Glossary of Bio-Medical Terms

H

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H(+)-K(+)-Exchanging ATPase

MS = An enzyme isolated from the gastric mucosa that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of hydrogen and potassium ions across the cell wall. EC 3.6.1.36.

AN = do not confuse X ref H(+)-K(+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE with PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES; DF: H K ATPASE

UI = D017506

 

H-2 Antigens

MS = The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.

AN = mouse only

UI = D006183

 

H-Reflex

MS = A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.

UI = D006181

 

H-Y Antigen

MS = A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.

AN = mammals only

UI = D006182

 

Habenula

MS = A small protuberance at the dorsal, posterior corner of the wall of the third ventricle, adjacent to the dorsal thalamus and pineal body. It contains the habenular nuclei and is a major part of the epithalamus. (From Lockard, Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 2nd ed, p121)

UI = D019262

 

Habits

MS = Acquired or learned responses which are regularly manifested.

AN = no qualif; do not use for "drug habit" ( = SUBSTANCE ABUSE or SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE) nor for "smoking habit" ( = SMOKING or TOBACCO USE DISORDER)

UI = D006184

 

Habituation (Psychophysiology)

MS = The disappearance of responsiveness to accustomed stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.

AN = DF: HABITUATION

UI = D006185

 

Haemonchiasis

MS = Infection with nematodes of the genus HAEMONCHUS, characterized by digestive abnormalities and anemia similar to that from hookworm infestation.

AN = nematode infect

UI = D006188

 

Haemonchus

MS = A genus of parasitic nematode worms which infest the duodenum and stomach of domestic and wild herbivores, which ingest it with the grasses (POACEAE) they eat. Infestation of man is accidental.

AN = a genus of nematodes; infection = HAEMONCHIASIS; for antigens, coord with ANTIGENS, HELMINTH, for antibodies, coord with ANTIBODIES, HELMINTH

UI = D006189

 

Haemophilus

MS = A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.

AN = use this spelling in translations; infection = HAEMOPHILUS INFECTIONS but check text for species & index by instructions on species

UI = D006190

 

Haemophilus ducreyi

MS = A species of HAEMOPHILUS that appears to be the pathogen or causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease, CHANCROID.

AN = infection = CHANCROID

UI = D006191

 

Haemophilus Infections

MS = Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.

AN = gram-neg bact infect; check text for species & index by instructions on species; MENINGITIS, HAEMOPHILUS is also available

UI = D006192

 

Haemophilus influenzae

MS = A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.

AN = infection: coord IM with HAEMOPHILUS INFECTIONS (IM); vaccine = HAEMOPHILUS VACCINES

UI = D006193

 

Haemophilus influenzae type b

MS = A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.

AN = infection: coord IM with HAEMOPHILUS INFECTIONS (IM) or MENINGITIS, HAEMOPHILUS (IM); vaccine = HAEMOPHILUS VACCINES

UI = D019741

 

Haemophilus Vaccines

MS = Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.

AN = note X ref HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE VACCINES: restrict to vaccine against H. influenzae so do not coord with HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE

UI = D018073

 

Haemosporida

MS = An order of heteroxenous protozoa in which the macrogamete and microgamont develop independently. A conoid is usually absent.

AN = an order of protozoa to which Plasmodium belongs

UI = D016787

 

Hafnia

MS = A genus of straight, gram-negative bacterial rods which are facultatively anaerobic and motile by peritrichous flagella. This genus is found in human and animal feces, soil, water, and dairy products. It is an opportunistic pathogen in humans. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)

AN = infection: coord IM with ENTEROBACTERIACEAE INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D020595

 

Hafnia alvei

MS = The type species for the genus HAFNIA. It is distinguished from other biochemically similar bacteria by its lack of acid production on media containing sucrose. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)

AN = infection: coord IM with ENTEROBACTERIACEAE INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D020611

 

Hafnium

MS = Hafnium. A metal element of atomic number 72 and atomic weight 178.49, symbol Hf. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = Hf-180; Hf-176-179 = HAFNIUM (IM) + ISOTOPES (NIM); Hf-168-175, 181-183 = HAFNIUM (IM) + RADIOISOTOPES (IM)

UI = D006195

 

Hagfishes

MS = Common name for a family of eel-shaped jawless fishes (Myxinidae), the only genus in the order MYXINIFORMES. They are not true vertebrates.

UI = D006196

 

Hair

MS = A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.

AN = abnormally pulling at one's hair = TRICHOTILLOMANIA; HAIR FOLLICLE is available

UI = D006197

 

Hair Cells

MS = Mechanoreceptors located in the organ of Corti that are sensitive to auditory stimuli and in the vestibular apparatus that are sensitive to movement of the head. In each case the accessory sensory structures are arranged so that appropriate stimuli cause movement of the hair-like projections (stereocilia and kinocilia) which relay the information centrally in the nervous system.

AN = mechanoreceptors in the cochlea: nothing to do with HAIR; use for hair cells unspecified but HAIR CELLS, INNER & HAIR CELLS, OUTER & HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR are available

UI = D006198

 

Hair Cells, Inner

MS = Bulbous cells that are medially placed in one row in the organ of Corti. In contrast to the outer hair cells, the inner hair cells are fewer in number, have fewer sensory hairs, and are less differentiated.

AN = see note on HAIR CELLS

UI = D006199

 

Hair Cells, Outer

MS = Mechanoreceptors in the organ of Corti. In mammals the outer hair cells are arranged in three rows which are further from the modiolus than the single row of inner hair cells. The motile properties of the outer hair cells may contribute actively to tuning the sensitivity and frequency selectivity of the cochlea.

AN = see note on HAIR CELLS

UI = D018072

 

Hair Cells, Vestibular

MS = Mechanoreceptors located in the acoustic maculae and the semicircular canals that mediate the sense of balance, movement, and head position. The vestibular hair cells are connected to accessory structures in such a way that movements of the head displace their stereocilia. This influences the membrane potential of the cells which relay information about movements via the vestibular part of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE to the brain stem.

AN = mechanoreceptors in the ear; see note on HAIR CELLS

UI = D018069

 

Hair Color

MS = Color of hair or fur.

AN = natural color of human hair or animal fur; do not use for color of hair after dyeing

UI = D006200

 

Hair Diseases

MS = Diseases affecting the orderly growth and persistence of hair.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; dis of hair follicles: coord IM with HAIR FOLLICLES (IM) but FOLLICULITIS is also available

UI = D006201

 

Hair Dyes

MS = Dyes used as cosmetics to change hair color either permanently or temporarily.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D006202

 

Hair Follicle

MS = A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.

AN = dis = HAIR FOLLICLE (IM) + HAIR DISEASES (NIM); inflammation = FOLLICULITIS

UI = D018859

 

Hair Preparations

MS = Hair grooming and cleansing aids or other products meant for topical application to hair, usually human. They include sprays, bleaches, conditioners, rinses, shampoos, nutrient lotions, etc.

AN = D25-26 qualif; HAIR DYES is also available

UI = D006203

 

Hair Removal

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D006204

 

Haiti

MS = A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)

AN = with the Dominican Republic = Hispaniola, a hist name for the island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies

UI = D006205

 

Hajdu-Cheney Syndrome

MS = Rare, autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by ACRO-OSTEOLYSIS, generalized OSTEOPOROSIS, and skull deformations.

UI = D031845

 

Halcinonide

MS = A topical glucocorticoid used in the treatment of dermatitis, eczema, or psoriasis. It may cause skin irritation.

UI = D006206

 

Half-Life

MS = The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.

AN = almost never IM; no qualif; may refer to radioactivity, metabolized substances or cells

UI = D006207

 

Halfway Houses

MS = Specialized residences for persons who do not require full hospitalization, and are not well enough to function completely within the community without professional supervision, protection and support.

AN = IM

UI = D006208

 

Halitosis

MS = An offensive, foul breath odor resulting from a variety of causes such as poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infections, or the ingestion of certain foods.

UI = D006209

 

Hallermann's Syndrome

MS = An oculomandibulofacial syndrome principally characterized by dyscephaly (usually brachycephaly), parrot nose, mandibular hypoplasia, proportionate nanism, hypotrichosis, bilateral congenital cataracts, and microphthalmia. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = a form of craniofacial dysostosis with other abnorm; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D006210

 

Hallervorden-Spatz Syndrome

MS = A rare autosomal recessive degenerative disorder which usually presents in late childhood or adolescence. Clinical manifestations include progressive MUSCLE SPASTICITY; hyperreflexia; MUSCLE RIGIDITY; DYSTONIA; DYSARTHRIA; and intellectual deterioration which progresses to severe dementia over several years. Pathologic examination reveals neuronal atrophy in the globus pallidus and iron deposition in blood vessels and perivascular spaces. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p972; Davis & Robertson, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp972-929)

AN = DF: HALLERVORDEN SPATZ DIS

UI = D006211

 

Hallucinations

MS = Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.

AN = /chem ind: consider also HALLUCINOGENS

UI = D006212

 

Hallucinogens

MS = Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; consider also HALLUCINATIONS /chem ind

UI = D006213

 

Hallux

AN = primates only

UI = D006214

 

Hallux Limitus

MS = A bony proliferation and articular degeneration of the first METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT that is characterized by pain and a progressive decrease in the dorsiflexion range of motion.

UI = D020857

 

Hallux Rigidus

MS = A condition caused by degenerative arthritis (see OSTEOARTHRITIS) of the METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT of the great toe and characterized by pain and limited dorsiflexion, but relatively unrestricted plantar flexion.

UI = D020859

 

Hallux Valgus

MS = Lateral displacement of the great toe, producing deformity of the first metatarsophalangeal joint with callous, bursa, or bunion formation over the bony prominence.

AN = note category: lateral displacement of big toe

UI = D006215

 

Haloarcula

MS = A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE distinguished from other genera in the family by the presence of specific derivatives of TGD-2 polar lipids. Haloarcula are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes, marine salterns, and saline soils.

AN = a genus of archaea "found in neutral saline environments"

UI = D019613

 

Haloarcula marismortui

MS = A species of halophilic archaea distinguished by its production of acid from sugar. This species was previously called Halobacterium marismortui.

AN = a species of halophilic archaea; marismortui is Latin for Dead Sea

UI = D019614

 

Halobacteriaceae

MS = A family of extremely halophilic archaea found in environments with high salt concentrations, such as salt lakes, evaporated brines, or salted fish. Halobacteriaceae are either obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes and are divided into six genera: HALOARCULA, HALOBACTERIUM, HALOCOCCUS, HALOFERAX, NATRONOBACTERIUM, and NATRONOCOCCUS.

AN = a family of Halobacteriales "found in environments with high salt concentrations"

UI = D006216

 

Halobacteriales

MS = An order of extremely halophilic archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They occur ubiquitously in nature where the salt concentration is high, and are chemoorganotrophic, using amino acids or carbohydrates as a carbon source.

AN = an order of the kingdom of Euryarchaeota, of the domain Archaea

UI = D016931

 

Halobacterium

MS = A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE whose growth requires a high concentration of salt. Binary fission is by constriction.

AN = a genus of Halobacteriaceae found in salt waters & brines; DF: HALOBACT

UI = D006217

 

Halobacterium halobium

MS = Formerly a species of HALOBACTERIUM and now considered a strain of HALOBACTERIUM SALINARUM. It is found in heavily salted protein materials and salt lakes and forms a PURPLE MEMBRANE under anaerobic conditions.

AN = DF: HALOBACT HALOBIUM

UI = D016932

 

Halobacterium salinarum

MS = A species of halophilic archaea found in salt lakes. Some strains form a PURPLE MEMBRANE under anaerobic conditions.

AN = DF: HALOBACT SALINARUM

UI = D019617

 

Halococcus

MS = A genus of extremely halophilic HALOBACTERIACEAE with coccoid cells occurring singly or as pairs, tetrads, or irregular clusters. They are found in neutral salt lakes, marine salterns, saline soils and seawater.

AN = a genus of Halobacteriaceae, extremely halophilic

UI = D019625

 

Halofenate

MS = An antihyperlipoproteinemic agent and uricosuric agent.

UI = D006218

 

Haloferax

MS = A genus of extremely halophilic HALOBACTERIACEAE which are chemoheterotropic and strictly aerobic. They are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes (especially the Dead Sea) and marine salterns.

AN = a genus of Halobacteriaceae, extremely halophilic

UI = D019621

 

Haloferax mediterranei

MS = A species of halophilic archaea found in the Mediterranean Sea. It produces bacteriocins active against a range of other halobacteria.

AN = a species of Haloferax of the family Halobacteriaceae

UI = D019623

 

Haloferax volcanii

MS = A species of halophilic archaea found in the Dead Sea.

AN = a species of Haloferax found in the Dead Sea; volcanii refers to B.E. Volcani, discoverer of life in the Dead Sea

UI = D019622

 

Halogens

MS = A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.

UI = D006219

 

Halomonas

MS = A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped or pleomorphic bacteria which are halotolerant. Members of this genus are capable of growth in sodium chloride concentrations of up to 20% or more. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)

UI = D020632

 

Haloperidol

MS = A drug that is used primarily to treat schizophrenia and other psychoses. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, ballism, and Tourette's syndrome (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in mental retardation and the chorea of Huntington's disease. It is a potent antiemetic and is effective in the treatment of intractable hiccups. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)

UI = D006220

 

Halorhodopsins

MS = Light driven chloride ion pumps that are ubiquitously found in halophilic archaea (HALOBACTERIALES).

UI = D025602

 

Halothane

MS = A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)

UI = D006221

 

Hamamelidaceae

MS = A plant family of the order Hamamelidales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; specify Plant Components; for /Chem coord with D tree compound and/or Preparation; for therap. coordinate with PLANT PREPARATION or children and Diseases and PHYTOTHERAPY

UI = D029201

 

Hamamelis

MS = A plant genus of the family Hamamelidaceae, order Hamamelidales. It is known for the astringent (ASTRINGENTS) extract of leaves and bark used in over the counter preparations. This should not be confused with the similar named Hamelia genus (RUBIACEAE).

AN = do not confuse with HAMELIA; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D029501

 

Hamartoma

MS = A focal malformation resembling a neoplasm, composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues that normally occur in the affected area.

AN = non-neoplastic; coord IM with precoord organ/diseases term (IM)

UI = D006222

 

Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple

MS = A hereditary disease characterized by multiple ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal nevoid and neoplastic anomalies. Papules of the face and oral mucosa are the most characteristic lesion. Other changes occur in the skin, in the thyroid, the breast, the gastrointestinal system, and the nervous system.

AN = do not use /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct

UI = D006223

 

Hamelia

MS = A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE that has a name very similar to another plant genus, HAMAMELIS.

AN = do not confuse with HAMAMELIS; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D032063

 

Hammer Toe Syndrome

MS = A condition characterized by a series of interrelated digital symptoms and joint changes of the lesser digits and METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINTS of the FOOT. The syndrome can include some or all of the following conditions: hammer toe, claw toe, mallet toe, overlapping fifth toe, curly toe, EXOSTOSIS, HYPEROSTOSIS, interdigital heloma, or contracted toe.

UI = D037801

 

Hamsters

MS = A common name used to describe a subfamily of the Muridae. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.

AN = check tag: no qualif; when IM, qualif permitted

UI = D006224

 

Hand

AN = primates only; /inj = HAND INJURIES; skin dis of hand = HAND DERMATOSES: see note there

UI = D006225

 

Hand Deformities

MS = Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the hand.

AN = GEN or unspecified only; prefer specifics

UI = D006226

 

Hand Deformities, Acquired

MS = Deformities of the hand, or a part of the hand, acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease.

AN = deformity of bone, joint, muscle, etc.

UI = D006227

 

Hand Deformities, Congenital

MS = Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the hand occurring at or before birth.

AN = do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D006228

 

Hand Dermatoses

AN = GEN & as coord for specific skin diseases of the hand but not as coord for neoplasms on the hand (use neopl coords (IM) with HAND (IM)); consider synonym for dermatitis of hand & do not add DERMATITIS unless one of the specific DERMATITIS terms in MeSH

UI = D006229

 

Hand Injuries

MS = General or unspecified injuries to the hand.

AN = consider also METACARPUS /inj; FINGER INJURIES is also available

UI = D006230

 

Hand Strength

MS = Force exerted when gripping or grasping.

UI = D018737

 

Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

MS = A mild, highly infectious viral disease of children, characterized by vesicular lesions in the mouth and on the hands and feet. It is caused by coxsackieviruses A.

AN = do not confuse with FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE caused by a picornavirus; DF: HAND FOOT MOUTH DIS

UI = D006232

 

Hand-Schueller-Christian Syndrome

MS = Disseminated, chronic form of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis. It may exhibit the classic triad of exophthalmos, diabetes insipidus, and bone destruction.

AN = a form of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis

UI = D006231

 

Handbooks [Publication Type]

MS = Works consisting of concise reference works in which facts and information pertaining to a certain subject or field are arranged for ready reference and consultation rather than for continuous reading and study.

UI = D020479

 

Handling (Psychology)

MS = Physical manipulation of animals and humans to induce a behavioral or other psychological reaction. In experimental psychology, the animal is handled to induce a stress situation or to study the effects of "gentling" or "mothering".

AN = human & animal; no qualif; DF: HANDLING

UI = D006234

 

Handwashing

MS = The act of cleansing the hands with water or other liquid, with or without the inclusion of soap or other detergent, for the purpose of removing soil or microorganisms.

UI = D006235

 

Handwriting

AN = no qualif; handwriting "disorders" goes here with no coord for disord

UI = D006236

 

Hantaan virus

MS = The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.

AN = infection: coord IM with HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME (IM)

UI = D018063

 

Hantavirus

MS = A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.

AN = infection = HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS or specifics

UI = D006476

 

Hantavirus Infections

MS = Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D018778

 

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

MS = Acute respiratory illness in humans caused by the Muerto Canyon virus whose primary rodent reservoir is the deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus. First identified in the southwestern United States, this syndrome is characterized most commonly by fever, myalgias, headache, cough, and rapid respiratory failure.

AN = causes resp failure; DF: HANTAVIRUS PULM SYNDROME

UI = D018804

 

Haploidy

MS = The number of chromosomes in the gametes, which is half the number normally found in somatic cells. Symbol: N.

AN = no qualif

UI = D006238

 

Haplopappus

MS = A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Many of the member species have been reclassified to other genera such as Machaeranthera, Isocoma, Ericameria, etc.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031206

 

Haplorhini

MS = A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), PONGIDAE (great apes), TARSIIDAE (tarsiers), and HOMINIDAE (humans).

AN = note X refs; many Old World & New World monkey families & genera are available: prefer specifics; IM; qualif permitted; only human anthropoid is HOMINIDAE; diseases of monkey families & genera: coord IM with MONKEY DISEASES (IM); Manual 22.28+

UI = D000882

 

Haplotypes

MS = The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.

UI = D006239

 

Happiness

MS = Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.

AN = no qualif; includes "joy"

UI = D006240

 

Haptens

MS = Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.

UI = D006241

 

Haptoglobins

MS = Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.

AN = alpha-globulins; acute phase proteins

UI = D006242

 

Harderian Gland

MS = A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.

AN = animal only; accessory lacrimal gland

UI = D006243

 

Hardness

AN = almost never IM

UI = D006244

 

Hardness Tests

AN = NIM

UI = D006245

 

Hares

MS = The genus Lepus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Hares are born above ground, fully furred, and with their eyes and ears open. In contrast with RABBITS, hares have 24 chromosome pairs.

AN = do not confuse with BELGIAN HARE see RABBITS

UI = D034621

 

Harm Reduction

MS = The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.

UI = D040261

 

Harmaline

MS = Alkaloid isolated from seeds of Peganum harmala L., Zygophyllaceae. A CNS stimulant acting as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

AN = do not confuse with HARMINE

UI = D006246

 

Harmine

MS = Alkaloid isolated from seeds of Peganum harmala L., Zygophyllaceae. It is identical to banisterine, or telepathine, from Banisteria caapi and is one of the active ingredients of hallucinogenic drinks made in the western Amazon region from related plants. It has no therapeutic use, but (as banisterine) was hailed as a cure for postencephalitic Parkinson disease in the 1920's.

AN = do not confuse with HARMIDINE or HARMALINE

UI = D006247

 

Harpagophytum

MS = A plant genus of the family PEDALIACEAE. Members contain harpagoside and are the source of extract WS 1531.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031684

 

Harringtonines

MS = Substances isolated from the seeds of Cephalotaxus harringtonia, var. drupacea. They are esters of the alkaloid cephalotaxine and may be effective as antineoplastic agents.

AN = /biosyn permitted if by plant

UI = D006248

 

Hartmannella

MS = A genus of free-living amoebae found in fresh water. The cysts usually pass harmlessly through the intestinal tract of man and may thus be found in feces. Occasionally, these organisms cause respiratory tract infections or generalized fatal meningoencephalitis.

