mutation

UI = D016368


Frameshifting, Ribosomal

MS = A directed change in translational READING FRAMES that allows the production of a single protein from two or more OVERLAPPING GENES. The process is programmed by the nucleotide sequence of the MRNA and is sometimes also affected by the secondary or tertiary mRNA structure. It has been described mainly in VIRUSES (especially RETROVIRUSES), RETROTRANSPOSONS, and bacterial insertion elements but also in some cellular genes.

AN = do not confuse with FRAMESHIFT MUTATION, non-physiol insertion or deletion of coding sequence nucleotides

UI = D018965



MS = A component of NEOMYCIN that is produced by Streptomyces fradiae. On hydrolysis it yields neamine and neobiosamine B. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

UI = D005601



MS = A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.

AN = PARIS is also available

UI = D005602



MS = An organism frequently found in natural waters. It can be parasitic on man, other mammals, birds, and arthropods.

UI = D005603


Francisella tularensis

MS = The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.

AN = infection = TULAREMIA

UI = D005604



MS = Francium. A radioactive alkali metal with the atomic symbol Fr, atomic number 87, and atomic weight 223. The mass numbers of other known isotopes are 204-213, 217-222, and 224. Its valence is +1.

AN = naturally radioactive; IM

UI = D005605



MS = A plant genus of the family RHAMNACEAE. This genus is often called buckthorn but should not be confused with other plants called that such as HIPPOPHAE or KARWINSKIA. Some RHAMNUS species have been reclassified into this genus. F. purshiana bark is cascara sagrada (CASCARA). Members contain emodine, frangulanin, frangulin, and anthraquinones such as EMODIN.

AN = note X refs: RHAMNUS is also available; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29; for help on which genus to use see

UI = D031955



MS = Genus of BACTERIA in the family Frankiaceae. They are nitrogen-fixing root-nodule symbionts of many species of woody dicotyledonous plants.

UI = D040161



MS = Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.


UI = D005607



MS = A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031661


Free Association

MS = Spontaneous verbalization of whatever comes to mind.

AN = no qualif; DF: FREE ASSOC

UI = D005608


Free Radical Scavengers

MS = Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.

AN = a substance combining with a free radical to affect its chemical action; use qualif discreetly

UI = D016166


Free Radicals

MS = Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.

AN = IM GEN only; usually NIM with coord IM

UI = D005609



MS = The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.

UI = D005610



MS = A condition occurring in dizygotic twins of different sexes in cattle, when anastomoses of placental vessels permit interchange of hormones and cells during fetal life. The female calf is a sterile intersex due to passage of androgens from the male, and both calves are blood cell chimeras with immune tolerance, due to interchange of cells in utero.

UI = D005611


Freeze Drying

MS = Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.


UI = D005612


Freeze Etching

MS = A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.

AN = do not confuse with FREEZE FRACTURING (wherein a cryoprotectant is used)

UI = D005613


Freeze Fracturing

MS = Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.

AN = do not confuse with FREEZE ETCHING (wherein no cryoprotectant is used)

UI = D005614


Freeze Substitution

MS = A modification of the freeze-drying method in which the ice within the frozen tissue is replaced by alcohol or other solvent at a very low temperature.

AN = in freeze drying, replacement of ice by alcohol or other solvent

UI = D017110



AN = NIM; no qualif; note see related CRYOPRESERVATION

UI = D005615


French Guiana

MS = A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)

AN = in So. Amer; do not confuse with GUYANA ( = British Guiana) nor with French Guinea ( = GUINEA) in Africa

UI = D005616


Fresh Water

MS = Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as rivers and lakes. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

AN = rivers, ponds, lakes, groundwater

UI = D005618


Freudian Theory

MS = Philosophic formulations which are basic to psychoanalysis. Some of the conceptual theories developed were of the libido, repression, regression, transference, id, ego, superego, Oedipus Complex, etc.


UI = D005619


Freund's Adjuvant

MS = An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.

UI = D005620



MS = Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.

AN = NIM; biol & non-biol application

UI = D017276


Friedreich Ataxia

MS = An autosomal recessive disease, usually of childhood onset, characterized pathologically by degeneration of the spinocerebellar tracts, posterior columns, and to a lesser extent the corticospinal tracts. Clinical manifestations include GAIT ATAXIA, pes cavus, speech impairment, lateral curvature of spine, rhythmic head tremor, kyphoscoliosis, congestive heart failure (secondary to a cardiomyopathy), and lower extremity weakness. Most forms of this condition are associated with a mutation in a gene on chromosome 9, at band q13, which codes for the mitochondrial protein frataxin. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1081; N Engl J Med 1996 Oct 17;335(16):1169-75) The severity of Friedreich ataxia associated with expansion of GAA repeats in the first intron of the frataxin gene correlates with the number of trinucleotide repeats. (From Durr et al, N Engl J Med 1996 Oct 17;335(16):1169-75)

UI = D005621


Friend murine leukemia virus

MS = A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.