AN = found in fresh water; infection: coord IM with AMEBIASIS (IM); for antigens, coord with ANTIGENS, PROTOZOAN, for antibodies, coord with ANTIBODIES, PROTOZOAN

UI = D006249

 

Hartnup Disease

MS = A disorder of amino acid transport characterized by the childhood (or rarely adult) onset of photosensitive dermatitis and intermittent neurologic symptoms. Ataxia, personality changes, migraine headaches, and photophobia may occur periodically. The disorder results from impaired sodium-dependent transport of neutral amino acids across the brush border membrane of the small intestine and renal tubular epithelium. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp59-60)

UI = D006250

 

Harvey murine sarcoma virus

MS = A replication-defective mouse sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) first described by J.J. Harvey in 1964.

AN = infection: coord IM with RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM) + TUMOR VIRUS INFECTIONS (IM) + SARCOMA, EXPERIMENTAL (IM)

UI = D006251

 

Hate

MS = An enduring attitude or sentiment toward persons or objects manifested by anger, aversion and desire for the misfortune of others.

AN = no qualif

UI = D006252

 

Haversian System

MS = A circular structural unit of bone tissue. It consists of a central hole, the Haversian canal through which blood vessels run, surrounded by concentric rings, called lamellae.

UI = D006253

 

Hawaii

MS = A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330

AN = an island group in Polynesia; Hawaii is also the name of the largest island in the group

UI = D006254

 

Hay Fever

MS = A seasonal variety of allergic rhinitis, marked by acute conjunctivitis with lacrimation and itching, regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific allergens.

AN = may be caused by grasses (POACEAE), various types of pollen, etc.; note X ref: do not confuse with RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, NONSEASONAL

UI = D006255

 

Hazardous Substances

MS = Substances which, upon release into the atmosphere, water, or soil, or which, in direct contact with the skin, eyes, or mucous membranes, or as additives to food, cause health risks to humans or animals through absorption, inhalation, or ingestion. The concept includes safe handling, transportation, and storage of these substances.

AN = note category: do not confuse with HAZARDOUS WASTE; "includes safe handling, transport & storage"

UI = D015386

 

Hazardous Waste

MS = Waste products which, upon release into the atmosphere, water or soil, cause health risks to humans or animals through skin contact, inhalation or ingestion. Hazardous waste sites which contain hazardous waste substances go here.

AN = note category: do not confuse with HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES

UI = D006256

 

Head

AN = usually NIM as site; soft parts = FACE, bony parts = SKULL; prefer specific indentions; /anat: consider also CEPHALOMETRY (living skull) & CRANIOMETRY (dead skull); /inj = CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA but consider also SKULL & FACIAL BONES & specifics under each with /inj; TN 96: relation to "skull injuries"; HEAD-DOWN TILT is available for space, surg & physiol aspects of this position

UI = D006257

 

Head and Neck Neoplasms

MS = Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)

AN = soft tissue neopls only; GEN: prefer FACIAL NEOPLASMS, & other specific organ/neopl terms pertinent to the soft tissues of the head & neck; coord IM with histol type of neopl if possible; DF: HEAD NEOPLASMS or HEAD NEOPL

UI = D006258

 

Head Injuries, Closed

MS = Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)

AN = usually GEN or unspecified; coord with BRAIN INJURIES, TRAUMATIC only if both are discussed

UI = D016489

 

Head Injuries, Penetrating

MS = Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.

UI = D020197

 

Head Movements

MS = Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.

AN = note HEAD BANGING see STEREOTYPED BEHAVIOR

UI = D019416

 

Head Protective Devices

MS = Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.

UI = D006260

 

Head-Down Tilt

MS = Posture while lying with the head lower than the rest of the body. Extended time in this position is associated with temporary physiologic disturbances.

AN = not restricted to space flight; /adv eff /physiol permitted

UI = D018475

 

Headache

MS = Pain in the cranial region that may occur as an isolated and benign symptom or as a manifestation of a wide variety of conditions including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; and other disorders. In general, recurrent headaches that are not associated with a primary disease process are referred to as HEADACHE DISORDERS (e.g., MIGRAINE).

AN = HEADACHE DISORDERS; MIGRAINE; VASCULAR HEADACHE; CLUSTER HEADACHE & TENSION HEADACHE are also available but do not diagnose: use word of text; /drug ther: consider also ANALGESICS /ther use

UI = D006261

 

Headache Disorders

MS = Common conditions characterized by persistent or recurrent headaches (see HEADACHE). Headache syndrome classification systems may be based on etiology (e.g., VASCULAR HEADACHE, post-traumatic headaches, etc.), temporal pattern (e.g., CLUSTER HEADACHE, paroxysmal hemicrania, etc.), and precipitating factors (e.g., cough headache).

UI = D020773

 

Health

MS = The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.

UI = D006262

 

Health Behavior

MS = Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.

UI = D015438

 

Health Benefit Plans, Employee

MS = Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.

AN = specify geog if possible

UI = D006264

 

Health Care Coalitions

MS = Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.

UI = D006265

 

Health Care Costs

MS = The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.

AN = actual cost of providing care: do not confuse with HEALTH EXPENDITURES (the amount paid for the service) or with FEES AND CHARGES (the amount charged regardless of cost); do not confuse with COST OF ILLNESS which is a personal cost (psychol, social, etc.) as well as a monetary cost for services

UI = D017048

 

Health Care Economics and Organizations

MS = The economic aspects of health care, its planning, and delivery. It includes government agencies and organizations in the private sector.

AN = not used for indexing CATALOG: do not use

UI = D004472

 

Health Care Evaluation Mechanisms

MS = Methods and techniques used in evaluating the quality of health care, its planning, and delivery.

AN = not used for indexing

UI = D017531

 

Health Care Facilities, Manpower, and Services

MS = The services provided in the delivery of health care, associated facilities in health care, and attendant manpower required or available.

AN = not used for indexing CATALOG: do not use

UI = D005159

 

Health Care Quality, Access, and Evaluation

MS = The concept concerned with all aspects of the quality, accessibility, and appraisal of health care and health care delivery.

AN = not used for indexing CATALOG: do not use

UI = D017530

 

Health Care Rationing

MS = Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.

UI = D015276

 

Health Care Reform

MS = Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.

AN = not restricted to US; specify state or country

UI = D018166

 

Health Care Sector

MS = Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.

UI = D019981

 

Health Care Surveys

MS = Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.

AN = do not confuse with HEALTH SURVEYS: health care surveys are on health services provided, health surveys are on health statist; specify geog if pertinent

UI = D019538

 

Health Education

MS = Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.

AN = educ of general public or individuals; educ of patients in & outside hosp = PATIENT EDUCATION

UI = D006266

 

Health Education, Dental

MS = Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.

AN = DF: HEALTH EDUC DENT

UI = D006267

 

Health Educators

MS = Professionals who plan, organize and direct health education programs for the individual, groups and the community.

UI = D040441

 

Health Expenditures

MS = The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.

AN = amount spent for health care: do not confuse with HEALTH CARE COSTS (actual costs of providing care) or with FEES AND CHARGES (amount charged regardless of cost)

UI = D005102

 

Health Facilities

MS = Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.

AN = IM

UI = D006268

 

Health Facilities, Proprietary

MS = Health care institutions operated by private groups or corporations for a profit.

AN = "operated by private groups or corporations for a profit"

UI = D006269

 

Health Facility Administrators

MS = Managerial personnel responsible for implementing policy and directing the activities of health care facilities such as nursing homes.

UI = D006270

 

Health Facility Closure

MS = The closing of any health facility, e.g., health centers, residential facilities, and hospitals.

UI = D006271

 

Health Facility Environment

MS = Physical surroundings or conditions of a hospital or other health facility and influence of these factors on patients and staff.

AN = DF: HEALTH FACILITY ENVIR

UI = D006272

 

Health Facility Merger

MS = The combining of administrative and organizational resources of two or more health care facilities.

UI = D006273

 

Health Facility Moving

MS = The relocation of health care institutions or units thereof. The concept includes equipment relocation.

UI = D006274

 

Health Facility Planning

MS = Areawide planning for health care institutions on the basis of projected consumer need.

AN = differentiate from FACILITY DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

UI = D006275

 

Health Facility Size

MS = The physical space or dimensions of a facility. Size may be indicated by bed capacity.

AN = note X ref

UI = D006276

 

Health Fairs

MS = Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.

UI = D006277

 

Health Food

MS = A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. Health foods have been attributed with the ability to prevent the development of diseases, slow the aging process, and prolong life. (from Segan, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

AN = coord IM with specific food or type of food (IM)

UI = D019123

 

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

MS = Public Law 104-91, enacted in 1996, is designed to protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families when they change or lose their jobs. HIPAA has separate provisions for the large and small group markets, and the individual market. HIPAA amends the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), the Public Health Service Act, and the Internal Revenue Code to provide improved portability and continuity of health insurance coverage, extending earlier provisions under the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 ("COBRA").

AN = add UNITED STATES (NIM) CATALOG: use NAF entry

UI = D020408

 

Health Maintenance Organizations

MS = Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)

AN = DF: note short X ref

UI = D006279

 

Health Manpower

MS = The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.

AN = = availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL: do not confuse with the HEALTH PERSONNEL themselves, the persons in the field of health care & delivery; GEN only: prefer /manpower with specific headings; when GEN & IM, /educ = HEALTH OCCUPATIONS /educ or HEALTH PERSONNEL /educ; DF: HEALTH MAN

UI = D006280

 

Health Occupations

MS = Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.

AN = the occup themselves: do not confuse with OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH (see note there); SPEC: SPEC qualif; ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is also available; for health aides try HEALTH MANPOWER or ALLIED HEALTH PERSONNEL or PHYSICIAN ASSISTANTS; DF: HEALTH OCCUP

UI = D006281

 

Health Personnel

MS = Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)

AN = persons working in the field of health: do not confuse with HEALTH MANPOWER, the availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL

UI = D006282

 

Health Physics

MS = The science concerned with problems of radiation protection relevant to reducing or preventing radiation exposure, and the effects of ionizing radiation on humans and their environment.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif; physics or phys principles in the field of med = specific med term (IM) + PHYSICS (NIM) or specific phys principle (IM), as "The physics of brachytherapy" = BRACHYTHERAPY (IM) + PHYSICS (NIM)

UI = D006283

 

Health Plan Implementation

MS = Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.

AN = specify geog

UI = D006284

 

Health Planning

MS = Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.

AN = specify geog & add UNITED STATES (NIM) for X ref STATE HEALTH PLANNING, UNITED STATES

UI = D006285

 

Health Planning Councils

MS = Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.

AN = Public Law 93-641; specify geog

UI = D006286

 

Health Planning Guidelines

MS = Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.

AN = no qualif

UI = D006287

 

Health Planning Organizations

MS = Organizations involved in all aspects of health planning activities.

AN = specify geog

UI = D006288

 

Health Planning Support

MS = Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.

AN = IM

UI = D006289

 

Health Planning Technical Assistance

MS = The provision of expert assistance in developing health planning programs, plans as technical materials, etc., as requested by Health Systems Agencies or other health planning organizations.

UI = D006290

 

Health Policy

MS = Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.

AN = specify state or country or other body if pertinent

UI = D006291

 

Health Priorities

MS = Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.

UI = D006292

 

Health Promotion

MS = Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.

AN = IM

UI = D006293

 

Health Resorts

AN = sanatoria & sanitaria (often used interchangeably) can go here but consider also HOSPITALS, SPECIAL

UI = D006294

 

Health Resources

MS = Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.

AN = specify geog

UI = D006295

 

Health Services

MS = Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.

AN = IM GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; DF: HEALTH SERV

UI = D006296

 

Health Services Accessibility

MS = The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.

AN = specify geog; DF: HEALTH SERV ACCESS

UI = D006297

 

Health Services Administration

MS = The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specific health serv with /organ (for /organization & administration); DF: HEALTH SERV ADMIN

UI = D006298

 

Health Services for the Aged

MS = Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.

AN = coord IM with specific serv (IM or NIM) if pertinent; check also tag AGED; DF: HEALTH SERV AGED

UI = D006299

 

Health Services Misuse

MS = Excessive or unnecessary utilization of health services by patients or physicians.

AN = misuse, overuse or abuse by patient or physician; DF: HEALTH SERV MISUSE

UI = D006300

 

Health Services Needs and Demand

MS = Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.

AN = specify geog; DF: HEALTH SERV NEEDS

UI = D006301

 

Health Services Research

MS = The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

AN = IM; DF: HEALTH SERV RESEARCH

UI = D006302

 

Health Services, Indigenous

MS = Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.

AN = "health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs & taboos"; specify ethnic group (IM) + geog; DF: HEALTH SERV INDIGENOUS

UI = D006303

 

Health Status

MS = The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.

AN = no qualif

UI = D006304

 

Health Status Indicators

MS = The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.

AN = no qualif

UI = D006305

 

Health Surveys

MS = A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.

AN = do not confuse with HEALTH CARE SURVEYS: health surveys are on health statist, health care surveys are on health services provided; no qualif; TN 97: misuse of "surveys"; specify geog if pertinent

UI = D006306

 

Health Systems Agencies

MS = Health planning and resources development agencies which function in each health service area of the United States (PL 93-641).

AN = Public Law 93-641; specify geog & add UNITED STATES also

UI = D006307

 

Health Systems Plans

MS = Statements of goals for the delivery of health services pertaining to the Health Systems Agency service area, established under PL 93-641, and consistent with national guidelines for health planning.

AN = Public Law 93-641; specify geog & add UNITED STATES also

UI = D006308

 

Health Transition

MS = Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)

AN = demogr & epidemiol changes in health picture in a population

UI = D019456

 

Healthy People Programs

MS = Healthy People Programs are a set of health objectives to be used by governments, commmunities, professional organizations, and others to help develop programs to improve health. It builds on initiatives pursued over the past two decades begining with the 1979 Surgeon General's Report, Healthy People, Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives, and Healthy People 2010. These established national health objectives and served as the basis for the development of state and community plans. These are administered by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). Similar programs are conducted by other national governments.

AN = specify geog if pertinent

UI = D040361

 

Healthy Worker Effect

MS = Phenomenon of workers' usually exhibiting overall death rates lower than those of the general population due to the fact that the severely ill and disabled are ordinarily excluded from employment.

AN = IM GEN only; coord NIM with disease /epidemiol (IM); no qualif; specify geog if pertinent

UI = D015989

 

Hearing

MS = The sensation of sound.

AN = differentiate from AUDITORY PERCEPTION: aud percept takes place in the brain, hearing takes place in the ear: TN 98; PSYCHOACOUSTICS is also available; AMERICAN SPEECH-LANGUAGE-HEARING ASSOCIATION is available

UI = D006309

 

Hearing Aids

MS = Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)

AN = "hearing aid" is correct translation for "proth├Ęse auditive", not "auditory prosthesis" unless you mean COCHLEAR IMPLANT

UI = D006310

 

Hearing Disorders

MS = Conditions that impair the transmission or perception of auditory impulses and information from the level of the ear to the temporal cortices, including the sensorineural pathways.

AN = GEN or unspecified; consider also DEAFNESS and HEARING LOSS and its indentations

UI = D006311

 

Hearing Impaired Persons

MS = Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.

UI = D019986

 

Hearing Loss

MS = A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D034381

 

Hearing Loss, Bilateral

MS = Partial hearing loss in both ears.

AN = differentiate from DEAFNESS, total hearing loss in both ears

UI = D006312

 

Hearing Loss, Central

MS = Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.

AN = coord IM with VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES (IM) for hearing loss due to cochlear nerve dis

UI = D006313

 

Hearing Loss, Conductive

MS = Hearing loss due to interference with the mechanical reception or amplification of sound to the COCHLEA. The interference is in the outer or middle ear involving the EAR CANAL; TYMPANIC MEMBRANE; or EAR OSSICLES (OTOSCLEROSIS).

AN = MIXED CONDUCTIVE-SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS see HEARING DISORDERS is available

UI = D006314

 

Hearing Loss, Functional

MS = Hearing loss without a physical basis. Often observed in patients with psychological or behavioral disorders.

UI = D006315

 

Hearing Loss, High-Frequency

MS = Hearing loss in frequencies above 1000 hertz.

UI = D006316

 

Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced

MS = Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.

UI = D006317

 

Hearing Loss, Sensorineural

MS = Hearing loss resulting from damage to the sensorineural elements of the COCHLEA which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.

AN = HEARING LOSS, MIXED CONDUCTIVE-SENSORINEURAL see HEARING DISORDERS is available

UI = D006319

 

Hearing Loss, Sudden

MS = Sensorineural hearing loss which develops suddenly over a period of hours or a few days. It varies in severity from mild to total deafness. Sudden deafness can be due to head trauma, vascular diseases, infections, or can appear without obvious cause or warning.

UI = D003639

 

Hearing Tests

AN = NIM

UI = D006320

 

Heart

MS = The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.

AN = heart as pump, not tissue (MYOCARDIUM); qualif permitted: /anat /drug eff /embryol (FETAL HEART also exists) /growth /innerv (HEART CONDUCTION SYSTEM also exists) /microbiol /parasitol /physiol (see also ATRIAL FUNCTION & VENTRICULAR FUNCTION & their specifics; see also MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION & its specifics) /physiopathol /rad eff /radiogr (do not confuse with ANGIOCARDIOGRAPHY) /radionuclide /virol; /blood supply = CORONARY VESSELS but consider also CORONARY CIRCULATION; /drug eff: consider also MYOCARDIAL DEPRESSANTS see ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS & CARDIOTONIC AGENTS; /transpl = HEART TRANSPLANTATION: do not coord with TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS unless particularly discussed; /ultrasonogr = ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY or ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, DOPPLER; inotropism: INOTROPISM, CARDIAC see MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION & INOTROPIC AGENTS, POSITIVE CARDIAC are available but see MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION note; chronotropism: see HEART RATE note; DIASTOLE & SYSTOLE are also available; heart-lung prep: index HEART /physiol (probably NIM); Manual 21.48+; carditis = MYOCARDITIS; mural thrombosis: index HEART DIS (IM) + THROMBOSIS (IM)

UI = D006321

 

Heart Aneurysm

MS = An aneurysmal dilatation of a portion of the wall of the ventricle, usually the left, or, rarely, a saccular protrusion through it (false aneurysm of the heart). It is usually consequent to myocardial infarction but other causes such as bacterial endocarditis or trauma have been described. (Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = of myocardium only: not for CORONARY ANEURYSM

UI = D006322

 

Heart Arrest

MS = Cessation of the heart beat.

UI = D006323

 

Heart Arrest, Induced

MS = Arrest of the contraction of the myocardium by the use of cardioplegic chemical compounds (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or of cold during heart surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p269)

AN = note category: a technique, not a disease; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; do not coord with HYPOTHERMIA, INDUCED unless this is particularly discussed

UI = D006324

 

Heart Atrium

MS = The upper right and left chambers of the heart.

AN = NIM: Manual 21.51

UI = D006325

 

Heart Auscultation

MS = Act of listening for sounds within the heart.

AN = /drug eff /rad eff permitted; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; /instrum: STETHOSCOPES is also available

UI = D006326

 

Heart Block

MS = Impairment of conduction in heart excitation. It is often applied specifically to atrioventricular heart block. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = a type of arrhythmia

UI = D006327

 

Heart Bypass, Left

MS = Diversion of the flow of blood from the pulmonary veins directly to the aorta, avoiding the left atrium and the left ventricle (Dorland, 27th ed). This is a temporary procedure usually performed to assist other surgical procedures.

AN = temporary, a form of extracorp circ diverting blood from left atrium: differentiate from HEART BYPASS, RIGHT, a permanent form of heart surg, & from CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS, another type of extracorp circ diverting blood from right atrium

UI = D018611

 

Heart Bypass, Right

MS = Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance to the right atrium directly to the pulmonary arteries, avoiding the right atrium and right ventricle (Dorland, 28th ed). This a permanent procedure often performed to bypass a congenitally deformed right atrium or right ventricle.

AN = a form of heart surg; permanent: differentiate from HEART BYPASS, LEFT, temporary, a form of extracorp circ, & from CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS, another type of extracorp circ

UI = D018610

 

Heart Catheterization

MS = Procedure which includes placement of catheter, recording of intracardiac and intravascular pressure, obtaining blood samples for chemical analysis, and cardiac output measurement, etc. Specific angiographic injection techniques are also involved.

AN = /drug eff /rad eff permitted; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; DF: HEART CATH

UI = D006328

 

Heart Conduction System

MS = An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle and having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.

AN = disord = ARRHYTHMIA or HEART BLOCK & their specifics

UI = D006329

 

Heart Defects, Congenital

MS = Imperfections or malformations of the heart, existing at birth.

AN = GEN only; do not use as coord for specific term /abnorm; cyanotic defects probably go here but do not also index under CYANOSIS unless especially discussed

UI = D006330

 

Heart Diseases

AN = usually dis of function: differentiate from MYOCARDIAL DISEASES, dis of myocardial tissue (see note there); cyanotic heart dis is probably HEART DEFECTS, CONGENITAL & not CYANOSIS unless especially discussed; parasitic dis of the heart: coord PARASITIC DISEASES or specific parasitic dis (IM) with MYOCARDIAL DISEASES (IM), not HEART DISEASES; heart dis, unspecified or specific, with rheumatic fever is probably RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE: see note there

UI = D006331

 

Heart Failure, Congestive

MS = A complication of HEART DISEASES. Defective cardiac filling and/or impaired contraction and emptying, resulting in the heart's inability to pump a sufficient amount of blood to meet the needs of the body tissues or to be able to do so only with an elevated filling pressure. (from Braunwald, Heart Disease, 5th ed)

AN = "scompenso di cuore" is "heart decompensation" in Italian; do not confuse with CARDIOMYOPATHY, CONGESTIVE; heart failure that is not congestive is CARDIAC OUTPUT, LOW

UI = D006333

 

Heart Function Tests

AN = /drug eff /rad eff permitted

UI = D006334

 

Heart Injuries

MS = General or unspecified injuries to the heart.

AN = coord IM with specific part of heart /inj (NIM)

UI = D006335

 

Heart Massage

MS = Rhythmic compression of the heart by pressure applied manually over the sternum (closed heart massage) or directly to the heart through an opening in the chest wall (open heart massage). It is done to reinstate and maintain circulation. (Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D006336

 

Heart Murmurs

MS = Abnormal heart sounds heard during auscultation caused by alterations in the flow of blood into a chamber, through a valve, or by a valve opening or closing abnormally. They are classified by the time of occurrence during the cardiac cycle, the duration, and the intensity of the sound on a scale of I to V.

AN = do not confuse with HEART SOUNDS, a physiol concept; /etiol: coord with specific heart valve disease (IM)

UI = D006337

 

Heart Neoplasms

AN = /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with specific site in heart (NIM) + histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D006338

 

Heart Rate

AN = TN 99: relation to "bradycardia" & "tachycardia"; policy: Manual 23.27+; chronotropic action of drugs = HEART RATE /drug eff (IM) + drug with /pharmacol (IM) + STIMULATION, CHEMICAL (NIM) for positive chronotropic action & DEPRESSION, CHEMICAL (NIM) for negative; for inotropic action see note on MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION

UI = D006339

 

Heart Rate, Fetal

MS = The heart rate of the fetus. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.

AN = mammals only

UI = D006340

 

Heart Rupture

MS = Laceration or tearing of the walls of the heart, of the interatrial or interventricular septum, of the papillary muscles or chordae tendineae, or of any of the valves of the heart. Rupture may be due to a variety of pathological entities, however, the majority are secondary to myocardial infarction (HEART RUPTURE, POST-INFARCTION).

AN = rupt of any part of heart as result of heart pathol: do not confuse with HEART RUPTURE, TRAUMATIC see HEART INJURIES; coord IM with specific part (IM) if pertinent but VENTRICULAR SEPTAL RUPTURE is available; usually caused by myocard infarct ( = HEART RUPTURE, POST-INFARCTION)

UI = D006341

 

Heart Rupture, Post-Infarction

MS = Rupture of the heart after myocardial infarction.

AN = do not coord with MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION unless specifically discussed

UI = D006342

 

Heart Septal Defects

MS = Defects in the cardiac septa, resulting in abnormal communications between the opposite chambers of the heart.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D006343

 

Heart Septal Defects, Atrial

MS = Defects in the septum between the atria of the heart, due to failure of fusion between either the septum secundum or the septum primum and the endocardial cushions.

AN = do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D006344

 

Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular

MS = Congenital defects in the septum between the cardiac ventricles, most often due to failure of the bulbar septum to completely close the interventricular foramen.

AN = do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D006345

 

Heart Septum

MS = The thin membranous structure between the two heart atria or the thick muscular structure between the two heart ventricles.

AN = /abnorm = HEART SEPTAL DEFECTS or its specifics; heart septal dis: coord IM with MYOCARDIAL DISEASES (IM)

UI = D006346

 

Heart Sounds

MS = The sounds heard over the cardiac region produced by the functioning of the heart. There are four distinct sounds: the first occurs at the beginning of systole and is heard as a "lubb" sound; the second is produced by the closing of the aortic and pulmonary valves and is heard as a "dupp" sound; the third is produced by vibrations of the ventricular walls when suddenly distended by the rush of blood from the atria; and the fourth is produced by atrial contraction and ventricular filling but is rarely audible in the normal heart. The physiological concept of HEART SOUNDS is differentiated from the pathological HEART MURMURS.

AN = note category: do not confuse with HEART MURMURS, a disease concept

UI = D006347

 

Heart Transplantation

MS = The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; do not coord with TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS unless particularly discussed; HEART-LUNG TRANSPLANTATION is also available

UI = D016027

 

Heart Valve Diseases

MS = Diseases caused by or resulting in abnormal functioning of heart valves.

AN = coord IM with specific valve (IM)

UI = D006349

 

Heart Valve Prolapse

MS = Displacement of the valves of the heart.

AN = GEN or unspecified: prefer specific valve prolapse

UI = D016127

 

Heart Valve Prosthesis

MS = A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.

AN = coord IM with specific valve (IM); for bioprostheses coord IM with BIOPROSTHESIS (IM) & do not specify source of biol material unless especially discussed

UI = D006350

 

Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation

MS = Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.

UI = D019918

 

Heart Valves

MS = Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of blood from the ventricles to the atria or from the pulmonary arteries or aorta to the ventricles.

AN = GEN or unspecified: prefer specifics

UI = D006351

 

Heart Ventricle

MS = The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right pumps venous blood into the lungs and the left pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.

AN = NIM: Manual 21.51; /physiol: consider also VENTRICULAR FUNCTION & specifics; /radionuclide permitted but consider also RADIONUCLIDE VENTRICULOGRAPHY; ventric hypertrophy = HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR or HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR; false ventric tendons: index under PURKINJE FIBERS but see note there; PAPILLARY MUSCLES & CHORDAE TENDINEAE are available but read MeSH definitions

UI = D006352

 

Heart, Artificial

MS = A pumping mechanism that duplicates the output, rate, and blood pressure of the natural heart. It may replace the function of the entire heart or a portion of it, and may be an intracorporeal, extracorporeal, or paracorporeal heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = pump replacing whole or part of heart: do not confuse with HEART-LUNG MACHINE (external to heart); /psychol permitted

UI = D006354

 

Heart-Assist Devices

MS = Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the left ventricle, to pump blood; they consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors; the devices are used after myocardial infarction or to wean the repaired heart from the heart-lung machine after open-heart surgery.

UI = D006353

 

Heart-Lung Machine

MS = Apparatus that provides mechanical circulatory support during open-heart surgery, by passing the heart to facilitate surgery on the organ. The basic function of the machine is to oxygenate the body's venous supply of blood and then pump it back into the arterial system. The machine also provides intracardiac suction, filtration, and temperature control. Some of the more important components of these machines include pumps, oxygenators, temperature regulators, and filters. (UMDNS, 1999)

AN = external: do not confuse with HEART, ARTIFICIAL (pump replacing whole or part of heart)

UI = D006355

 

Heart-Lung Transplantation

MS = The simultaneous, or near simultaneous, transference of heart and lungs from one human or animal to another.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; do not coord with TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS unless particularly discussed

UI = D016041

 

Heartburn

MS = Substernal pain or burning sensation, usually associated with regurgitation of gastric juice into the esophagus.

UI = D006356

 

Heartwater Disease

MS = A tick-borne septicemic disease of domestic and wild ruminants caused by EHRLICHIA RUMINANTIUM.

UI = D006357

 

Heat

MS = The form of energy and the sensation of an increase in temperature. Its interest in medicine is largely with reference to its physiological effects, its therapeutic use, and its use in procedures in physics and physical chemistry.

AN = differentiate from HEATING (the environment); /ther use: consider also HYPERTHERMIA, INDUCED; HEAT /adv eff: consider also HEAT STRESS DISORDERS & its specifics

UI = D006358

 

Heat Exhaustion

MS = An effect of excessive exposure to heat occurring commonly among workers in furnace rooms, foundries, etc., although it may occur from exposure to the sun's heat (SUNSTROKE). It is marked by subnormal temperature, with dizziness, headache, nausea, and sometimes delirium and/or collapse. It is distinguished from HEAT STROKE, in which the body temperature may be dangerously elevated. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = subnormal body temp: do not confuse with HEAT STROKE where body temp is dangerously high; SUNSTROKE is also available

UI = D006359

 

Heat Stress Disorders

MS = A group of conditions due to overexposure to or overexertion in excess environmental temperature. It includes heat cramps, which are non-emergent and treated by salt replacement; HEAT EXHAUSTION, which is more serious, treated with fluid and salt replacement; and HEAT STROKE, a condition most commonly affecting extremes of age, especially the elderly, accompanied by convulsions, delusions, or coma and treated with cooling the body and replacement of fluids and salts. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; DF: HEAT STRESS DIS

UI = D018882

 

Heat Stroke

MS = Overexposure to heat or overexertion most common in old age or infancy but especially in the elderly, accompanied by convulsions, delusions, or coma. It is treated by cooling the body and replacing fluids and salts. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992, p282)

AN = a heat stress disorder where body temp is dangerously high: differentiate from HEAT EXHAUSTION where body temp is subnormal; SUNSTROKE is also available

UI = D018883

 

Heat-Shock Proteins

MS = Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.

AN = /biosyn /drug eff /physiol /ultrastruct permitted; do not use /analogs

UI = D006360

 

Heat-Shock Proteins 70

MS = A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. There is evidence that these proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.

AN = /biosyn /drug eff /physiol /ultrastruct permitted; do not use /analogs; DF: note short X ref

UI = D018840

 

Heat-Shock Proteins 90

MS = A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES whose members act in the mechanism of signal transduction by steroid receptors.

AN = /biosyn /drug eff /physiol /ultrastruct permitted; do not use /analogs; DF: note short X ref

UI = D018841

 

Heat-Shock Response

MS = A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive heat and other environmental stresses. Responses include synthesis of some proteins, repression of other proteins, and expression of new proteins. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

AN = a form of homeostasis

UI = D018869

 

Heating

MS = The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.

AN = the environment: differentiate from HEAT, the principle of physics; /adv eff permitted but do not confuse with HEAT /adv eff

UI = D006361

 

Heavy Chain Disease

MS = A disorder of immunoglobulin synthesis in which large quantities of abnormal heavy chains are excreted in the urine. The amino acid sequences of the N-(amino-) terminal regions of these chains are normal, but they have a deletion extending from part of the variable domain through the first domain of the constant region, so that they cannot form cross-links to the light chains. The defect arises through faulty coupling of the variable (V) and constant (C) region genes.

AN = specify the immunoglobulin fragment coord NIM, as gamma chain dis = HEAVY CHAIN DISEASE (IM) + IMMUNOGLOBULINS, GAMMA-CHAIN (NIM); ALPHA-CHAIN DISEASE see IMMUNOPROLIFERATIVE SMALL INTESTINAL DISEASE is available

UI = D006362

 

Heavy Ions

MS = Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).

AN = coord with specific element

UI = D020450

 

Heavy Metal Poisoning, Nervous System

MS = Conditions associated with damage or dysfunction of the nervous system caused by exposure to heavy metals, which may cause a variety of central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous system injuries.

AN = GEN: prefer specifics

UI = D020260

 

Hebrides

MS = A group of islands in the Atlantic Ocean west of Scotland, comprising the Outer Hebrides and the Inner Hebrides. They were the scene of frequent incursions of Scandinavian settlers from the 6th century A.D. They were ceded to Scotland by Norway in the 13th century. The origin of the name is uncertain. It is suggested that it is the result of a miscopying of the Roman name Ebudae or Hebudae with ri for u. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p496 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p235)

AN = a group of islands west of Scotland

UI = D006363

 

Hedeoma

MS = A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that is closely related to the European pennyroyal (MENTHA PULEGIUM).

AN = X ref PENNYROYAL, AMERICAN FALSE: PENNYROYAL EUROPEAN see MENTHA PULEGIUM is also available; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031336

 

Hedera

MS = A plant genus of the family ARALIACEAE. Members contain hederin (olean-12-ene) type TRITERPENES.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D035981

 

Hedgehogs

MS = The family Erinaceidae, in the order INSECTIVORA. Most are true hedgehogs possessing a coat of spines and a very short tail. Those members of the family found in Southeast Asia (moonrats or gymnures) have normal body hair and a long tail.

UI = D006364

 

Hedyotis

MS = A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain anthraquinones and iridoids. H. diffusa is used in DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D032064

 

Heel

AN = primates only

UI = D006365

 

Heel Spur

MS = A bony outgrowth on the lower surface of the CALCANEUS. Though often presenting along with plantar fasciitis (FASCIITIS, PLANTAR), they are not considered causally related.

AN = do not confuse with HEEL SPUR SYNDROME see FASCULITIS, PLANTAR

UI = D036982

 

Heinz Bodies

MS = Abnormal intracellular inclusions, composed of denatured hemoglobin, found on the membrane of red blood cells. They are seen in thalassemias, enzymopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and after splenectomy.

UI = D006366

 

Hela Cells

MS = The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks (one of several pseudonyms). These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.

AN = almost never IM; no qualif when NIM, A 11 qualif when IM; check HUMAN but do not check FEMALE & do not add CERVIX NEOPLASMS

UI = D006367

 

Helianthus

MS = A genus of tall, erect American herbs of the Compositae. The seeds yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosum (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.

AN = for sunflower seeds coord IM with SEEDS (IM); do not confuse X ref JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE with plain artichoke (index probably VEGETABLES)

UI = D006368

 

Helichrysum

MS = A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain CHALCONE, helichrysetin, arenarin, and flamin.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D036562

 

Helicobacter

MS = A genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that is pathogenic and has been isolated from the intestinal tract of mammals, including humans.

AN = infection = HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D016998

 

Helicobacter heilmannii

MS = A species of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria found in the gastric mucosa that is associated with chronic antral gastritis. This bacterium was first discovered in samples removed at endoscopy from patients investigated for HELICOBACTER PYLORI colonization.

AN = infection: coord IM with HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D018247

 

Helicobacter Infections

MS = Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.

AN = gram-neg bact infect; check text for genus & species: Campylobacter pylori = HELICOBACTER PYLORI; Campylobacter pylori infect = HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS (IM) + HELICOBACTER PYLORI (IM) but Campylobacter jejuni infect = CAMPYLOBACTER INFECTIONS (IM) + CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI (IM); DF: HELICOBACTER INFECT

UI = D016481

 

Helicobacter pylori

MS = A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).

AN = infection: coord IM with HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D016480

 

Heliconiaceae

MS = A plant family of the order ZINGIBERALES, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D032427

 

Heligmosomatoidea

MS = A superfamily of parasitic nematodes which were formerly considered a part of TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA. It includes the following genera: Heligmosomum, NEMATOSPIROIDES, and NIPPOSTRONGYLUS. The hosts are rodents.

AN = a superfamily of nematodes; infection: coord IM with STRONGYLIDA INFECTIONS (IM); for antigens, coord with ANTIGENS, HELMINTH, for antibodies, coord with ANTIBODIES, HELMINTH

UI = D006369

 

Heliotherapy

MS = The treatment of disease by exposing the body to the sun's rays; the therapeutic use of sunbathing. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = note X ref; do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D006370

 

Heliotropium

MS = A plant genus in the family Boraginaceae, order Lamiales, subclass Asteridae. This is the True Heliotrope that should not be confused with an unrelated plant sometimes called Garden Heliotrope (VALERIAN).

AN = distinguish from PHOTOTROPISM and VALERIAN; specify Plant Components; for /Chem coord with D tree compound and/or Preparation; for therap. coordinate with Diseases and PHYTOTHERAPY

UI = D028162

 

Helium

MS = Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = a rare gas; He-4; He-3 = HELIUM (IM) + ISOTOPES (NIM); He-5, 6, 8 = HELIUM (IM) + RADIOISOTOPES (IM)

UI = D006371

 

Helix (Snails)

MS = A genus of chiefly Eurasian and African land snails including the principal edible snails as well as several pests of cultivated plants.

AN = /microbiol /parasitol /virol permitted; DF: HELIX

UI = D006372

 

Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs

MS = Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.

AN = do not confuse with HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIFS

UI = D018257

 

Helix-Turn-Helix Motifs

MS = The first DNA-binding protein motif to be recognized. Helix-turn-helix motifs were originally identified in bacterial proteins but have since been found in hundreds of DNA-BINDING PROTEINS from both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. They are constructed from two alpha helices connected by a short extended chain of amino acids, which constitute the "turn." The two helices are held at a fixed angle, primarily through interactions between the two helices. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p408-9)

AN = do not confuse with HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS

UI = D019077

 

Helleborus

MS = A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain hellebrin (BUFANOLIDES). The extract is the basis of Biocil preparation used for rheumatism.

AN = FALSE HELLEBORE see VERATRUM is also available; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D039322

 

HELLP Syndrome

MS = Hemolysis-elevated liver enzymes-low platelet count syndrome. A pre-eclamptic or eclamptic disorder with the findings shown in the clinical description from which the acronym is created. Severe hypertension may be present. Abnormal SGOT and SGPT levels also appear. (Jablonski, 2d ed)

AN = Hemolysis-Elevated Liver enzymes-Low Platelet count syndrome; DF: HELLP

UI = D017359

 

Helminth Proteins

MS = Proteins found in any species of helminth.

AN = /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted; /physiol permitted for function within the helminth; coord IM with specific protein (IM) + specific helminth (IM)

UI = D015801

 

Helminthiasis

MS = Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.

AN = parasitic worm infect; GEN; /drug ther: consider also ANTHELMINTICS

UI = D006373

 

Helminthiasis, Animal

MS = Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.

AN = exper or vet; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; don't forget to check tag ANIMAL

UI = D006374

 

Helminthosporium

MS = A mitosporic fungal genus including both saprophytes and plant parasites.

UI = D006375

 

Helminths

MS = Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; infection = HELMINTHIASIS; coord with specific precoord helminth terms (e.g., ANTIGENS, HELMINTH) if pertinent

UI = D006376

 

Helper Viruses

MS = Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.

AN = enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat; coord IM with specific virus (IM)

UI = D006378

 

Helping Behavior

MS = Behaviors associated with the giving of assistance or aid to individuals.

AN = no qualif

UI = D006379

 

Helplessness, Learned

MS = Learned expectation that one's responses are independent of reward and, hence, do not predict or control the occurrence of rewards. Learned helplessness derives from a history, experimentally induced or naturally occurring, of having received punishment/aversive stimulation regardless of responses made. Such circumstances result in an impaired ability to learn. Used for human or animal populations. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)

AN = no qualif

UI = D006380

 

Helsinki Declaration

MS = An international agreement of the World Medical Association which offers guidelines for conducting experiments using human subjects. It was adopted in 1962 and revised by the 18th World Medical Assembly at Helsinki, Finland in 1964. Subsequent revisions were made in 1975, 1983, 1989, and 1996. (From Encyclopedia of Bioethics, rev ed, 1995)

UI = D006381

 

Hemadsorption

MS = A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = do not confuse with HEMOSORPTION see HEMOPERFUSION

UI = D006382

 

Hemadsorption Inhibition Tests

AN = NIM

UI = D006383

 

Hemagglutination

AN = intravascular hemagglutination = ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION, INTRAVASCULAR

UI = D006384

 

Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests

MS = Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.

AN = NIM

UI = D006385

 

Hemagglutination Tests

MS = Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)

AN = NIM

UI = D006386

 

Hemagglutination, Viral

MS = Agglutination of erythrocytes by a virus.

UI = D006387

 

Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus

MS = Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.

AN = DF: HGIV

UI = D019267

 

Hemagglutinins

MS = Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.