UI = D005622



MS = Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.

AN = for Society of Friends, or Quakers, use PROTESTANTISM

UI = D033062



MS = A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members of this genus produce imperialine, a steroidal alkaloid which acts at muscarinic receptors.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031410


Frontal Bone

AN = fractures: coord FRONTAL BONE /inj (IM) + SKULL FRACTURES (IM); neopl: coord IM with SKULL NEOPLASMS (IM)

UI = D005624


Frontal Lobe

MS = The anterior part of the cerebral hemisphere.

AN = dis: coord IM with BRAIN DISEASES (IM); neopl: coord IM with BRAIN NEOPLASMS (IM)

UI = D005625


Frontal Sinus

MS = One of the paired, but seldom symmetrical, air spaces located between the inner and outer compact layers of the frontal bone.

AN = inflammation or sinusitis = FRONTAL SINUSITIS; fractures: coord FRONTAL SINUS /inj (IM) + SKULL FRACTURES (IM); neopl: coord IM with PARANASAL SINUS NEOPLASMS (IM)

UI = D005626


Frontal Sinusitis

MS = Inflammation of the frontal sinus; in most cases the infection is caused by the bacteria STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE and HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE. This condition may be acute or chronic.

UI = D015522



MS = Damage to tissues as the result of low environmental temperatures.

UI = D005627


Frozen Foods

UI = D005628


Frozen Sections

MS = Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.

UI = D005629



MS = Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.

AN = polysaccharides

UI = D005630



MS = A class of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose in the presence of ATP. EC 2.7.1.-.

UI = D005631



MS = An amino sugar formed when glucose non-enzymatically reacts with the N-terminal amino group of proteins. The fructose moiety is dervied from glucose by the "classical" Amadori rearrangement.

UI = D019270



MS = A carbohydrate in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

UI = D005632


Fructose Intolerance

MS = An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to deficient fructose-1-phosphate aldolase (EC activity, resulting in accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate. The accumulated fructose-1-phosphate inhibits glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, causing severe hypoglycemia following ingestion of fructose. Prolonged fructose ingestion in infants leads ultimately to hepatic failure and death. Patients develop a strong distaste for sweet food, and avoid a chronic course of the disease by remaining on a fructose- and sucrose-free diet.

AN = an inborn error of fructose metab; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D005633


Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors

MS = Inherited abnormalities of fructose metabolism, which include three known autosomal recessive types: hepatic fructokinase deficiency (essential fructosuria), hereditary fructose intolerance, and hereditary fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency. Essential fructosuria is a benign asymptomatic metabolic disorder caused by deficiency in fructokinase, leading to decreased conversion of fructose to fructose-1-phosphate and alimentary hyperfructosemia, but with no clinical dysfunction; may produce a false-positive diabetes test.

AN = an inborn error of carbohydrate metab; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; DF: FRUCTOSE METAB INBORN ERR

UI = D015318


Fructose-1,6-Diphosphatase Deficiency

MS = An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to absent or deficient fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity. Gluconeogenesis is impaired, resulting in accumulation of gluconeogenic precursors (e.g., amino acids, lactate, ketones) and manifested as hypoglycemia, ketosis, and lactic acidosis. Episodes in the newborn infant are often lethal. Later episodes are often brought on by fasting and febrile infections. As patients age through early childhood, tolerance to fasting improves and development becomes normal.

AN = an inborn error of fructose metab; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; DF: FDP DEFIC

UI = D015319



MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and water to D-fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate. EC

UI = D006597


Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase

MS = An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the cleavage of fructose 1,6-biphosphate to form dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The enzyme also acts on (3S,4R)-ketose 1-phosphates. The yeast and bacterial enzymes are zinc proteins. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) E.C.

AN = /defic: consider also FRUCTOSE INTOLERANCE

UI = D005634



MS = Diphosphoric acid esters of fructose. The fructose-1,6- diphosphate isomer is most prevalent. It is an important intermediate in the glycolysis process.

UI = D005635



UI = D005636


Fructuronate Reductase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidation of mannonate to fructuronate in the presence of NAD. Also reduces D-tagaturonate to D-altronate. EC

UI = D005637



MS = The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.

AN = as plant & food; fruit as plant tissue: Manual 31.9

UI = D005638



MS = A plant genus of the family Jubulaceae, subclass JUNGERMANNIAE. Members contain eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactones and cause CONTACT DERMATITIS.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D037961



MS = The motivational and/or affective state resulting from being blocked, thwarted, disappointed or defeated.

AN = human & animal; no qualif

UI = D005639


Fuchs' Endothelial Dystrophy

MS = Disorder caused by loss of endothelium of the central cornea. It is characterized by hyaline endothelial outgrowths on Descemet's membrane, epithelial blisters, reduced vision, and pain.