AN = restrict to erythrocytes: leukoagglutinins are indexed under AGGLUTININS (IM) + LEUKOCYTES or specific with /immunol (IM)

UI = D006388

 

Hemagglutinins, Viral

UI = D006389

 

Hemangioblastoma

MS = A benign tumor of the nervous system that may occur sporadically or in association with HIPPEL-LINDAU DISEASE. It accounts for approximately 2% of intracranial tumors, arising most frequently in the cerebellar hemispheres and vermis. Histologically, the tumors are composed of multiple capillary and sinusoidal channels lined with endothelial cells and clusters of lipid-laden pseudoxanthoma cells. Usually solitary, these tumors can be multiple and may also occur in the brain stem, spinal cord, retina, and supratentorial compartment. Cerebellar hemangioblastomas usually present in the third decade with INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION, and ataxia. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2071-2)

AN = /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with CEREBELLAR NEOPLASMS (IM) or other precoord brain/neopl term (IM)

UI = D018325

 

Hemangioendothelioma

MS = A neoplasm derived from blood vessels, characterized by numerous prominent endothelial cells that occur singly, in aggregates, and as the lining of congeries of vascular tubes or channels. Hemangioendotheliomas are relatively rare and are of intermediate malignancy (between benign hemangiomas and conventional angiosarcomas). They affect men and women about equally and rarely develop in childhood. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1866)

AN = /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM)

UI = D006390

 

Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid

MS = A tumor of medium-to-large veins, composed of plump-to-spindled endothelial cells that bulge into vascular spaces in a tombstone-like fashion. These tumors are thought to have "borderline" aggression, where one-third develop local recurrences, but only rarely metastasize. It is unclear whether the epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is truly neoplastic or an exuberant tissue reaction, nor is it clear if this is equivalent to Kimura's disease (see ANGIOLYMPHOID HYPERPLASIA WITH EOSINOPHILIA). (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

AN = /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM)

UI = D018323

 

Hemangioma

MS = An extremely common benign tumor, occurring most commonly in infancy and childhood, made up of newly formed blood vessels, and resulting from malformation of angioblastic tissue of fetal life. It can occur anywhere in the body but is most frequently noticed in the skin and subcutaneous tissues. About 75% are present at birth, and about 60% occur in the head and neck area. The majority in infancy will regress spontaneously. Some hemangiomas grow rapidly during the early months of life and may be a source of some concern, although virtually all disappear by about 5 years of age. They do not metastasize and simple excision will often be curative. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Stedman, 25th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1355)

AN = coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM); CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VENOUS ANGIOMA is also available

UI = D006391

 

Hemangioma, Capillary

MS = A dull red, firm, dome-shaped hemangioma, sharply demarcated from surrounding skin, usually located on the head and neck, which grows rapidly and generally undergoes regression and involution without scarring. It is caused by proliferation of immature capillary vessels in active stroma, and is usually present at birth or occurs within the first two or three months of life. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM); do not confuse with HEMANGIOMA, LOBULAR CAPILLARY see GRANULOMA, PYOGENIC; distinguish from PORT-WINE STAIN

UI = D018324

 

Hemangioma, Cavernous

MS = A vascular tumor preponderantly composed of large dilated blood vessels, often containing large amounts of blood, occurring in the skin, subcutaneously, or both, and also in many viscera, particularly the liver, spleen, pancreas, and sometimes the brain. The typical superficial lesions are bright to dark red in color; deep lesions have a blue color. A cavernous hemangioma in the skin extends more deeply than a capillary hemangioma and is less likely to regress spontaneously. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM)

UI = D006392

 

Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System

MS = A vascular malformation composed of clusters of large, thin walled veins lacking intervening nervous tissue. They are most common in the BRAIN STEM but may also occur in the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, cerebellum, and spinal cord. The lesions have a tendency to rupture and cause a variety of clinical deficits (e.g., SEIZURES; hemiparesis) that depend upon the location of the hemorrhage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp851-2)

AN = coord (IM) with CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM NEOPLASMS or specific (IM)

UI = D020786

 

Hemangiopericytoma

MS = A tumor composed of spindle cells with a rich vascular network, which apparently arises from pericytes, cells of smooth muscle origin that lie around small vessels. Benign and malignant hemangiopericytomas exist, and the rarity of these lesions has led to considerable confusion in distinguishing between benign and malignant variants. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1364)

AN = benign or malignant; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM)

UI = D006393

 

Hemangiosarcoma

MS = A rare malignant neoplasm characterized by rapidly proliferating, extensively infiltrating, anaplastic cells derived from blood vessels and lining irregular blood-filled or lumpy spaces. (Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM)

UI = D006394

 

Hemarthrosis

MS = Bleeding into the joints. It may arise from trauma or spontaneously in patients with hemophilia.

UI = D006395

 

Hematemesis

MS = Vomiting of blood.

UI = D006396

 

Hematinics

MS = Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.

UI = D006397

 

Hematocele

MS = Hemorrhage into a canal or cavity of the body, especially into the tunica vaginalis testis.

UI = D006398

 

Hematocolpos

MS = An accumulation of menstrual blood in the vagina. (Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = "accumulation of menstrual blood in the vagina"

UI = D006399

 

Hematocrit

MS = Measurement of the volume of packed red cells in a blood specimen by centrifugation. The procedure is performed using a tube with graduated markings or with automated blood cell counters. It is used as an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, anemia shows a low hematocrit, polycythemia, high values.

AN = a measurement of packed erythrocytes; NIM

UI = D006400

 

Hematologic Agents

MS = Drugs that act on blood and blood-forming organs and those that affect the hemostatic system.

AN = GEN; prefer specifics; used for mapping supplementary chemicals; consider also BLOOD COAGULATION /drug eff

UI = D006401

 

Hematologic Diseases

MS = Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.

AN = GEN or unspecified: prefer specifics; DF: HEMATOL DIS

UI = D006402

 

Hematologic Neoplasms

MS = Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.

AN = GEN or unspecified only; prefer LEUKEMIA or LYMPHOMA or their specifics; do not use /blood supply /second /secret; DF: HEMATOL NEOPL

UI = D019337

 

Hematologic Tests

MS = Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.

AN = GEN: prefer specifics; does not include BLOOD CHEMICAL ANALYSIS or SEROLOGIC TESTS; NIM; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; DF: HEMATOL TESTS

UI = D006403

 

Hematologic, Gastrointestinal, and Renal Agents

MS = A collective grouping for agents that act on the hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, and renal systems.

AN = not use for indexing CATALOG: do not use

UI = D006404

 

Hematology

MS = A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif; immunohematology is indexed under BLOOD GROUPS; DF: HEMATOL

UI = D006405

 

Hematoma

MS = An extravasation of blood localized in an organ, space, or tissue.

AN = IM; not a neoplasm: coord with organ /dis or organ /hemorrhage term (IM)

UI = D006406

 

Hematoma, Epidural

MS = Accumulation of blood in the cranial epidural space due to rupture of the middle meningeal artery or rarely the meningeal vein, often associated with a temporal or parietal bone fracture. The hematoma tends to expand rapidly, compressing the dura and underlying brain. Clinical features include the acute or subacute onset of headache, VOMITING, alterations of mentation, and hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA). The natural history of the process is progression to coma and eventually death. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p885)

UI = D006407

 

Hematoma, Subdural

MS = Extravasation and subsequent accumulation of blood in the subdural space between the dural and arachnoidal layers of the meninges. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a cerebral hemisphere, but may develop in the posterior fossa and spinal canal. Acute (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, ACUTE) and chronic (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, CHRONIC) forms exist.

UI = D006408

 

Hematoma, Subdural, Acute

MS = Hemorrhage and accumulation of blood in the subdural space associated with the acute onset of neurologic deficits, usually following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Hematoma formation occurs most frequently over the lateral and superior aspects of a cerebral hemisphere, but may also occur in the posterior fossa and spinal canal. Clinical manifestations may include hemiparesis, SEIZURES, third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES), mental status changes, and COMA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p886)

UI = D020199

 

Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic

MS = Chronic accumulation of blood in the subdural space, most frequently occurring over the lateral and superior aspects of a cerebral hemisphere. Clinical manifestations may be delayed for days to weeks, when affected individuals may present with confusion, drowsiness, hemiparesis, ATAXIA, APHASIA, and other signs of neurologic dysfunction. The condition tends to occur after the age of 50 years. It may be spontaneous, follow CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, or occur in association with bleeding disorders, the use of anticoagulant medication, locally invasive tumors, and other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p887)

UI = D020200

 

Hematometra

MS = An accumulation of blood in the uterus. (Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = "accumulation of blood in the uterus"; do not confuse with UTERINE HEMORRHAGE

UI = D006409

 

Hematopoiesis

MS = The development and formation of various types of blood cells. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D006410

 

Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary

MS = The formation and development of blood cells outside the BONE MARROW, as in the SPLEEN, LIVER, or LYMPH NODES.

AN = for splenic, hepatic or lymphatic hematopoiesis do not coord with SPLEEN /physiol, LIVER /physiol or LYMPH NODES /physiol unless particularly discussed & then probably NIM

UI = D006411

 

Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors

MS = These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.

AN = /drug eff permitted; DF: HCGF

UI = D016298

 

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization

MS = The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantion. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.

AN = note category; "release of stem cells from bone marrow into peripheral blood circ" prior to stem cell transpl

UI = D019650

 

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

MS = Tranfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.

AN = conditioning before transpl of hematopoietic stem cells: coord IM with TRANSPLANTATION CONDITIONING (IM)

UI = D018380

 

Hematopoietic Stem Cells

MS = Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.

AN = A 11 qualif; /transpl = HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

UI = D006412

 

Hematopoietic System

AN = /physiol: consider also HEMATOPOIESIS

UI = D006413

 

Hematoporphyrin Derivative

MS = A complex mixture of monomeric and aggregated porphyrins used in the photodynamic therapy of tumors (HEMATOPORPHYRIN PHOTORADIATION). A purified component of this mixture is known as DIHEMATOPORPHYRIN ETHER.

AN = DF: note short X ref

UI = D017324

 

Hematoporphyrin Photoradiation

MS = Photochemotherapy using visible light, usually red, topically or delivered locally by fiberoptic probe to tissues sensitized with hematoporphyrins.

AN = IM; coord with disease /drug ther (IM), not /radiother

UI = D006414

 

Hematoporphyrins

MS = Iron-free derivatives of heme with 4 methyl groups, 2 hydroxyethyl groups and 2 propionic acid groups attached to the pyrrole rings. Some of these PHOTOSENSITIZING AGENTS are used in the PHOTOTHERAPY of malignant NEOPLASMS.

UI = D006415

 

Hematoxylin

MS = A dye obtained from the heartwood of logwood (Haematoxylon campechianum Linn., Leguminosae) used as a stain in microscopy and in the manufacture of ink.

AN = a dye; D25-26 qualif

UI = D006416

 

Hematuria

MS = Presence of blood in the urine.

UI = D006417

 

Heme

MS = The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.

UI = D006418

 

Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)

MS = A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.

UI = D006419

 

Hemeproteins

MS = Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)

UI = D006420

 

Hemerocallis

MS = A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain steroidal saponins.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031421

 

Hemerythrin

MS = A non-heme iron protein consisting of eight apparently identical subunits each containing 2 iron atoms. It binds one molecule of oxygen per pair of iron atoms and functions as a respiratory protein.

AN = /biosyn /physiol permitted

UI = D006422

 

Hemianopsia

MS = Partial or complete loss of vision in one half of the visual field(s) of one or both eyes. Subtypes include altitudinal hemianopsia, characterized by a visual defect above or below the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Homonymous hemianopsia refers to a visual defect that affects both eyes equally, and occurs either to the left or right of the midline of the visual field. Binasal hemianopsia consists of loss of vision in the nasal hemifields of both eyes. Bitemporal hemianopsia is the bilateral loss of vision in the temporal fields. Quadrantanopsia refers to loss of vision in one quarter of the visual field in one or both eyes.

UI = D006423

 

Hemibody Irradiation

MS = Irradiation of one half or both halves of the body in the treatment of disseminated cancer or widespread metastases. It is used to treat diffuse metastases in one session as opposed to multiple fields over an extended period. The more frequent treatment modalities are upper hemibody irradiation (UHBI) or lower hemibody irradiation (LHBI). Less common is mid-body irradiation (MBI). In the treatment of both halves of the body sequentially, hemibody irradiation permits radiotherapy of the whole body with larger doses of radiation than could be accomplished with WHOLE-BODY IRRADIATION. It is sometimes called "systemic" hemibody irradiation with reference to its use in widespread cancer or metastases. (P. Rubin et al. Cancer, Vol 55, p2210, 1985)

AN = in radiother coord IM with disease /radiother (IM); for hemibody irrad experiments, see note on WHOLE-BODY IRRADIATION; DF: HEMIBODY IRRAD

UI = D017619

 

Hemic and Immune Systems

MS = The organs involved in the production and functions of the blood and the cellular and molecular components providing defense against foreign organisms or substances.

AN = not used for indexing CATALOG: do not use

UI = D006424

 

Hemic and Lymphatic Diseases

MS = Hematologic diseases and diseases of the lymphatic system collectively. Hemic diseases include disorders involving the formed elements (e.g., ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION, INTRAVASCULAR) and chemical components (e.g., BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS); lymphatic diseases include disorders relating to lymph, lymph nodes, and lymphocytes.

AN = avoid: too general; prefer HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES & its specifics or LYMPHATIC DISEASES & its specifics; DF: HEMIC LYMPHATIC DIS CATALOG: do not use

UI = D006425

 

Hemicholinium 3

MS = A potent inhibitor of the high affinity uptake system for CHOLINE. It has less effect on the low affinity uptake system. Since choline is one of the components of ACETYLCHOLINE, treatment with hemicholinium can deplete acetylcholine from cholinergic terminals. Hemicholinium 3 is commonly used as a research tool in animal and in vitro experiments.

UI = D006426

 

Hemidesmosomes

MS = An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate, similar in morphology to halves of DESMOSOMES. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS bind on the cytoplasmic face to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, via intracellular attachment proteins, while the extracellular domain of the integrins binds to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.

UI = D022002

 

Hemidesmus

MS = A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. It is a source of PREGNANES. It is sometimes an adulterant of commercial sarsaparrilla.

AN = do not confuse with Sarsaparilla = SMILAX or Wild Sarsaparilla = ARALIA; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031102

 

Hemifacial Spasm

MS = Recurrent clonic contraction of facial muscles, restricted to one side. It may occur as a manifestation of compressive lesions involving the seventh cranial nerve (FACIAL NERVE DISEASES), during recovery from BELL PALSY, or in association with other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1378)

UI = D019569

 

Hemin

MS = Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.

AN = a porphyrin

UI = D006427

 

Hemipelvectomy

MS = Amputation of a lower limb through the sacroiliac joint.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D006428

 

Hemiplegia

MS = Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.

UI = D006429

 

Hemiptera

MS = A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.

AN = do not use /drug eff for insecticides: TN 111

UI = D006430

 

Hemispherectomy

MS = A neurosurgical procedure that removes or disconnects the epileptogenic CEREBRAL CORTEX of a hemisphere. Hemispherectomy is usually performed for patients with intractable unilateral EPILEPSY due to malformations of cortical development or brain lesions. Depending on the epileptogenic area in the hemisphere, cortical removal can be total or partial.

UI = D038421

 

Hemlock

MS = Any of several poisonous plants, commonly called poison hemlock, of the CICUTA or CONIUM genus. The hemlock tree (TSUGA) is completely unrelated being a coniferous tree of the pine family.

AN = for hemlock tree use TSUGA; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics: CONIUM or CICUTA; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATION or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D018652

 

Hemobilia

MS = Hemorrhage in or through the biliary tract, due to trauma, inflammation, cholelithiasis, vascular disease, or neoplasms.

UI = D006431

 

Hemochromatosis

MS = A disorder due to the deposition of hemosiderin in the parenchymal cells, causing tissue damage and dysfunction of the liver, pancreas, heart, and pituitary. Full development of the disease in women is restricted by menstruation, pregnancy, and lower dietary intake of iron. Acquired hemochromatosis may be the result of blood transfusions, excessive dietary iron, or secondary to other disease. Idiopathic or genetic hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive disorder of metabolism associated with a gene tightly linked to the A locus of the HLA complex on chromosome 6. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = accumulation of hemosiderin in tissue

UI = D006432

 

Hemocyanin

AN = a pigment & blood protein

UI = D006433

 

Hemocytes

MS = Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.

AN = invertebrates only; A 11 qualif; check tag ANIMAL

UI = D006434

 

Hemodiafiltration

MS = The combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration either simultaneously or sequentially. Convective transport (hemofiltration) may be better for removal of larger molecular weight substances and diffusive transport (hemodialysis) for smaller molecular weight solutes.

UI = D017583

 

Hemodialysis Solutions

MS = Solutions prepared for hemodialysis. The composition of the pre-dialysis solution may be varied in order to determine the effect of solvated metabolites on anoxia, malnutrition, acid-base balance, etc. Of principal interest are the effect of the choice of buffers (e.g., acetate or carbonate), the addition of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), and addition of carbohydrates (glucose).

AN = D25-26 qualif; coord IM with specific substance in solution (IM); DF: HEMODIALYSIS SOL

UI = D015312

 

Hemodialysis Units, Hospital

MS = Hospital units in which care is provided the hemodialysis patient. This includes hemodialysis centers in hospitals.

AN = restrict to hosps: non-hosp = HEMODIALYSIS + AMBULATORY CARE FACILITIES but HEMODIALYSIS, HOME is also available

UI = D006436

 

Hemodialysis, Home

MS = Long-term maintenance hemodialysis in the home.

AN = /instrum permitted if not KIDNEY, ARTIFICIAL

UI = D006437

 

Hemodilution

MS = Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically l) in states of impaired microcirculation, 2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and 3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D006438

 

Hemodynamics

MS = The movements of the blood and the forces involved in systemic or regional blood circulation.

AN = IM systemic hemodynamics, NIM regional hemodynamics; as /physiol or /physiopathol, not /blood: Manual 19.8.10, 23.28, 28.18.2

UI = D006439

 

Hemofiltration

MS = Extracorporeal ultrafiltration technique without hemodialysis for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.

AN = a type of ultrafiltration; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; DF: note short X ref

UI = D006440

 

Hemoglobin A

MS = Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.

AN = normal adult hemoglobin; /urine: coord IM with HEMOGLOBINURIA (IM); DF: HBA

UI = D006441

 

Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated

MS = Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.

AN = urine: coord IM with HEMOGLOBINURIA (IM); DF: note short X refs

UI = D006442

 

Hemoglobin A2

MS = An adult hemoglobin component normally present in hemolysates from human erythrocytes in concentrations of about 3%. The hemoglobin is composed of two alpha chains and two delta chains. The percentage of HbA2 varies in some hematologic disorders, but is about double in beta-thalassemia.

AN = /urine: coord NIM with HEMOGLOBINURIA (IM); DF: HBA2

UI = D006443

 

Hemoglobin C

MS = A commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobin in which lysine replaces a glutamic acid residue at the sixth position of the beta chains. It results in reduced plasticity of erythrocytes.

AN = /urine: coord IM with HEMOGLOBINURIA (IM); DF: HBC

UI = D006444

 

Hemoglobin C Disease

MS = A disease characterized by compensated hemolysis with a normal hemoglobin level or a mild to moderate anemia. There may be intermittent abdominal discomfort, splenomegaly, and slight jaundice.

AN = a congen hemolytic anemia; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; do not confuse with HEMOGLOBIN SC DISEASE

UI = D006445

 

Hemoglobin E

MS = An abnormal hemoglobin that results from the substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at position 26 of the beta chain. It is most frequently observed in southeast Asian populations.

AN = /urine: coord IM with HEMOGLOBINURIA (IM); DF: HBE

UI = D006446

 

Hemoglobin H

MS = An abnormal hemoglobin composed of four beta chains. It is caused by the reduced synthesis of the alpha chain. This abnormality results in ALPHA-THALASSEMIA.

AN = /urine: coord IM with HEMOGLOBINURIA (IM); DF: HBH

UI = D006447

 

Hemoglobin J

MS = A group of abnormal hemoglobins with similar electrophoretic characteristics. They have faster electrophoretic mobility and different amino acid substitutions in either the alpha or beta chains than normal adult hemoglobin. Some of the variants produce hematologic abnormalities, others result in no clinical disorders.

AN = an abnorm hemoglobin; /urine: coord IM with HEMOGLOBINURIA (IM); DF: HBJ

UI = D006448

 

Hemoglobin M

MS = A group of abnormal hemoglobins in which amino acid substitutions take place in either the alpha or beta chains but near the heme iron. This results in facilitated oxidation of the hemoglobin to yield excess methemoglobin which leads to cyanosis.

AN = an abnorm hemoglobin; /urine: coord IM with HEMOGLOBINURIA (IM); DF: HBM

UI = D006449

 

Hemoglobin SC Disease

MS = One of the sickle cell disorders characterized by the presence of both hemoglobin S and hemoglobin C. It is similar to, but less severe than sickle cell anemia.

AN = a sickle cell anemia; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; do not confuse with HEMOGLOBIN C DISEASE

UI = D006450

 

Hemoglobin, Sickle

MS = An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.

AN = /urine: coord IM with HEMOGLOBINURIA (IM); hemoglobin S disease = ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL; DF: HBS

UI = D006451

 

Hemoglobinometry

MS = Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.

AN = NIM; do not equate with HEMOGLOBINS /anal; note ERYTHROCYTE HEMOGLOBIN, MEAN CELL see ERYTHROCYTE INDICES is available

UI = D006452

 

Hemoglobinopathies

MS = A group of inherited disorders characterized by structural alterations within the hemoglobin molecule.

AN = do not confuse with HEMOGLOBINS, ABNORMAL (D12): use term in the text; coord IM with specific abnormal hemoglobin (IM) but HEMOGLOBIN C DISEASE; THALASSEMIA (hemoglobin H disease) & ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL (hemoglobin S disease) are available

UI = D006453

 

Hemoglobins

MS = The oxygen-carrying pigments of erythrocytes. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The structure of the globin moiety differs between species.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; /anal: permitted & do not equate with HEMOGLOBINOMETRY; "mean cell erythrocyte hemoglobin" = ERYTHROCYTE INDICES; Bohr effect is indexed OXYHEMOGLOBINS /metab (IM) + PH (NIM)

UI = D006454

 

Hemoglobins, Abnormal

MS = Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.

AN = /urine: coord IM with HEMOGLOBINURIA (IM); do not confuse with HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES: use term in the text

UI = D006455

 

Hemoglobinuria

MS = The presence of free hemoglobin in the urine.

AN = HEMOGLOBINURIA, PAROXYSMAL is also available: see note there

UI = D006456

 

Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal

MS = Disorder characterized by intravascular hemolysis and hemoglobinuria. Some cases occur on exposure to cold and are due to the presence of an autohemolysin in the serum. Other cases are more marked during or immediately after sleep and are considered to be due to an acquired intracorpuscular defect.

AN = also called "paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria" so ignore "nocturnal"

UI = D006457

 

Hemolymph

MS = The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.

AN = coord substance in hemolymph with substance /blood

UI = D006458

 

Hemolysin Factors

MS = Plasmids controlling the synthesis of hemolysin by bacteria.

UI = D006459

 

Hemolysins

MS = Substances, usually of biological origin, that destroy blood cells; they may be antibodies or other immunologic factors, toxins, enzymes, etc.; hemotoxins are toxic to blood in general, including the clotting mechanism; hematotoxins may refer to the hematopoietic system.

UI = D006460

 

Hemolysis

MS = The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.

AN = hemolysis in gel = HEMOLYTIC PLAQUE TECHNIQUE

UI = D006461

 

Hemolytic Plaque Technique

AN = for detecting antibody-producing cells; hemolysis in gel goes here

UI = D006462

 

Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome

MS = Syndrome of hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure, with pathological finding of thrombotic microangiopathy in kidney and renal cortical necrosis.

UI = D006463

 

Hemoperfusion

MS = Removal of toxins or metabolites from the circulation by the passing of blood, within a suitable extracorporeal circuit, over semipermeable microcapsules containing adsorbents (e.g., activated charcoal) or enzymes, other enzyme preparations (e.g., gel-entrapped microsomes, membrane-free enzymes bound to artificial carriers), or other adsorbents (e.g., various resins, albumin-conjugated agarose).

AN = do not confuse with RENAL DIALYSIS or PERFUSION or PERFUSION, REGIONAL; HEMOFILTRATION is available

UI = D006464

 

Hemoperitoneum

MS = Hemorrhage into the peritoneal cavity.

UI = D006465

 

Hemopexin

AN = a beta-globulin

UI = D006466

 

Hemophilia A

MS = The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.

UI = D006467

 

Hemophilia B

MS = A deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX inherited as an X-linked disorder. (Also known as Christmas Disease, after the first patient studied in detail, not the holy day.) Historical and clinical features resemble those in classic hemophilia (HEMOPHILIA A), but patients present with fewer symptoms. Severity of bleeding is usually similar in members of a single family. Many patients are asymptomatic until the hemostatic system is stressed by surgery or trauma. Treatment is similar to that for hemophilia A. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1008)

UI = D002836

 

Hemopneumothorax

MS = Collection of air and blood in the pleural cavity.

UI = D006468

 

Hemoptysis

MS = Bronchial hemorrhage manifested with spitting of blood.

UI = D006469

 

Hemorheology

MS = The study of the flow of blood in relation to the pressures, flow, volumes, and resistances in blood vessels in macroscopic, microscopic, and submicroscopic dimensions.

AN = DF: HEMORHEOL

UI = D018056

 

Hemorrhage

MS = Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; coord IM with organ/dis precoord (IM), not organ /blood supply; consider also terms for presence of blood within cavities, as HEMOTHORAX; HEMATOCOLPOS; etc.

UI = D006470

 

Hemorrhagic Disease of Newborn

MS = A self-limited hemorrhagic disorder of the first days of life, caused by a deficiency of the vitamin K-dependent blood coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = do not confuse with HEMOLYTIC DISEASE OF NEWBORN see ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D006475

 

Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Epizootic

MS = A species of ORBIVIRUS causing a fatal disease in deer. It is transmitted by flies of the genus Culicoides.

AN = infection: coord IM with REOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D018164

 

Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Rabbit

MS = A species in the genus LAGOVIRUS which causes hemorrhagic disease, including hemorrhagic septicemia, in rabbits.

AN = infection: coord IM with CALICIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D017929

 

Hemorrhagic Disorders

MS = Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels (VASCULAR HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS).

AN = "predisposition to abnormal hemostasis"; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D006474

 

Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo

MS = A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.

AN = infection = HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, CRIMEAN; DF: CCHF VIRUS

UI = D003225

 

Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome

MS = An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.

UI = D006480

 

Hemorrhagic Fever, American

MS = Diseases caused by American hemorrhagic fever viruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD).

AN = caused by ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD

UI = D006478

 

Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean

MS = A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).

AN = caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, a species of Nairovirus

UI = D006479

 

Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola

MS = A highly fatal, acute hemorrhagic fever, clinically very similar to MARBURG VIRUS DISEASE, caused by the EBOLA VIRUS, first occurring in the Sudan and adjacent northwestern (what was then) Zaire. The natural reservoir and mode of transmission of the virus are unknown, but secondary infection is by direct contact with infected blood and other body secretions. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = caused by Ebola virus, a species of Filovirus

UI = D019142

 

Hemorrhagic Fever, Omsk

MS = Infection with the Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus, a Flavivirus.

AN = caused by a flavivirus

UI = D006481

 

Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

MS = A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; if renal involvement, dis is probably HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME

UI = D006482

 

Hemorrhagic Septicemia

MS = Any of several bacterial diseases, usually caused by PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA, marked by the presence of hemorrhagic areas in the subcutaneous tissues, serous membranes, muscles, lymph glands, and throughout the internal organs. The diseases primarly affect animals and rarely humans.

AN = coord (IM) with PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA (IM) or specific organism /infection term (IM) if pertinent

UI = D006483

 

Hemorrhagic Septicemia, Viral

MS = A systemic infection of various salmonid and a few nonsalmonid fishes caused by Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (see NOVIRHABDOVIRUS),

UI = D031941

 

Hemorrhagic Syndrome, Bovine

MS = Clinically severe acute disease of cattle caused by noncytopathic forms of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (DIARRHEA VIRUS 2, BOVINE VIRAL). Outbreaks are characterized by high morbidity and high mortality.

UI = D030243

 

Hemorrhoids

MS = Varicosities of the hemorrhoidal venous plexuses.

UI = D006484

 

Hemosiderin

AN = a metalloprotein

UI = D006485

 

Hemosiderosis

MS = Conditions in which there is a generalized increase in the iron stores of body tissues, particularly of liver and the reticuloendothelial system, without demonstrable tissue damage. The name refers to the presence of stainable iron in the tissue in the form of hemosiderin.

AN = a form of tissue iron accumulation in total body iron overload

UI = D006486

 

Hemostasis

MS = The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of blood from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements, and the process of blood or plasma coagulation.

AN = note Cat G; differentiate from HEMOSTATIC TECHNIQUES, Cat E; coord HEMOSTASIS in diseases with disease /blood, not /physiopathol

UI = D006487

 

Hemostasis, Endoscopic

MS = Control of bleeding performed through the channel of the endoscope. Techniques include use of lasers, heater probes, bipolar electrocoagulation, and local injection. Endoscopic hemostasis is commonly used to treat bleeding esophageal and gastrointestinal varices and ulcers.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; coord IM with dis /ther (IM), not /surg

UI = D016558

 

Hemostasis, Surgical

MS = Control of bleeding during or after surgery.

AN = = perop or postop control of bleeding; do not use /util except by MeSH

UI = D006488

 

Hemostatic Techniques

MS = Techniques for controlling bleeding.

AN = differentiate from HEMOSTASIS, a physiol process in Cat G; do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D006489

 

Hemostatics

MS = Agents acting to arrest the flow of blood. Absorbable hemostatics arrest bleeding either by the formation of an artificial clot or by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting when applied directly to the bleeding surface. These agents function more at the capillary level and are not effective at stemming arterial or venous bleeding under any significant intravascular pressure.

UI = D006490

 

Hemothorax

MS = Hemorrhage within the pleural cavity.

UI = D006491

 

Hempa

MS = A chemosterilant agent that is anticipated to be a carcinogen.

AN = = HExaMethylPhosphorAmide

UI = D006492

 

Hepacivirus

MS = A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the only member and type species.

AN = infection = HEPATITIS C

UI = D016174

 

Hepadnaviridae

MS = A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).

AN = a family of hepatitis viruses; from HEPAtotropic DNA viruses; infection = HEPADNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS

UI = D015613

 

Hepadnaviridae Infections

MS = Virus diseases caused by the HEPADNAVIRIDAE.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specific

UI = D018347

 

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan

MS = Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)

AN = do not confuse with HEPARAN SULFATE see HEPARITIN SULFATE

UI = D019812

 

Heparin

MS = A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.

UI = D006493

 

Heparin Antagonists

MS = Coagulant substances inhibiting the anticoagulant action of heparin.

AN = DF: HEPARIN ANTAG

UI = D006494

 

Heparin Cofactor II

MS = A sulfated plasma protein with the MW of approximately 66kDa that resembles ANTITHROMBIN III. The protein is an inhibitor of thrombin in plasma and is activated by dermatan sulfate or heparin. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.

UI = D015844

 

Heparin Lyase

MS = An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.

UI = D019763

 

Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight

MS = Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kD. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism.

AN = /antag = probably HEPARIN ANTAGONISTS; DF: note short X ref

UI = D006495

 

Heparinoids

MS = Heparin derivatives. The term has also been used more loosely to include naturally occurring and synthetic highly-sulphated polysaccharides of similar structure. Heparinoid preparations have been used for a wide range of applications including as anticoagulants and anti-inflammatories and they have been claimed to have hypolipidemic properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th, p232)

UI = D006496

 

Heparitin Sulfate

MS = A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.

AN = do not confuse X ref HEPARAN SULFATE with HEPARAN SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN

UI = D006497

 

Hepatectomy

MS = Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D006498

 

Hepatic Artery

MS = A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.

UI = D006499

 

Hepatic Duct, Common

MS = Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.

AN = an external bile duct formed by junction of right & left hepatic ducts; diseases: coord IM with BILE DUCT DISEASES (IM); neopl: coord IM with BILE DUCT NEOPLASMS (IM); inflammation: coord IM with CHOLANGITIS (IM); obstruct: coord IM with BILE DUCT OBSTRUCTION, EXTRAHEPATIC (IM); calculi: coord (IM) with CHOLELITHIASIS (IM)

UI = D006500

 

Hepatic Encephalopathy

MS = A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); asterixis; NYSTAGMUS; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)

UI = D006501

 

Hepatic Vein Thrombosis

MS = Occlusion of the hepatic veins caused by thrombi or fibrous obliteration of the veins.

AN = do not confuse X ref CHIARI'S SYNDROME with ARNOLD-CHIARI SYNDROME see ARNOLD-CHIARI MALFORMATION

UI = D006502

 

Hepatic Veins

MS = Veins which drain the liver.

UI = D006503

 

Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease

MS = Blockage of the small- or medium-sized hepatic veins due to nonthrombotic subendothelial edema which may progress to fibrosis.

AN = hepatic vein blockage; DF: HVOD

UI = D006504

 

Hepatitis

MS = Inflammation of the liver and liver disease involving degenerative or necrotic alterations of hepatocytes.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; probably non-viral; viral hepatitis = HEPATITIS, VIRAL, HUMAN & HEPATITIS, VIRAL, ANIMAL or their specifics; /chem ind = HEPATITIS, TOXIC but note HEPATITIS, ALCOHOLIC is also available; /vet = HEPATITIS, ANIMAL or HEPATITIS, VIRAL, ANIMAL; hepatitis A, hepatitis B, etc. = HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS B; etc.; hepatitis parenterally transmitted = HEPATITIS C, enterally transmitted = HEPATITIS E, not specified as parenteral or enteral = probably HEPATITIS, VIRAL, HUMAN; non-A, non-B hepatitis = probably HEPATITIS C but check text for mode of transmission; "transmission of hepatitis" is probably /transm with one of the viral hepatitis terms

UI = D006505

 

Hepatitis A

MS = Hepatitis caused by HEPATOVIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.

AN = caused by a human hepatitis virus

UI = D006506

 

Hepatitis A Antibodies

MS = Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.

AN = for antibodies to human virus, coord IM with HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN /immunol (IM)

UI = D035922

 

Hepatitis A Antigens

MS = Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).

AN = for antigens to human virus, coord IM with HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN /immunol (IM)

UI = D035921

 

Hepatitis A Vaccines

MS = Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).

UI = D022362

 

Hepatitis A virus

MS = A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HEPATITIS A, HUMAN and Simian hepatitis A virus.

AN = infection = HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN is also available

UI = D030041

 

Hepatitis A Virus, Human

MS = A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.

AN = infection = HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS A VIRUS is also available

UI = D017957

 

Hepatitis Antibodies

MS = Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.

AN = coord IM with specific virus /immunol (IM) or specific viral hepatitis /immunol (IM); do not coord with ANTIBODY FORMATION for /biosyn

UI = D006508

 

Hepatitis Antigens

MS = Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D018963

 

Hepatitis B

MS = Hepatitis caused by hepatitis B virus. It may be transmitted by transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products.

AN = caused by a human hepatitis virus; chronic = HEPATITIS B, CHRONIC

UI = D006509

 

Hepatitis B Antibodies

MS = Antibodies to the hepatitis B antigens, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.

AN = DF: note short X ref

UI = D006510

 

Hepatitis B Antigens

MS = Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.

UI = D006511

 

Hepatitis B Core Antigens

MS = The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.

AN = DF: note short X ref

UI = D006512

 

Hepatitis B e Antigens

MS = A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.

AN = DF: note short X refs

UI = D006513

 

Hepatitis B Surface Antigens

MS = Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.

AN = DF: note short X refs

UI = D006514

 

Hepatitis B Vaccines

MS = Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.

UI = D017325

 

Hepatitis B Virus

MS = The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human hepatitis B and is also apparently a causal agent in human hepatocellular carcinoma. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.

AN = a species of Orthohepadnavirus; infection = HEPATITIS B

UI = D006515

 

Hepatitis B Virus, Duck

MS = A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.

AN = do not confuse with HEPATITIS VIRUS, DUCK, an enterovirus; infection: coord IM with HEPADNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM) + HEPATITIS, VIRAL, ANIMAL (IM)

UI = D015611

 

Hepatitis B Virus, Woodchuck

MS = An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.

AN = a member of the genus Orthohepadnavirus; infection: coord IM with HEPATITIS B (IM)

UI = D017919

 

Hepatitis B, Chronic

MS = An inflammatory disease of the liver caused by hepatitis B virus and lasting six months or more.

UI = D019694

 

Hepatitis C

MS = A form of hepatitis, similar to type B post-transfusion hepatitis, but caused by a virus which is serologically distinct from the agents of hepatitis A, B, and E, and which may persist in the blood of chronic asymptomatic carriers. Hepatitis C is parenterally transmitted and associated with transfusions and drug abuse.

AN = caused by a member of the family Flaviviridae; parenterally transmitted: hepatitis not specified as enteral or parenteral is indexed under HEPATITIS, VIRAL, HUMAN; chronic = HEPATITIS C, CHRONIC

UI = D006526

 

Hepatitis C Antibodies

MS = Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.

UI = D018937

 

Hepatitis C Antigens

MS = Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.

UI = D018936

 

Hepatitis C, Chronic

MS = An inflammatory disease of the liver caused by hepatitis C virus and lasting six months or more.

UI = D019698

 

Hepatitis D

MS = Hepatitis caused by the HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in association with hepatitis B. It is endemic in some European countries and is seen in drug users, hemophiliacs, and polytransfused persons.

AN = a hepatitis caused by hepatitis delta virus; HEPATITIS D, CHRONIC is also available

UI = D003699

 

Hepatitis D, Chronic

MS = Inflammatory disease of the liver caused by hepatitis D virus in conjunction with hepatitis B virus and lasting six months or more.

UI = D019701

 

Hepatitis delta Antigens

MS = Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.

UI = D035923

 

Hepatitis Delta Virus

MS = A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.

AN = infection = HEPATITIS D or HEPATITIS D, CHRONIC

UI = D003698

 

Hepatitis E

MS = An acute form of hepatitis caused by a virus serologically distinct from the agents of hepatitis A, B, and C. Hepatitis E is associated with fecally-contaminated water, is enterically transmitted, and is commonly found in tropical or subtropical countries.

AN = enterally transmitted: hepatitis not specified as enteral or parenteral is indexed under HEPATITIS, VIRAL, HUMAN

UI = D016751

 

Hepatitis E virus

MS = A positive-stranded RNA virus species in an unassigned genus, Hepatitis E-like Viruses, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).

AN = infection = HEPATITIS E

UI = D016752

 

Hepatitis Virus, Duck

MS = Unassigned species, in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE, causing high mortality in ducklings 3 days to 3 weeks old.

AN = infection: coord IM with PICORNAVIRUS INFECTIONS (IM) + HEPATITIS, VIRAL, ANIMAL (IM)

UI = D004371

 

Hepatitis Viruses

MS = Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; infection = HEPATITIS, VIRAL, HUMAN or HEPATITIS, VIRAL, ANIMAL or their specifics: see notes there

UI = D006518

 

Hepatitis, Alcoholic

MS = An acute or chronic degenerative and inflammatory lesion of the liver in the alcoholic which is potentially progressive though sometimes reversible. It does not necessarily include steatosis, fibrosis, or cirrhosis of alcoholics, although it is frequently associated with these conditions. It is characterized by liver cell necrosis, infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and lymphocytes, and Mallory bodies. The morphologic changes of chronic alcoholic hepatitis are not likely to be confused with chronic hepatitis (HEPATITIS, CHRONIC).

AN = considered chronic so do not coord with CHRONIC DISEASE

UI = D006519

 

Hepatitis, Animal

AN = exper or vet, GEN or unspecified; don't forget to check tag ANIMAL; prefer specific hepatitis heading with check tag ANIMAL & do not coord here: if specific hepatitis is exper, use only check tag ANIMAL but if specific hepatitis is vet, use specific hepatitis /vet (IM) + precoord animal/dis term (IM) + check tag ANIMAL

UI = D006520

 

Hepatitis, Autoimmune

MS = An unresolving, predominately periportal, hepatitis, usually with hypergammaglobulinemia and serum autoantibodies. The existence of subgroups (types 1, 2, and 3) based on serological findings are controversial. Additionally, some patients have variant forms, where there are features associated with both autoimmune hepatitis and another type of chronic liver disease (overlap syndromes) or where there are findings incompatible with autoimmune hepatitis (outlier syndromes). (From Czaja, Ann Intern Med. 1996; 125:588-598)

AN = a form of chronic hepatitis

UI = D019693

 

Hepatitis, Chronic

MS = A collective term for a clinical and pathological syndrome which has several causes and is characterized by varying degrees of hepatocellular necrosis and inflammation. Specific forms of chronic hepatitis include autoimmune hepatitis (HEPATITIS, AUTOIMMUNE), chronic hepatitis B; (HEPATITIS B, CHRONIC), chronic hepatitis C; (HEPATITIS C, CHRONIC), chronic hepatitis D; (HEPATITIS D, CHRONIC), indeterminate chronic viral hepatitis, cryptogenic chronic hepatitis and drug-related chronic hepatitis (HEPATITIS, CHRONIC, DRUG-INDUCED).

AN = chronic hepatitis from any cause; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; chronic alcoholic hepatitis = HEPATITIS, ALCOHOLIC

UI = D006521

 

Hepatitis, Chronic, Drug-Induced

MS = An inflammatory disease of the liver, lasting six months or more, and caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite. The clinical and histological changes can mimic viral or autoimmune hepatitis.

AN = coord IM with specific toxic agent /adv eff-pois-tox (IM); HEPATITIS, ALCOHOLIC is also available

UI = D019702

 

Hepatitis, Infectious Canine

MS = An adenovirus infection causing fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs, especially puppies. In foxes it causes acute encephalitis with convulsions, paralysis, coma, and death.

AN = caused by an adenovirus; don't forget also DOGS (NIM) & check tag ANIMAL; DF: HEPATITIS INFECT CANINE

UI = D006522

 

Hepatitis, Toxic

MS = Acute hepatitis caused by true hepatotoxins such as Amanita phalloides toxin, carbon tetrachloride, yellow phosphorus, and a variety of drugs. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = coord IM with specific toxic agent /adv eff-pois-tox (IM); chronic = HEPATITIS, CHRONIC, DRUG-INDUCED; HEPATITIS, ALCOHOLIC is also available

UI = D006523

 

Hepatitis, Viral, Animal

MS = Viral hepatitis in animals.

AN = not restricted to hepatitis caused by hepatitis viruses: use also for hepatitis caused by other viruses; exper or vet but do not use /vet; don't forget to check tag ANIMAL

UI = D006524

 

Hepatitis, Viral, Human

MS = Viral hepatitis in man.