AN = a corneal dystrophy

UI = D005642



UI = D005643



MS = An autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of ALPHA-L-FUCOSIDASE activity resulting in an accumulation of fucose containing SPHINGOLIPIDS, GLYCOPROTEINS, and mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in lysosomes. The infantile form (type I) features psychomotor deterioration, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, coarse facial features, growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities, visceromegaly, SEIZURES, recurrent infections, and MACROGLOSSIA, with death occurring in the first decade of life. Juvenile fucosidosis (type II) is the more common variant and features a slowly progressive decline in neurologic function and angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Type II survival may be through the fourth decade of life. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p87; Am J Med Genet 1991 Jan;38(1):111-31)

UI = D005645


Fucosyl Galactose alpha-N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetylgalactosamine from UDP N-acetylgalactosamine to various 2-fucosylgalactosides as acceptors. EC


UI = D005646



MS = Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC; EC; EC; EC

UI = D005647


Fuel Oils

MS = Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.

UI = D005648



MS = A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.

UI = D037741


Fumarate Hydratase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC

UI = D005649



UI = D005650



MS = A plant genus of the family FUMARIACEAE that contains fumariline and other isoquinoline alkaloids.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031312



MS = The fumitory, or bleeding-heart plant family of the order Papaverales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Flowers are bisexual, with two small sepals and four petals, one pistil and six stamens.

AN = prefer specific plant; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031310



MS = The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.

UI = D005651



MS = A group of MYCOTOXINS found in CORN contaminated with FUSARIUM fungus. They are chains of about 20 carbons with acidic ester and acetylamino and sometimes other substituents. They disrupt metabolism of SPHINGOLIPIDS.

UI = D037341


Functional Residual Capacity

MS = The volume of air remaining in the lungs at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the residual volume and the expiratory reserve volume. Common abbreviation is FRC.


UI = D005652


Fund Raising

MS = Usually organized community efforts to raise money to promote financial programs of institutions. The funds may include individual gifts.

UI = D005653



MS = Mobilization of the lower end of the esophagus and plication of the fundus of the stomach around it (fundic wrapping) in the treatment of GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX that may be associated with various disorders, such as hiatal hernia. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = fundo- refers to the gastric fundus; do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D018662



MS = Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.

AN = do not confuse X ref TOPMINNOWS with gila topminnows in the family Poeciliidae = CYPRINODONTIFORMES; do not confuse X refs KILLIFISH (Fundulus heteroclitus), GULF KILLIFISH (Fundulus grandis), or ATLANTIC KILLIFISH with KILLIFISHES or with JAPANESE KILLIFISH see ORYZIAS; killifish unspecified goes under KILLIFISHES

UI = D023781


Fundus Oculi

MS = The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)

AN = no qualif; what is seen through an ophthalmoscope: do not confuse with RETINA & RETINAL VESSELS, the correct terms with subheadings, not FUNDUS OCULI; early coord for fundus fluorescent angiography: see hist notes under FLUORESCEIN ANGIOGRAPHY

UI = D005654


Funeral Rites

MS = Those customs and ceremonies pertaining to the dead.

AN = specify geog if pertinent

UI = D005655


Funeral Sermons [Publication Type]

MS = Works consisting of sermons delivered at ceremonies for a dead person prior to burial or cremation. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

AN = publication type only; for funeral sermons as a subject, index under main heading FUNERAL RITES

UI = D019505


Fungal Components

MS = The anatomical components of a fungus.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D025281


Fungal Proteins

MS = Proteins found in any species of fungus.

AN = /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted; /physiol permitted for function within the fungus; coord IM with specific protein (IM) + specific fungus (IM)

UI = D005656


Fungal Vaccines

MS = Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.

AN = coord IM with specific fungus /immunol (IM)

UI = D005657



MS = The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.

AN = coord with specific fungus/infect heading or specific fungus if specific fungus infect is not in MeSH (do not use /blood to indicate -emia)

UI = D016469



MS = A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live as saprobes or parasites, including mushrooms, yeasts, smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi refer to those that grow as multicelluar colonies (mushrooms and molds).

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics: Manual 22.32; /drug eff: consider also ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS & FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL; fungal dis = MYCOSES, fungal dis of skin = DERMATOMYCOSES

UI = D005658


Fungi, Unclassified

MS = Fungi whose taxonomic relationships have not been authoritatively established.

AN = author will state "unclassified"; do not confuse with fungi "unnamed" or unspecified by author (= probably FUNGI); GEN: avoid; infections by unclassified fungi: coord IM with MYCOSES or specific mycosis (IM)

UI = D020508


Fungicides, Industrial

MS = Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.