AN = not restricted to hepatitis caused by hepatitis viruses: use also for hepatitis caused by other viruses; coord IM with precoord virus dis term (IM); parenterally transmitted hepatitis = HEPATITIS C, enterically transmitted hepatitis = HEPATITIS E, not specified as enteral or parenteral = HEPATITIS, VIRAL, HUMAN; HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS B & HEPATITIS D are also available

UI = D006525

 

Hepatoblastoma

MS = A malignant neoplasm occurring in young children, primarily in the liver, composed of tissue resembling embryonal or fetal hepatic epithelium, or mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. (Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with LIVER NEOPLASMS (IM)

UI = D018197

 

Hepatocyte Growth Factor

MS = Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-MET.

UI = D017228

 

Hepatocytes

MS = The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.

UI = D022781

 

Hepatolenticular Degeneration

MS = A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. Clinical features include LIVER CIRRHOSIS; LIVER FAILURE; SPLENOMEGALY; TREMOR; bradykinesia; DYSARTHRIA; CHOREA; MUSCLE RIGIDITY; Kayser-Fleischer rings (pigmented corneal lesions); ATAXIA; and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed pp969-71)

AN = lenticular refers to the lenticular nucleus in the brain

UI = D006527

 

Hepatomegaly

MS = Enlargement of the liver.

AN = NIM when symptom

UI = D006529

 

Hepatophyta

MS = A plant division. They are simple plants that lack vascular tissue and possess rudimentary rootlike organs (rhizoids). Like MOSSES, liverworts have alternation of generations between haploid gamete-bearing forms (gametophytes) and diploid spore-bearing forms (sporophytes).

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D035926

 

Hepatopulmonary Syndrome

MS = A syndrome consisting of the triad of liver dysfunction, pulmonary vascular dilatation, and abnormal arterial oxygenation in the absence of detectable intrinsic disease of the lung and heart.

UI = D020065

 

Hepatorenal Syndrome

MS = Renal failure in those with liver disease, usually liver cirrhosis or obstructive jaundice. Historically called Heyd disease, urohepatic syndrome, or bile nephrosis.

AN = kidney failure in liver dis

UI = D006530

 

Hepatovirus

MS = A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.

AN = a genus of the family Picornaviridae; infection = HEPATITIS A

UI = D006507

 

HEPES

MS = A dipolar ionic buffer.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D006531

 

Heptachlor

MS = A man-made compound previously used to control termites and other insects. Even though production of heptachlor was phased out of use in the United States during the late 1980's it remains in soil and hazardous waste sites. It is cleary toxic to animals and humans but, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that heptachlor is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (From ATSDR Public Heath Statement, April 1989)

AN = TN 111 for eff on insects

UI = D006533

 

Heptachlor Epoxide

MS = An oxidation product of HEPTACHLOR formed by many plants and animals, including humans, after exposure to HEPTACHLOR. It has been shown to remain in soil treated with HEPTACHLOR for over fifteen years and is toxic to animals and humans. (From ATSDR Public Heath Statement, April 1989)

AN = TN 111 for eff on insects

UI = D006534

 

Heptaminol

MS = An amino alcohol that has been used as a myocardial stimulant and vasodilator and to relieve bronchospasm. Its most common therapeutic use is in orthostatic hypotension. The mechanism of heptaminol's therapeutic actions is not well understood although it has been suggested to affect catecholamine release or calcium metabolism.

UI = D006535

 

Heptanes

MS = Seven-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.

AN = does not include heptenes ( = ALKENES), heptadienes ( = ALKADIENES), or heptatrienes ( = POLYENES); CYCLOHEPTANES is also available

UI = D006536

 

Heptanoates

MS = Salts and esters of the 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid heptanoic acid.

UI = D006537

 

Heptanoic Acids

MS = 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.

UI = D006538

 

Heptanol

MS = A colorless liquid with a fragrant odor. It is used as an intermediate, solvent and in cosmetics.

UI = D019850

 

Heptoses

AN = monosaccharides; GEN only; prefer specifics

UI = D006539

 

Heracleum

MS = A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. Members contain COUMARINS.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D030002

 

Herbals [Publication Type]

MS = Works such as books on herbs or plants usually describing their medicinal value. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

AN = publication type only; for herbals as a subject, index under main heading PLANT PREPARATIONS or specifics

UI = D019509

 

Herbicides

MS = Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specific herbicide groups or specific herbicide

UI = D006540

 

Herbicides, Carbamate

MS = Herbicides which owe their activity to the carbamate moiety in the molecule.

UI = D006541

 

Herbicides, Triazine

MS = Herbicides which owe their activity to the triazine moiety in the molecule.

UI = D006542

 

Herbicides, Urea

MS = Herbicides which owe their activity to the urea moiety in the molecule.

UI = D006543

 

Hereditary Central Nervous System Demyelinating Diseases

MS = Inherited conditions characterized by a loss of myelin in the central nervous system.

UI = D020279

 

Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathies

MS = A group of slowly progressive inherited disorders affecting motor and sensory peripheral nerves. Subtypes include HMSNs I-VII. HMSN I and II both refer to CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE. HMSN III refers to hypertrophic neuropathy of infancy, HMSN IV refers to REFSUM DISEASE, HMSN V refers to a condition marked by a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy associated with spastic paraplegia (see SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA, HEREDITARY). HMSN VI refers to HMSN associated with an inherited optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY), and HMSN VII refers to HMSN associated with retinitis pigmentosa. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)

AN = do not confuse with HEREDITARY MOTOR AND AUTONOMIC NEUROPATHIES; DF: NEUROPATHIES HEREDITARY MOTOR SENSORY

UI = D015417

 

Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathies

MS = A group of inherited disorders characterized by degeneration of dorsal root and autonomic ganglion cells, and clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. There are five subtypes. Type I features autosomal dominant inheritance and distal sensory involvement. Type II is characterized by autosomal inheritance and distal and proximal sensory loss. Type III is DYSAUTONOMIA, FAMILIAL. Type IV features insensitivity to pain, heat intolerance, and mental deficiency. Type V is characterized by a selective loss of pain with intact light touch and vibratory sensation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, pp142-4)

AN = do not confuse with HEREDITARY MOTOR AND SENSORY NEUROPATHIES; for X refs to HSAN types: HSAN TYPE III is see DYSAUTONOMIA, FAMILIAL

UI = D009477

 

Heredity

MS = The transmission of traits encoded in GENES from parent to offspring.

AN = do not confuse with INHERITANCE see WILLS

UI = D040941

 

Heredodegenerative Disorders, Nervous System

MS = Inherited disorders characterized by progressive atrophy and dysfunction of anatomically or physiologically related neurologic systems.

UI = D020271

 

Hermanski-Pudlak Syndrome

MS = Syndrome characterized by the triad of oculocutaneous albinism (ALBINISM, OCULOCUTANEOUS); PLATELET STORAGE POOL DEFICIENCY; and lysosomal accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin.

UI = D022861

 

Hermaphroditism

MS = Originally, a state characterized by the presence of both male and female sex organs. In humans, true hermaphroditism is caused by anomalous differentiation of the gonads, with the presence of both ovarian and testicular tissue and of ambiguous morphologic criteria of sex. If only testicular tissue is present, but there are some female morphological criteria of sex, it is known as male PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM. If only ovarian tissue is present, but there are some male morphological criteria of sex, it is known as female PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = permissible for biol hermaphroditism in lower organisms despite category; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; for check tag use genetic sex for higher animals but do not check sex tags for lower organisms; do not confuse with BISEXUALITY, a behavioral term

UI = D006546

 

Hernia

MS = Protrusion of a loop or knuckle of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; NIM coord with specific organ/dis (IM)

UI = D006547

 

Hernia, Diaphragmatic

MS = Protrusion of some part of the abdominal or retroperitoneal structures through the diaphragm into the thorax. (Dorland, 27th ed)

UI = D006548

 

Hernia, Diaphragmatic, Traumatic

MS = Protrusion of some part of the abdominal or retroperitoneal structures through the diaphragm into the thorax, occurring as a result of injury, usually to the abdomen. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

UI = D006549

 

Hernia, Femoral

UI = D006550

 

Hernia, Hiatal

MS = Herniation of the lower esophagus and/or portion of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus.

AN = herniation through diaphragmatic opening; don't specify esophagus or stomach

UI = D006551

 

Hernia, Inguinal

UI = D006552

 

Hernia, Obturator

MS = Hernia through the obturator foramen.

UI = D006553

 

Hernia, Umbilical

MS = The protrusion of part of the intestine at the umbilicus (Dorland, 27th ed).

AN = do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D006554

 

Hernia, Ventral

UI = D006555

 

Heroin

MS = A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)

UI = D003932

 

Heroin Dependence

MS = Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.

UI = D006556

 

Herpangina

AN = caused by Coxsackie A virus

UI = D006557

 

Herpes Genitalis

MS = Herpes simplex of the genitals.

UI = D006558

 

Herpes Gestationis

MS = An itching polymorphous bullous eruption which occurs in pregnancy or the puerperium and which recurs in successive pregnancies.

AN = not caused by Herpesvirus: herpes refers here to the polymorphous eruptions; don't forget check tags PREGNANCY + FEMALE

UI = D006559

 

Herpes Labialis

MS = Herpes simplex, caused by type 1 virus, primarily spread by oral secretions and usually occurring as a concomitant of fever. It may also develop in the absence of fever or prior illness. It commonly involves the facial region, especially the lips and the nares. (Dorland, 27th ed.)

AN = herpes simplex of the lips & nares; STOMATITIS, HERPETIC (oral cavity) is also available

UI = D006560

 

Herpes Simplex

MS = A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)

AN = note Cat C; caused by Simplexvirus (also called Herpes simplex virus & Herpesvirus hominis)

UI = D006561

 

Herpes Simplex Virus Protein Vmw65

MS = Trans-acting protein that combines with host factors to induce immediate early gene transcription in herpes simplex virus.

AN = a trans-activator; DF: HSV VMW65

UI = D017405

 

Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines

MS = Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with viruses from the genus SIMPLEXVIRUS. This includes vaccines for HSV-1 and HSV-2.

AN = coord IM with specific simplexvirus /immunol (IM)

UI = D022301

 

Herpes Zoster

MS = An acute infectious, usually self-limited, disease believed to represent activation of latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN) in those who have been rendered partially immune after a previous attack of chickenpox. It involves the sensory ganglia and their areas of innervation and is characterized by severe neuralgic pain along the distribution of the affected nerve and crops of clustered vesicles over the area. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = caused by human herpesvirus 3 (HERPES ZOSTER VIRUS see HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN)

UI = D006562

 

Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus

MS = Virus infection of the Gasserian ganglion and its nerve branches characterized by pain and vesicular eruptions with much swelling. Ocular involvement is usually heralded by a vesicle on the tip of the nose. This area is innervated by the nasociliary nerve.

AN = caused by human herpesvirus 3 (OCULAR HERPES ZOSTER VIRUS see HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN)

UI = D006563

 

Herpes Zoster Oticus

MS = A syndrome characterized by facial palsy in association with a herpetic eruption of the external auditory meatus. This may occasionally be associated with tinnitus, vertigo, deafness, severe otalgia, and inflammation of the pinna. The condition is caused by reactivation of a latent HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN infection which causes inflammation of the facial and vestibular nerves, and may occasionally involve additional cranial nerves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p757)

AN = do not confuse X ref RAMSAY HUNT AURICULAR SYNDROME with RAMSAY HUNT PARALYSIS SYNDROME see PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS or RAMSAY HUNT CEREBELLAR SYNDROME see MYOCLONIC CEREBELLAR DYSSNERGIA

UI = D016697

 

Herpesviridae

MS = A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.

AN = GEN: prefer specifics; infection = HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS

UI = D006564

 

Herpesviridae Infections

MS = Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D006566

 

Herpesvirus 1, Bovine

MS = A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes rhinotracheitis in cattle.

AN = do not confuse with HERPESVIRUS 2, BOVINE; infection: coord IM with HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D007242

 

Herpesvirus 1, Canid

MS = A species of VARICELLOVIRUS virus that causes a disease in newborn puppies.

AN = infect: coord IM with HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D002184

 

Herpesvirus 1, Cercopithecine

MS = A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS that causes vesicular lesions of the mouth in monkeys. When the virus is transmitted to man it causes an acute encephalitis or encephalomyelitis, which is nearly always fatal.

AN = infection: coord IM with HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D006568

 

Herpesvirus 1, Equid

MS = A species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing abortion and respiratory disease in horses.

AN = infection: coord IM with HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D004861

 

Herpesvirus 1, Gallid

MS = The type species of the genus INFECTIOUS LARYNGOTRACHEITIS-LIKE VIRUSES found on every continent and affecting mainly chickens and occasionally pheasants.

AN = do not confuse with HERPESVIRUS 2, GALLID; infection: coord IM with HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D001352

 

Herpesvirus 1, Human

MS = The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.

AN = infection: coord IM with HERPES SIMPLEX (IM) or its indentions (IM); DF: HHV 1

UI = D018259

 

Herpesvirus 1, Meleagrid

MS = A species in the genus MAREK'S DISEASE-LIKE VIRUSES, in the family HERPESVIRIDAE, infecting turkeys.

AN = infection = MAREK DISEASE

UI = D026002

 

Herpesvirus 1, Ranid

MS = A species of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, whose genus is so far unassigned. It is probably the causative agent of ADENOMA or ADENOCARCINOMA in the kidneys of certain frogs.

AN = infection: coord IM with HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM) + TUMOR VIRUS INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D007913

 

Herpesvirus 1, Suid

MS = A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.

AN = infection = PSEUDORABIES

UI = D011558

 

Herpesvirus 2, Bovine

MS = A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing mammillitis in cattle in Great Britain and South Africa.

AN = do not confuse with HERPESVIRUS 1, BOVINE; infection: coord IM with HERPES SIMPLEX (IM)

UI = D001911

 

Herpesvirus 2, Gallid

MS = The type species of the genus MAREK'S DISEASE-LIKE VIRUSES in the family HERPESVIRIDAE. It is the etiologic agent of MAREK DISEASE, infecting domestic fowl and wild birds.

AN = do not confuse with HERPESVIRUS 1, GALLID; infection = MAREK DISEASE

UI = D008381

 

Herpesvirus 2, Human

MS = A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.

AN = infection = HERPES GENITALIS usually; otherwise coord IM with HERPES SIMPLEX (IM) or its indentions (IM); DF: HHV 2

UI = D018258

 

Herpesvirus 2, Saimiriine

MS = The type species of RHADINOVIRUS, in the subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from squirrel monkeys. It produces malignant lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, MALIGNANT) in inoculated marmosets or owl monkeys.

AN = do not confuse with HERPESVIRUS 1, SAIMIRIINE see SIMPLEXVIRUS; infection: coord IM with HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM) + TUMOR VIRUS INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D006567

 

Herpesvirus 3, Equid

MS = A species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing coital exanthema in horses.

AN = infection: coord IM with HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM); DF: EHV 3

UI = D004858

 

Herpesvirus 3, Gallid

MS = A species in the genus MAREK'S DISEASE-LIKE VIRUSES, in the family HERPESVIRIDAE, infecting chickens.

AN = infection = MAREK DISEASE

UI = D025961

 

Herpesvirus 3, Human

MS = The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.

AN = do not confuse with other numbered herpesviruses; infection = CHICKENPOX or HERPES ZOSTER; consider also ENCEPHALITIS, VARICELLA ZOSTER; DF: HHV 3

UI = D014645

 

Herpesvirus 4, Bovine

MS = A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting cattle.

AN = infection: coord IM with HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM) + TUMOR VIRUS INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D026021

 

Herpesvirus 4, Equid

MS = A species of VARICELLOVIRUS and the chief cause of rhinopneumonitis in horses.

AN = infection: coord IM with HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM); DF: EHV 4

UI = D023141

 

Herpesvirus 4, Human

MS = The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY), BURKITT LYMPHOMA, and other malignancies.

AN = infection = EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS INFECTIONS or its indentions

UI = D004854

 

Herpesvirus 5, Bovine

MS = A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes a fatal MENINGOENCEPHALITIS in calves.

AN = infection: coord IM with HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM) + MENINGOENCEPHALITIS (IM) + ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL (IM)

UI = D025881

 

Herpesvirus 6, Human

MS = The type species of ROSEOLOVIRUS isolated from patients with AIDS and other LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS. It infects and replicates in fresh and established lines of hematopoietic cells and cells of neural origin. It also appears to alter NK cell activity. HHV-6; (HBLV) antibodies are elevated in patients with AIDS, Sjogren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and certain malignancies. HHV-6 is the cause of EXANTHEMA SUBITUM and has been implicated in encephalitis.

AN = infection: coord IM with ROSEOLOVIRUS INFECTIONS (IM) but consider also EXANTHEMA SUBITUM

UI = D015654

 

Herpesvirus 7, Human

MS = A species in the genus ROSEOLOVIRUS, of the family HERPESVIRIDAE. It was isolated from activated, CD4-positive T-lymphocytes taken from the blood of a healthy human.

AN = infection: coord IM with ROSEOLOVIRUS INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D016199

 

Herpesvirus 8, Human

MS = A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from patients with AIDS-related and "classical" Kaposi sarcoma.

AN = infection: coord IM with HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM) or KAPOSI SARCOMA if so specified by author

UI = D019288

 

Herpesvirus Vaccines

MS = Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family HERPESVIRIDAE.

AN = coord IM with specific herpesvirus /immunol (IM) but note specifics

UI = D022283

 

Hesperidin

MS = A flavanone glycoside found in CITRUS fruit peels.

UI = D006569

 

Hesperomyinae

MS = A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.

AN = a subfamily of Muridae; note X refs; IM; qualif permitted

UI = D016205

 

Hetastarch

MS = A derivative of STARCH used as a plasma substitute in the treatment of hemorrhage.

UI = D006895

 

Heterochromatin

MS = The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.

UI = D006570

 

Heterocyclic Compounds

MS = Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specific groups or specific cpd; DF: HETEROCYCLIC CPDS

UI = D006571

 

Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings

MS = A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.

AN = GEN; prefer specifics; used for mapping supplementary chemicals

UI = D006576

 

Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring

MS = A class of organic compounds containing a ring structure made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The ring structure can be aromatic or nonaromatic.

AN = GEN; prefer specifics; used for mapping supplementary chemicals

UI = D006573

 

Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring

MS = A class of organic compounds containing two ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.

AN = GEN; prefer specifics; used for mapping supplementary chemicals

UI = D006574

 

Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring

MS = A class of organic compounds containing three ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic

AN = GEN; prefer specifics; used for mapping supplementary chemicals

UI = D006575

 

Heterocyclic Compounds, Bridged-Ring

MS = A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.

AN = GEN; prefer specifics; used for mapping supplementary chemicals

UI = D006572

 

Heterocyclic Oxides

MS = Oxides of a ring compound having atoms other than carbon in its ring.

AN = GEN or unspecified: prefer specifics

UI = D006577

 

Heteroduplex Analysis

MS = A method of detecting gene mutation by mixing PCR-amplified mutant and wild-type DNA followed by denaturation and reannealing. The resultant products are resolved by gel electrophoresis, with single base substitutions detectable under optimal electrophoretic conditions and gel formulations. Large base pair mismatches may also be analyzed by using electron microscopy to visualize heteroduplex regions.

UI = D020180

 

Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein D

MS = A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein that has specificity for AU-rich elements found in the 3'-region of mRNA and may play a role in RNA stability. Several isoforms of hnRNP D protein have been found to occur due to alternative mRNA splicing (RNA SPLICING).

AN = see SCR for specific hnRNP entries

UI = D034502

 

Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B

MS = A class of closely related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins of approximitely 34-40 kD in size. Although they are generally found in the nucleoplasm, they also shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Members of this class have been found to have a role in mRNA transport, telomere biogenesis and RNA SPLICING.

AN = see SCR for specific hnRNP entries

UI = D034481

 

Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group C

MS = A group of closely related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins of approximately 41-43 kD in size found in the cell nucleus. Members of this class have been implicated in a variety of processes including splicing, polyadenylation, and nuclear retention of RNA.

AN = see SCR for specific hnRNP entries

UI = D034482

 

Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group F-H

MS = A group of closely-related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins that are involved in pre-mRNA splicing.

AN = see SCR for specific hnRNP entries

UI = D034541

 

Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group M

MS = A group of closely-related 72-74 kD heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins that are involved in RNA SPLICING events.

AN = see SCR for specific hnRNP entries

UI = D034761

 

Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein K

MS = A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein found in the CELL NUCLEUS and the CYTOPLASM. Heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein K has been implicated in the regulation of gene expression at nearly all levels: TRANSCRIPTION, mRNA processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL), mRNA transport, mRNA stability, and translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). The hnRNP protein has a strong affinity for polypyrimidine-rich RNA and for single-stranded polypyrimidine-rich DNA. Multiple hnRNP K protein isoforms exist due to alternative splicing and display different nucleic-acid-binding properties.

AN = see SCR for specific hnRNP entries

UI = D034641

 

Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein L

MS = A heterogenous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein found associated with most nascent transcripts, most notably those of the landmark giant loops of amphibian lampbrush chromosomes.