AN = differentiate from therapeutic fungicides ( = ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS); DF: FUNGICIDES INDUST

UI = D005659


Funnel Chest

MS = A developmental anomaly in which the lower sternum is posteriorly dislocated and concavely deformed, resulting in a funnel-shaped thorax.

AN = a sternum abnorm; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D005660



MS = A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in many tissues. The fluorescent and chelating properties of Fura-2 aid in the quantitation of endothelial cell injury, in monitoring ATP-dependent calcium uptake by membrane vesicles, and in the determination of the relationship between cytoplasmic free calcium and oxidase activation in rat neutrophils.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D016257



MS = Nitrofuran derivative anti-infective agent used for urinary tract infections.

UI = D005661



UI = D005662



MS = Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.

UI = D005663



MS = A nitrofuran derivative with antiprotozoal and antibacterial activity. Furazolidone acts by gradual inhibition of monoamine oxidase. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p514)

UI = D005664


Furcation Defects

MS = Conditions in which a bifurcation or trifurcation of the molar tooth root becomes denuded as a result of periodontal disease. It may be followed by tooth mobility, temperature sensitivity, pain, and alveolar bone resorption.

AN = a periodontal dis

UI = D017823



MS = A sulfamyl saluretic and diuretic. It has a fast onset and short duration of action and is used in edema and chronic renal insufficiency.

UI = D005665



MS = Compound used for therapy of thiamine deficiency. It has also been suggested for several non-deficiency disorders but has not yet proven useful.


UI = D005666



MS = An infection where furuncles are present over a period of weeks to months. Species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS are usually the causative agents.

AN = Staph skin infect; consider also CARBUNCLE, also usually caused by Staph (but not malignant carbuncle which = ANTHRAX)

UI = D005667



MS = Used formerly as antimicrobial food additive. It causes mutations in many cell cultures and may be carcinogenic.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D005668


Fusaric Acid

MS = A picolinic acid derivative isolated from various Fusarium species. It has been proposed for a variety of therapeutic applications but is primarily used as a research tool. Its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. It probably inhibits DOPAMINE BETA-HYDROXYLASE, the enzyme that converts dopamine to norepinephrine. It may also have other actions, including the inhibition of cell proliferation and DNA synthesis.

AN = /biosyn permitted if by organism

UI = D005669



MS = A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.

AN = infection: coord IM with MYCOSES (IM) or specific mycosis (IM)

UI = D005670


Fused Teeth

MS = Two teeth united during development by the union of their tooth germs; the teeth may be joined by the enamel of their crowns, by their root dentin, or by both.

AN = tooth abnorm; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D005671



MS = A family of lemon-shaped DNA viruses infecting ARCHAEA and containing one genus: Fusellovirus.

AN = coord with specific Archaea /virol

UI = D019241


Fusidic Acid

MS = An antibiotic isolated from the fermentation broth of Fusidium coccineum. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) It acts by inhibiting translocation during protein synthesis.

UI = D005672


Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl

MS = Translation products of a fusion mRNA derived from the breakpoint cluster region (bcr) gene and a cellular abl (c-abl) gene translocated to chromosome 22. The p210(bcr-abl) fusion protein is found in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. The p190(bcr-abl) fusion protein is found in patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia. The activation of human c-abl by chromosomal translocation is essentially the same as the activation of murine c-abl by viral translocation in Abelson murine leukemia virus.

AN = IM; found in various leukemias: coord IM with specific leukemia (IM); /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted

UI = D016044


Fusion Proteins, gag-onc

MS = General name for the translation products of a fusion mRNA consisting of a gag gene and a viral oncogene (v-onc). These products are thought to have the ability to transform cells.

AN = IM; coord with specific virus (IM); /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted

UI = D015681


Fusion Proteins, gag-pol

MS = Polyprotein products of a fused portion of retroviral mRNA containing the gag and pol genes. The polyprotein is synthesized only five percent of the time since pol is out of frame with gag, and is generated by ribosomal frameshifting.

AN = coord with specific virus (IM)

UI = D015685



MS = A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.


UI = D005673


Fusobacterium Infections

MS = Infections with bacteria of the genus FUSOBACTERIUM.

AN = gram-neg bact infect; DF: FUSOBACT INFECT

UI = D005674


Fusobacterium necrophorum

MS = A species of gram-negative, non-spore-forming bacteria isolated from the natural cavities of man and other animals and from necrotic lesions, abscesses, and blood.


UI = D005675


Fusobacterium nucleatum

MS = A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the gingival margin and sulcus and from infections of the upper respiratory tract and pleural cavity.

AN = isolated from mouth & resp tract; infection: coord IM with FUSOBACTERIUM INFECTIONS (IM); DF: FUSOBACT NUCLEATUM

UI = D016967


Fuzzy Logic

MS = Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.

AN = no qualif

UI = D017143