AN = see SCR for specific hnRNP entries

UI = D034664

 

Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein U

MS = A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein found associated with the NUCLEAR MATRIX.

AN = see SCR for specific hnRNP entries

UI = D034722

 

Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins

MS = A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.

UI = D034441

 

Heterophyidae

MS = A family of intestinal flukes of the class Trematoda which occurs in animals and man. Some of the genera are Heterophyes, Metagonimus, Cryptocotyle, Stellantchasmus, and Euryhelmis.

AN = a family of trematodes; infection: coord IM with TREMATODE INFECTIONS (IM); for antigens, coord with ANTIGENS, HELMINTH, for antibodies, coord with ANTIBODIES, HELMINTH

UI = D006578

 

Heteroptera

MS = A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = do not use /drug eff for insecticides: TN 111

UI = D020062

 

Heterosexuality

MS = Sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite sex.

UI = D020010

 

Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins

MS = GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that contain three non-identical subunits. They are found associated with members of the seven transmembrane domain superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. The G-alpha subunit acts as a signal transduction molecule when it binds GTP and dissociates from the heterotrimer. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the protein causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. EC 3.6.1.-.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; DF: HET G PROTEINS

UI = D020962

 

Heterozygote

MS = An individual having different alleles at one or more loci in homologous chromosome segments.

AN = no qualif

UI = D006579

 

Heterozygote Detection

MS = Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.

UI = D006580

 

Heuchera

MS = A plant genus of the family SAXIFRAGACEAE with dark green round or heart-shaped leaves and tiny flowers.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031996

 

Hevea

MS = A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.

AN = do not confuse with FICUS which is sometimes called rubberplant; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATION or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D028482

 

Hexachlorobenzene

MS = An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.

AN = do not confuse with BENZENE HEXACHLORIDE see LINDANE; DF: note short X ref

UI = D006581

 

Hexachlorophene

MS = A chlorinated bisphenol antiseptic with a bacteriostatic action against Gram-positive organisms, but much less effective against Gram-negative organisms. It is mainly used in soaps and creams and is an ingredient of various preparations used for skin disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p797)

UI = D006582

 

Hexadimethrine

MS = A synthetic polymer which agglutinates red blood cells. It is used as a heparin antagonist.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D006583

 

Hexamethonium

MS = A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.

UI = D018738

 

Hexamethonium Compounds

MS = Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.

AN = antihypertensives; DF: HEXAMETHONIUM CPDS

UI = D006584

 

Hexanes

MS = Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.

AN = does not include hexenes ( = ALKENES), hexadienes ( = ALKADIENES), or hexatrienes ( = POLYENES); CYCLOHEXANES is also available

UI = D006586

 

Hexanoic Acids

UI = D006587

 

Hexanols

MS = Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).

UI = D000441

 

Hexanones

MS = 6-carbon straight-chain or branched ketones.

UI = D006588

 

Hexestrol

MS = A synthetic estrogen that has been used as a hormonal antineoplastic agent.

UI = D006589

 

Hexetidine

MS = A bactericidal and fungicidal antiseptic. It is used as a 0.1% mouthwash for local infections and oral hygeine. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p797)

UI = D006590

 

Hexobarbital

MS = A barbiturate that is effective as a hypnotic and sedative.

UI = D006591

 

Hexobendine

MS = A potent vasoactive agent that dilates cerebral and coronary arteries, but slightly constricts femoral arteries, without any effects on heart rate, blood pressure or cardiac output.

UI = D006592

 

Hexokinase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.

UI = D006593

 

Hexoprenaline

MS = Stimulant of adrenergic beta 2 receptors. It is used as a bronchodilator, antiasthmatic agent, and tocolytic agent.

UI = D006594

 

Hexosamines

UI = D006595

 

Hexosaminidases

MS = Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on glucosides, galactosides, and several oligosaccharides.

UI = D006596

 

Hexosediphosphates

UI = D006598

 

Hexosephosphates

UI = D006600

 

Hexoses

AN = monosaccharides; GEN only; prefer specifics

UI = D006601

 

Hexosyltransferases

MS = Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.

UI = D006602

 

Hexuronic Acids

MS = Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.

UI = D006603

 

Hexylresorcinol

MS = A substituted dihydroxybenzene that is used topically as an antiseptic for the treatment of minor skin infections.

UI = D006604

 

Heymann Nephritis Antigenic Complex

MS = A complex of antigenic proteins obtained from the brush border of kidney tubules. It contains two principal components LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEIN 2 and LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN. The name of this complex is derived from researcher, Dr. Walter Heymann, who developed an experimental model of membranous glomerulonephritis (GLOMERULONEPHRITIS) by injecting this antigenic complex into rats to induce an autoimmune response.

AN = HEYMANN NEPHRITIS ANTIGEN GP330 see LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEIN 2 is also available

UI = D026541

 

Hibernation

MS = The dormant state in which some animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs. It is a natural physiological process in many warm-blooded animals.

AN = animal only; a natural physiol process; summer dormancy corresponding to this winter dormancy = ESTIVATION

UI = D006605

 

Hibiscus

MS = A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. Members contain LIGNANS. H. cannabinus is a source of textile fiber (TEXTILES).

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031584

 

Hiccup

MS = A spasm of the diaphragm that causes a sudden inhalation followed by rapid closure of the glottis which produces a sound.

UI = D006606

 

Hidradenitis

MS = The inflammation of a sweat gland (usually of the apocrine type). The condition can be idiopathic or occur as a result of or in association with another underlying condition. Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis is a relatively rare variant that has been reported in patients undergoing chemotherapy, usually for non-Hodgkin lymphomas or leukemic conditions.

AN = inflamm of a sweat gland

UI = D016575

 

Hidradenitis Suppurativa

MS = A chronic suppurative and cicatricial disease of the apocrine glands occurring chiefly in the axillae in women and in the groin and anal regions in men. It is characterized by poral occlusion with secondary bacterial infection, evolving into abscesses which eventually rupture. As the disease becomes chronic, ulcers appear, sinus tracts enlarge, fistulas develop, and fibrosis and scarring become evident. Hormonal mechanisms are expected in its pathogenesis.

AN = bact skin dis

UI = D017497

 

Hidrocystoma

MS = A cystic form of sweat gland adenoma (ADENOMA, SWEAT GLAND). It is produced by the cystic proliferation of apocrine secretory glands. It is not uncommon, occurring in adult life in no particular age group, with males and females equally affected. The commonest site is around the eye, particularly lateral to the outer canthus. It is cured by surgical removal. (Stedman, 25th ed; Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2410)

AN = /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with SWEAT GLAND NEOPLASMS (IM)

UI = D018251

 

Hierarchy, Social

MS = Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.

AN = human & animal; no qualif

UI = D006608

 

High Mobility Group Proteins

MS = A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.

AN = GEN or unspecified; HMG-BOX DOMAINS is also available

UI = D006609

 

High Pressure Neurological Syndrome

MS = A syndrome related to increased atmospheric pressure and characterized by tremors, nausea, dizziness, decreased motor and mental performance, and SEIZURES. This condition may occur in those who dive deeply (c. 1000 ft) usually while breathing a mixture of oxygen and helium. The condition is associated with a neuroexcitatory effect of helium.

AN = in divers; do not confuse with INERT GAS NARCOSIS

UI = D006610

 

High-Energy Shock Waves

MS = Compression waves of large amplitude, across which density, pressure, and particle velocity change drastically. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

AN = a form of non-ionizing radiation; DF: note short X ref

UI = D019220

 

High-Frequency Jet Ventilation

MS = Respiratory support system used primarily with rates of about 100 to 200/min with volumes of from about one to three times predicted anatomic dead space. Used to treat respiratory failure and maintain ventilation under severe circumstances.

AN = a type of artif resp; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; DF: HFJV

UI = D006611

 

High-Frequency Ventilation

MS = Ventilatory support system using frequencies from 60-900 cycles/min or more. Three types of systems have been distinguished on the basis of rates, volumes, and the system used. They are high frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV); HIGH-FREQUENCY JET VENTILATION; (HFJV); and high-frequency oscillation (HFO).

AN = a type of artif resp; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; DF: HFV

UI = D006612

 

Higher Nervous Activity

AN = this expression is found intact as "vysshaia nervnaia deiatel'nost" in Russian neurophysiol lit

UI = D006613

 

Hindlimb

MS = Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR, TIBIA and FIBULA, tarsals, METATARSALS, and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)

AN = non-primate vertebrates only; for primates use LEG

UI = D006614

 

Hindlimb Suspension

MS = Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.

UI = D019417

 

Hinduism

MS = A complex body of social, cultural, and religious beliefs and practices evolved in and largely confined to the Indian subcontinent and marked by a caste system, an outlook tending to view all forms and theories as aspects of one eternal being and truth, and the practice of the way of works, the way of knowledge, or the way of devotion as a means of release from the round of rebirths. (From Webster, 3d ed)

AN = IM; specify geog if pertinent

UI = D018596

 

Hip

MS = The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.

AN = do not confuse with HIP JOINT or PELVIC BONES (os coxae); aseptic or avascular necrosis = FEMUR HEAD NECROSIS; differentiate from HIP JOINT

UI = D006615

 

Hip Contracture

MS = Permanent fixation of the hip in primary positions, with limited passive or active motion at the hip joint. Locomotion is difficult and pain is sometimes present when the hip is in motion. It may be caused by trauma, infection, or poliomyelitis. (From Current Medical Information & Technology, 5th ed)

UI = D006616

 

Hip Dislocation

MS = Displacement of the femur bone from its normal position at the HIP JOINT.

UI = D006617

 

Hip Dislocation, Congenital

MS = Congenital dislocation of the hip generally includes subluxation of the femoral head, acetabular dysplasia, and complete dislocation of the femoral head from the true acetabulum. This condition occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 live births and is more common in females than in males.

AN = do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; /vet permitted but congen hip disloc in dogs = HIP DYSPLASIA, CANINE: see note there

UI = D006618

 

Hip Dysplasia, Canine

MS = A hereditary disease of the hip joints in dogs. Signs of the disease may be evident any time after 4 weeks of age.

AN = congen hip disloc in dogs; don't forget check tags ANIMAL & DOGS (NIM)

UI = D006619

 

Hip Fractures

MS = Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD, the FEMUR NECK (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES), the trochanters, or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).

AN = GEN or unspecified; note X refs: fract below subtrochant = FEMORAL FRACTURES; FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES is available; femur head fract = FEMUR HEAD /inj (IM) + HIP FRACTURES (IM); acetabular fract = ACETABULUM /inj (IM) + FRACTURES (IM)

UI = D006620

 

Hip Injuries

MS = General or unspecified injuries involving the hip.

UI = D025981

 

Hip Joint

AN = /inj is probably HIP DISLOCATION or HIP FRACTURES, otherwise coord IM with HIP INJURIES (IM); differentiate from HIP

UI = D006621

 

Hip Prosthesis

MS = Replacement for a hip joint.

UI = D006622

 

Hippel-Lindau Disease

MS = An autosomal dominant disorder associated with various neoplasms including central nervous system (most often cerebellar) and retinal HEMANGIOBLASTOMA, endolymphatic sac tumors, renal cell carcinoma (see CARCINOMA, RENAL CELL), renal and pancreatic cysts, HEMANGIOMA of the spinal cord, and PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. The most common presenting manifestations are neurologic deficits associated with intracranial hemangioblastomas which may hemorrhage, causing ataxia, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION, and other signs of neurologic dysfunction. (From Neurochirurgie 1998 Nov;44(4):258-66)

UI = D006623

 

Hippocampus

MS = A curved elevation of gray matter extending the entire length of the floor of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle (Dorland, 28th ed). The hippocampus, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.

UI = D006624

 

Hippocastanaceae

MS = A plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.

AN = prefer specific plant; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031318

 

Hippocrateaceae

MS = A plant family of the order Celastrales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. The Hippocratea genus contains friedelanes, triterpenoid quinone, and hippocrateine I.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031320

 

Hippocratic Oath

MS = An oath, attributed to Hippocrates, that serves as an ethical guide for the medical profession.

AN = capitalize Hippocratic in titles & translations

UI = D006625

 

Hippomane

MS = A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. The trees contain hippomanin A (TANNINS) and the latex is a skin irritant.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031285

 

Hippophae

MS = A plant genus of the family ELAEAGNACEAE. Linoleic (18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic acids (18:3n-3) comprised about 70% of seed oil fatty acids. This is unrelated to 'artificial sea buckthorn oil'.

AN = unrelated to "artificial sea buckthorn oil"; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031281

 

Hippurates

MS = Salts and esters of hippuric acid.

UI = D006626

 

Hirschsprung Disease

MS = Congenital megacolon due to absence of myenteric ganglion cells in a distal segment of the large intestine.

AN = congen megacolon: acquired megacolon = MEGACOLON; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D006627

 

Hirsutism

MS = Excess hair in females and children with an adult male pattern of distribution. The concept does not include HYPERTRICHOSIS, which is localized or generalized excess hair.

AN = "excess hair in females & child with an adult male pattern distrib"; differentiate from HYPERTRICHOSIS, "localized or generalized excess hair"

UI = D006628

 

Hirudin

MS = The active principle in the buccal gland secretion (saliva) of LEECHES. It acts as an antithrombin and as an antithrombotic agent.

UI = D006629

 

Hirudin Therapy

MS = Use of HIRUDIN as an anticoagulant in the treatment of cardiological and hematological disorders.

AN = coord IM with disease/drug ther (IM)

UI = D024764

 

Hispanic Americans

MS = Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.

AN = US residents of Puerto Rican, Cuban, Cent American, South American or other Spanish culture or origin; does not include Brazilian Americans ( = UNITED STATES + BRAZIL /ethnol) nor Portuguese Americans ( = UNITED STATES + PORTUGAL /ethnol); specify geog; despite X refs specify NIM PUERTO RICO /ethnol or other Hispanic country with /ethnol when pertinent; MEXICAN AMERICANS is available

UI = D006630

 

Histamine

MS = A depressor amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of histidine. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.

AN = /agon = HISTAMINE AGONISTS; /antag = HISTAMINE ANTAGONISTS if general & unspecified or HISTAMINE H1 ANTAGONISTS for classical "antihistamine" or HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS if so specified; /biosyn /physiol permitted but with caution; /secret or histamine liberation = HISTAMINE RELEASE

UI = D006632

 

Histamine Agents

MS = Drugs used for their actions on histaminergic systems. Included are drugs that act at histamine receptors, affect the life cycle of histamine, or affect the state of histaminergic cells.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specific groups or specific drugs

UI = D018494

 

Histamine Agonists

MS = Drugs that bind to and activate histamine receptors. Although they have been suggested for a variety of clinical applications histamine agonists have so far been more widely used in research than therapeutically.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; do not confuse with HISTAMINE ANTAGONISTS; DF: HISTAMINE AGON or HISTAMINE AG

UI = D017442

 

Histamine Antagonists

MS = Drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. Classical antihistaminics block the histamine H1 receptors only.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; do not confuse with HISTAMINE AGONISTS; DF: HISTAMINE ANTAG

UI = D006633

 

Histamine H1 Antagonists

MS = Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.

AN = the "classical antihistaminics": note X refs; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; DF: HISTAMINE H1 ANTAG

UI = D006634

 

Histamine H1 Antagonists, Non-Sedating

MS = A class of non-sedating drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. These antihistamines represent a heterogenous group of compounds with differing chemical structures, adverse effects, distribution, and metabolism. Compared to the early (first generation) antihistamines, these non-sedating antihistamines have greater receptor specificity, lower penetration of BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER, and are less likely to cause drowsiness or psychomotor impairment.

UI = D039563

 

Histamine H2 Antagonists

MS = Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; DF: HISTAMINE H2 ANTAG

UI = D006635

 

Histamine N-Methyltransferase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to histamine, forming N-methylhistamine, the major metabolite of histamine in man. EC 2.1.1.8.

UI = D006637

 

Histamine Release

MS = The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.

UI = D006636

 

Histidine

MS = An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.

AN = /biosyn /defic /physiol permitted

UI = D006639

 

Histidine Ammonia-Lyase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the first step of histidine catabolism, forming UROCANIC ACID and AMMONIA from HISTIDINE. Deficiency of this enzyme is associated with elevated levels of serum histidine. EC 4.3.1.3.

AN = /defic: consider also HISTIDINEMIA

UI = D006638

 

Histidine Decarboxylase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of histidine to histamine and carbon dioxide. It requires pyridoxal phosphate in animal tissues, but not in microorganisms. EC 4.1.1.22.

UI = D006640

 

Histidine-tRNA Ligase

MS = An enzyme that activates histidine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.21.

UI = D006643

 

Histidinol

MS = The penultimate step in the pathway of histidine biosynthesis. Oxidation of the alcohol group on the side chain gives the acid group forming histidine. Histidinol has also been used as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.

UI = D006641

 

Histidinol-Phosphatase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of histidinol-phosphate to histidinol. One of the regulatory enzymes in histidine biosynthesis. EC 3.1.3.15.

UI = D006642

 

Histiocytes

AN = A 11 qualif

UI = D006644

 

Histiocytic Disorders, Malignant

MS = Distinctive neoplastic disorders of histiocytes. Included are acute monocytic leukemias, malignant histiocytosis (HISTIOCYTOSIS, MALIGNANT), and true histiocytic lymphomas.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; do not use /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct; do not confuse with HISTIOCYTOSIS, MALIGNANT

UI = D015620

 

Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis

MS = Development of lesions in the lymph node characterized by infiltration of the cortex or paracortex by large collections of proliferating histiocytes and complete or, more often, incomplete necrosis of lymphoid tissue.

UI = D020042

 

Histiocytoma, Fibrous

MS = A tumor composed, wholly or in part, of cells with the morphologic characteristics of histiocytes and with various fibroblastic components. There are many variants and many names. Superficially located histiocytic lesions behave benignly but deep, benign histiocytomas may invade locally into surrounding tissue. Fibrous histiocytomas can occur anywhere in the body. Superficial lesions are always cured by simple excision; a wider margin of tissue should be obtained for deep, benign types. Local recurrence is uncommon. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1356)

AN = benign or malignant; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM)

UI = D018219

 

Histiocytosis

MS = General term for the abnormal appearance of histiocytes in the blood. Based on the pathological features of the cells involved rather than on clinical findings, the histiocytic diseases are subdivided into three groups: HISTIOCYTOSIS, LANGERHANS CELL; HISTIOCYTOSIS, NON-LANGERHANS CELL; and HISTIOCYTIC DISORDERS, MALIGNANT.

AN = "abnormal appearance of histiocytes in the blood" (usually in tissue); GEN or unspecified only; prefer specifics; do not confuse with HISTIOCYTOSIS X see HISTIOCYTOSIS, LANGERHANS-CELL

UI = D015614

 

Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell

MS = Group of disorders of histiocyte proliferation which includes LETTERER-SIWE DISEASE; HAND-SCHUELLER-CHRISTIAN SYNDROME; and EOSINOPHILIC GRANULOMA. Langerhans cells are components of the lesions.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D006646

 

Histiocytosis, Malignant

MS = A rare, usually rapidly progressive disorder, characterized by abrupt onset, fever, weight loss, hepato-splenomegaly, pancytopenia, and lymphadenopathy.

AN = do not use /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct; do not confuse with HISTIOCYTIC DISORDERS, MALIGNANT

UI = D006647

 

Histiocytosis, Non-Langerhans-Cell

MS = Group of disorders which feature accumulations of active histiocytes and lymphocytes, but where the histiocytes are not Langerhans cells. The group includes hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome, sinus histiocytosis, xanthogranuloma, reticulohistiocytoma, juvenile xanthoma, xanthoma disseminatum, as well as the lipid storage diseases (sea-blue histiocyte syndrome and Niemann-Pick disease).

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D015616

 

Histiocytosis, Sinus

MS = Benign, non-Langerhans-cell, histiocytic proliferative disorder that primarily affects the lymph nodes. It is often referred to as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy.

AN = a non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis; sinus refers to the lymphatic sinuses

UI = D015618

 

Histocompatibility

MS = The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.

UI = D006648

 

Histocompatibility Antigens

MS = A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.

AN = GEN or unspecified only; prefer specifics but for humans, use HLA ANTIGENS; /genet permitted but consider also MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX

UI = D006649

 

Histocompatibility Antigens Class I

MS = Large transmembrane, polymorphic glycoproteins noncovalently associated with nonpolymorphic beta 2-microglobulin. In humans, three structural genes on chromosome 6 code for the HLA-A; HLA-B and HLA-C antigens. In mice, three genes named K, D, and L on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during graft rejection and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells. They are primarily associated with rheumatologic diseases and certain malignant disorders.

AN = human & animal

UI = D015395

 

Histocompatibility Antigens Class II

MS = Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.

AN = human & animal; GEN: prefer specifics; see also HLA ANTIGENS & specifics for human; X ref IA ANTIGENS refers to any class II histocompatibility antigen

UI = D000949

 

Histocompatibility Testing

MS = Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant donors and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for histocompatibility antigens in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

AN = human or animal

UI = D006650

 

Histocytochemistry

MS = Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.

AN = = histochem or cytochem or both; NIM usually with no qualif; SPEC qualif when IM; histochem of disease is disease /metab; Manual 26.11+

UI = D006651

 

Histocytological Preparation Techniques

MS = Methods of preparing cells or tissues for examination and study of their origin, structure, function, or pathology. The methods include preservation, fixation, sectioning, staining, replica, or other technique to allow for viewing using a microscope.

AN = DF: HISTOCYTOL PREP TECHNIQUES

UI = D016591

 

Histological Techniques

AN = NIM

UI = D006652

 

Histology

AN = SPEC only: SPEC qualif; prefer /anat & histol with specific organs & organisms: Manual 19.7+, 19.8.7; DF: HISTOL

UI = D006653

 

Histology, Comparative

AN = IM: SPEC only, SPEC qualif; usually NIM coord: no qualif; Manual 18.13; more likely is tag COMPARATIVE STUDY with specific A or B term with /anat & histol: Manual 18.13; DF: HISTOL COMPARATIVE

UI = D006654

 

Histone Deacetylases

MS = Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. Some of these belong to the SIRTUINS protein family.

AN = if NAD-dependent histone deacetylase coord with SIRTUINS

UI = D006655

 

Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the methylation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues in proteins to yield epsilon mono-, di-, and trimethyllysine. EC 2.1.1.43.

UI = D011495

 

Histones

MS = Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.

AN = H1, H2a, H2b, H3, etc. go here

UI = D006657

 

Histoplasma

MS = A mitosporic Onygenales fungal genus causing HISTOPLASMOSIS in humans and animals. Its single species is Histoplasma capsulatum which has two varieties: H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and H. capsulatum var. duboisii. Its teleomorph is AJELLOMYCES capsulatus.

AN = infection = HISTOPLASMOSIS

UI = D006658

 

Histoplasmin

UI = D006659

 

Histoplasmosis

MS = Infecton resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = fungus dis

UI = D006660

 

Historical Article [Publication Type]

MS = An article or portion of an article giving an account of past events or circumstances significant in a field of study, a profession, a discovery, an invention, etc. The concept of history is very wide, ranging from the dawn of time to the present. This publication type is often checked in conjunction with BIOGRAPHY [PUBLICATION TYPE].

AN = publication type only; former citation type (Manual 32.15+); check appropriate hist tags

UI = D016456

 

Historical Geographic Locations

MS = Countries known in remote history (as BYZANTIUM) or former names of countries reflecting political changes in the 20th century (as GERMANY, EAST).

AN = "historical" refers to the more remote or recent past or to a term with historic significance aside from its location; all historical & century check tags apply

UI = D017516

 

Historiography

MS = The writing of history; the principles, theory, and history of historical writing; the product of historical writing. (Webster, 3d ed)

AN = = the writing of histories; no qualif; DF: HISTORIOGR

UI = D006663

 

History

AN = SPEC only; no qualif; prefer /hist for specific subjects: Manual 19.7+, 19.8.36; IM as subject: Manual 32.3; Saints: TN H; DF: HIST

UI = D006664

 

History of Dentistry

AN = GEN only; prefer /hist with specific dent term (IM) & do not coord here at all or under DENTISTRY /hist; no qualif; Manual 32.7, 32.8; DF: HIST DENT

UI = D006665

 

History of Medicine

AN = no qualif; Manual 18.14+; policy: Manual 32.4-.6; hist check tags: Manual 18.14+; Avicenna (Ibn Sina): see note under MEDICINE, ARABIC; DF: HIST MED

UI = D006666

 

History of Medicine, 15th Cent.

AN = IM; no qualif; check tag when not point of article; DF: HIST MED 15TH CENT or 15 CENT

UI = D006670

 

History of Medicine, 16th Cent.

AN = IM; no qualif; check tag when not point of article; DF: HIST MED 16TH CENT or 16 CENT

UI = D006671

 

History of Medicine, 17th Cent.

AN = IM; no qualif; check tag when not point of article; DF: HIST MED 17TH CENT or 17 CENT

UI = D006672

 

History of Medicine, 18th Cent.

AN = IM or NIM: Manual 18.14+, 32.6; no qualif; check tag when not point of article; DF: HIST MED 18TH CENT or 18 CENT

UI = D006673

 

History of Medicine, 19th Cent.

AN = NIM; no qualif; check tag when not point of article; DF: HIST MED 19TH CENT or 19 CENT

UI = D006674

 

History of Medicine, 20th Cent.

AN = NIM; no qualif; check tag when not point of article; DF: HIST MED 20TH CENT or 20 CENT

UI = D006675

 

History of Medicine, 21st Cent.

MS = Events and developments in medicine during the 100 year period following the 20th century.

AN = NIM; no qualif; check tag when not point of article; DF: HIST MED 21ST CENT or 21 CENT

UI = D023541

 

History of Medicine, Ancient

MS = The period of the history of medicine before 500 A.D.

AN = before 500 A.D.; IM; no qualif; check tag when not point of article; for ancient lands or cities not in MeSH, do not locate by modern geog country: index only here; DF: ANCIENT

UI = D006667

 

History of Medicine, Early Modern

MS = The period of the history of medicine from 1451 through 1600 A.D. HISTORY OF MEDICINE, 15TH CENT. and HISTORY OF MEDICINE, 16TH CENT. are also available.

AN = 1451-1600; no qualif; IM; GEN or unspecified; prefer HISTORY OF MEDICINE, 15TH CENT. or HISTORY OF MEDICINE, 16TH CENT.; check tag when not point of article or check tag 15th or 16th cent as specified; DF: HIST MED EARLY MODERN or EARLY MODERN

UI = D018593

 

History of Medicine, Medieval

MS = The period of the history of medicine from 500 through 1450 A.D.

AN = IM; 500-1450 A.D.; no qualif; check tag when not point of article; Avicenna (Ibn Sina): see note under MEDICINE, ARABIC: TN 12; DF: MEDIEVAL

UI = D006668

 

History of Medicine, Modern

MS = The period of the history of medicine from 1601 A.D. to the present.

AN = 1601-present; no qualif; avoid as NIM: prefer one or all specific indentions; for IM see Manual 18.14.7, 32.6; DF: HIST MED MODERN

UI = D006669

 

History of Nursing

AN = GEN only; prefer /hist with specific nurs term (IM) & do not coord here at all or under NURSING /hist; no qualif; Manual 18.14+, 32.7-.8; DF: HIST NURS

UI = D006676

 

Histrionic Personality Disorder

MS = A personality disorder characterized by overly reactive and intensely expressed or overly dramatic behavior, proneness to exaggeration, emotional excitability, and disturbances in interpersonal relationships.

UI = D006677

 

HIV

MS = Human immunodeficiency virus. Species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, PRIMATE), formerly designated T-cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). It is acknowledged to be the agent responsible for the acute infectious manifestations, neurologic disorders, and immunologic abnormalities linked to the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME.

AN = a species of Lentivirus of the subgenus Lentiviruses, Primate; infection = HIV INFECTIONS but prefer specifics

UI = D006678

 

HIV Antibodies

MS = Antibodies reactive with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, previously called HTLV-III/LAV) antigens of AIDS.

AN = includes HIV-1 & HIV-2 antibodies; do not coord with ANTIBODY FORMATION for /biosyn

UI = D015483

 

HIV Antigens

MS = Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.

UI = D015488

 

HIV Core Protein p24

MS = A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.

AN = /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted

UI = D016655

 

HIV Enhancer

MS = Cis-acting regulatory sequences in the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) which play a major role in induction or augmentation of HIV gene expression in response to environmental stimuli such as mitogens, phorbol esters, or other viruses. The HIV enhancer is the binding site for many cellular transcription factors including the nuclear factor NF-kappa B.

UI = D016322

 

HIV Enteropathy

MS = Chronic, well-established diarrhea (greater than one month in duration) without an identified infectious cause after thorough evaluation, in an HIV-positive individual. It is thought to be due to direct or indirect effects of HIV on the enteric mucosa. HIV enteropathy is a diagnosis of exclusion and can be made only after other forms of diarrheal illness have been ruled out. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, pp1607-8; Haubrich et al., Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed, p1155)

AN = chronic diarrhea in HIV-positive persons

UI = D019053

 

HIV Envelope Protein gp120

MS = External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kD and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.

AN = IM; despite X refs, coord with HIV-1 or HIV-2 (IM); /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted; DF: GP120

UI = D015699

 

HIV Envelope Protein gp160

MS = An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kD and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.

AN = DF: GP160

UI = D019302

 

HIV Envelope Protein gp41

MS = Transmembrane envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in cell fusion with the CD4 antigens of T4 lymphocytes, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by immunoblotting.

AN = IM; coord with HIV-1 (IM); /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted; DF: GP41

UI = D015700

 

HIV Fusion Inhibitors

MS = Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry.

UI = D023581

 

HIV Infections

MS = Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

AN = caused by a lentivirus; GEN or unspecified; coord IM with HIV-1 (IM) or HIV-2 (IM); note specific indentions under HIV INFECTIONS; DF: HIV INFECT

UI = D015658

 

HIV Integrase

MS = Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required to integrate viral DNA into cellular DNA in the nucleus of a host cell. HIV integrase is a DNA nucleotidyltransferase encoded by the pol gene. EC 2.7.7.-.

UI = D019427

 

HIV Integrase Inhibitors

MS = Inhibitors of HIV INTEGRASE, an enzyme required for integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA.

AN = an antiviral; DF: HIV INTEGRASE INHIB

UI = D019428

 

HIV Long Terminal Repeat

MS = Regulatory sequences important for viral replication that are located on each end of the HIV genome. The LTR includes the HIV ENHANCER, promoter, and other sequences. Specific regions in the LTR include the negative regulatory element (NRE), NF-kappa B binding sites , Sp1 binding sites, TATA BOX, and trans-acting responsive element (TAR). The binding of both cellular and viral proteins to these regions regulates HIV transcription.

AN = DF: HIV LTR or HIV TAR

UI = D016325

 

HIV Long-Term Survivors

MS = Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.

UI = D020276

 

HIV Protease

MS = Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene. EC 3.4.23.-

UI = D016333

 

HIV Protease Inhibitors

MS = Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.

AN = DF: HIV PROTEASE INHIB

UI = D017320

 

HIV Seronegativity

MS = Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.

AN = note category; HIV SEROPOSITIVITY (Cat C) is available; DF: HIV SERONEG

UI = D018023

 

HIV Seropositivity

MS = Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).

AN = note category; HIV SERONEGATIVITY (Cat G) is also available; /diag /immunol permitted but use caution; coord IM with HIV-1 /immunol (IM) or HIV-2 /immunol (IM); do not confuse with HIV SEROPREVALENCE, an epidemiol concept; DF: HIV SEROPOS

UI = D006679

 

HIV Seroprevalence

MS = Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).

AN = IM; an epidemiol concept: do not confuse with HIV SEROPOSITIVITY, a diag finding; specify geog if pertinent

UI = D015528

 

HIV Wasting Syndrome

MS = Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).

UI = D019247

 

HIV-1

MS = The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS (ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME). It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.

AN = infection: coord IM with HIV INFECTIONS (IM) or AIDS (IM) or their specifics (IM)

UI = D015497

 

HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase

MS = HIV-1 enzyme responsible for the synthesis of DNA from genomic RNA of the virus. It exists as a heterodimer of a 66 kDa (p66) subunit and a 51 kDa (p51) subunit. It is encoded by the pol gene of HIV-1. EC 2.7.7.-.

AN = /antag: coord IM with specific inhibitor (IM) + REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS (IM)

UI = D019434

 

HIV-2

MS = An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIV and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.

AN = infection: coord IM with HIV INFECTIONS (IM) or AIDS (IM) or their specifics (IM)

UI = D015498

 

HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome

MS = Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.

UI = D039682

 

HL-60 Cells

MS = A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for lymphoid cells but express surface receptors for Fc fragment and complement. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)

AN = promyelocytic leukemia cells; A 11 qualif

UI = D018922

 

HLA Antigens

MS = Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.

AN = human only, standing for Human Leukocyte Antigen; assoc with tissue types in transpl & with various dis; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; HLA goes here; DF: HLA

UI = D006680

 

HLA-A Antigens

MS = Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.

AN = assoc with acceptance or rejection of tissue or organ grafts; DF: HLA A

UI = D015234

 

HLA-A1 Antigen

MS = Human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigen encoded by the A locus on chromosome 6. Individuals bearing this allele are more susceptible to Hodgkin's disease. HLA-A1 is in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B8 and HLA-DR3.

AN = assoc with susceptibility to Hodgkin's dis; DF: HLA A1

UI = D015788

 

HLA-A2 Antigen

MS = Human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigen encoded by the A locus on chromosome 6. The HLA-A2 antigen is associated with recognition of the INFLUENZA A VIRUS.

AN = assoc with recognition of INFLUENZA A VIRUS; DF: HLA A2

UI = D015789

 

HLA-A3 Antigen

MS = Human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigen encoded by the A locus on chromosome 6. The allele occurs with increased frequency in individuals with idiopathic hemochromatosis. HLA-A3 is in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B7 and HLA-DR2.

AN = assoc with hemochromatosis; DF: HLA A3

UI = D015791

 

HLA-B Antigens

MS = Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.

AN = assoc with predisposition to rheumatoid & other autoimmune disord; DF: HLA B

UI = D015235

 

HLA-B27 Antigen

MS = Human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigen encoded by the B locus on chromosome 6. It is strongly associated with acute anterior uveitis, ankylosing spondylitis, and REITER DISEASE.

AN = assoc with acute anterior uveitis, ankylosing spondylitis & Reiter's dis; DF: HLA B27

UI = D015796

 

HLA-B35 Antigen

MS = Human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigen encoded by the B locus on chromosome 6. It is weakly associated with a number of diseases.

AN = weakly assoc with several dis; DF: HLA B35

UI = D015797

 

HLA-B7 Antigen

MS = Human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigen encoded by the B locus on chromosome 6. There is a weak association between the presence of the HLA-B7 antigen and the diseases of narcolepsy and idiopathic hemochromatosis. HLA-B7 is in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-A3 and HLA-DR2.

AN = assoc with narcolepsy & hemochromatosis; DF: HLA B7

UI = D015793

 

HLA-B8 Antigen

MS = Human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigen encoded by the B locus on chromosome 6. It is in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-A1 and HLA-DR3. This explains the fact that though HLA-B8 was originally associated with several diseases, including celiac disease, dermatitis herpetiformis, and myasthenia gravis, their association with HLA-DR3 is now considered more significant.

AN = read MeSH definition; DF: HLA B8

UI = D015795

 

HLA-C Antigens

MS = Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).

AN = assoc with donor/recipient crossmatching; DF: HLA C

UI = D015236

 

HLA-D Antigens

MS = Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.

AN = assoc with possibly immune dis; GEN; prefer specifics; DF: HLA D

UI = D006681

 

HLA-DP Antigens

MS = A group of the D-related HLA antigens (human) found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.

AN = assoc with various dis; DF: HLA DP

UI = D006682

 

HLA-DQ Antigens

MS = A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.

AN = assoc with various dis; DF: HLA DQ

UI = D006683

 

HLA-DR Antigens

MS = A group of D-related human leukocyte antigens that are polymorphic glycoproteins found on lymphoid cells. They consist of alpha and beta chains and their inheritance differs from that of the DQ and DP antigens; their presence seems to be associated with certain skin diseases like pemphigus vulgaris, dermatitis herpetiformis, and type I diabetes.

AN = GEN: prefer specifics; assoc with various skin dis & insulin-depend diabetes mellitus; DF: HLA DR

UI = D006684

 

HLA-DR1 Antigen

MS = Human immune-response, D-related antigen encoded by the D locus on chromosome 6 and found on lymphoid cells.

AN = read MeSH definition; DF: HLA DR1

UI = D015798

 

HLA-DR2 Antigen

MS = Human immune-response, D-related antigen encoded by the D locus on chromosome 6 and found on lymphoid cells. It is in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-A3 and HLA-B7 and is strongly associated with Goodpasture syndrome, multiple sclerosis, and narcolepsy.

AN = assoc with Goodpasture syndrome, multiple sclerosis & narcolepsy; DF: HLA DR2

UI = D015802

 

HLA-DR3 Antigen

MS = Human immune-response, D-related antigen encoded by the D locus on chromosome 6 and found on lymphoid cells. It is in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-A1 and HLA-B8. The HLA-DR3 antigen is strongly associated with celiac disease, Grave's disease, dermatitis herpetiformis, early-age onset myasthenia gravis, systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile diabetes, and opportunistic infections in AIDS.

AN = read MeSH definition for assoc dis; DF: HLA DR3

UI = D015803

 

HLA-DR4 Antigen

MS = Human immune-response, D-related antigen encoded by the D locus on chromosome 6 and found on lymphoid cells. It is strongly associated with rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile diabetes.

AN = assoc with rheumatoid arthritis & insulin-depend diabetes mellitus; DF: HLA DR4

UI = D015804

 

HLA-DR5 Antigen

MS = Human immune-response, D-related antigen encoded by the D-locus on chromosome 6 and found on lymphoid cells. It is associated with Kaposi sarcoma in AIDS and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

AN = assoc with Kaposi sarcoma in AIDS & juvenile rheumatoid arthritis; DF: HLA DR5

UI = D015805

 

HLA-DR6 Antigen

MS = Human immune-response, D-related antigen encoded by the D locus on chromosome 6 and found on lymphoid cells.

AN = read MeSH definition; DF: HLA DR6

UI = D015808

 

HLA-DR7 Antigen

MS = Human immune-response, D-related antigen encoded by the D locus on chromosome 6 and found on lymphoid cells. It is strongly associated with celiac disease and psoriasis vulgaris.

AN = assoc with celiac dis & psoriasis; DF: HLA DR7

UI = D015809

 

HMG-Box Domains

MS = DNA-binding domains present in proteins of the HMG-box superfamily including the archetypal HMGB PROTEINS, a number of sequence specific TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS, and other DNA-BINDING PROTEINS. The domains consist of 70-80 amino acids that form an L-shaped fold from three alpha-helical segments. The domain has the capacity to recognize and/or induce specific DNA structures and effect the accessibility of the DNA to other proteins involved in transcription, recombination, or DNA repair. (Note that not all HIGH MOBILITY GROUP PROTEINS contain this domain.)

AN = HIGH MOBILITY GROUP PROTEINS is also available

UI = D024742

 

HMGA Proteins

MS = Proteins containing AT-HOOK MOTIFS that are rich in arginine and glycine residues. They bind to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA.

UI = D024003

 

HMGA1a Protein

MS = An 11 kD AT-hook motif-containing (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) protein that binds to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA. It is the full-length product of the alternatively-spliced HMGA1 gene and may function as an architectural chromatin binding protein that is involved in transcriptional regulation.

UI = D025741

 

HMGA1b Protein

MS = An AT-hook motif-containing protein (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) that binds to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA. It is a truncated form of HMGA1a protein that is produced by alternative-splicing of the HMGA1 gene. It may function as an architectural chromatin binding protein that is involved in transcriptional regulation.

UI = D025742

 

HMGA1c Protein

MS = An AT-hook-containing (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) nuclear protein that may be involved in retinoid-dependent transcriptional activity.

UI = D025764

 

HMGA2 Protein

MS = An AT-hook-containing (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) nuclear protein that is expressed predominantly in proliferating and undifferentiated mesenchymal cells.

UI = D025743

 

HMGB Proteins

MS = A family of sequence-related proteins similar to HMGB1 PROTEIN that contains specific HMG-BOX DOMAINS.

UI = D024002

 

HMGB1 Protein

MS = A 24 kD HMGB protein that binds to and distorts the minor grove of DNA.

UI = D024243

 

HMGB2 Protein

MS = A 23 kD HMG-box protein that binds to and distorts the minor grove of DNA.

UI = D024261

 

HMGB3 Protein

MS = An HMG-box domain (HMG-BOX DOMAINS) found highly expressed in embryonic tissue and in placenta.

UI = D025765

 

HMGN Proteins

MS = A family of HIGH MOBILITY GROUP PROTEINS that bind to NUCLEOSOMES.

UI = D024001

 

HMGN1 Protein

MS = An evolutionarily-conserved 10 kD nuclear protein that binds NUCLEOSOMES and may be involved in the process of CHROMATIN unfolding.

UI = D024241

 

HMGN2 Protein

MS = An evolutionarily conserved 9 KD nuclear protein that binds NUCLEOSOMES and may be involved in the process of CHROMATIN unfolding.

UI = D024242

 

HN Protein

MS = Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.

AN = IM; coord with specific virus (IM); /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted

UI = D015707

 

Hoarseness

MS = An unnaturally deep or rough quality of voice.

AN = for other qualities of voice VOICE QUALITY & VOICE DISORDERS are available

UI = D006685

 

Hobbies

MS = Leisure activities engaged in for pleasure.

AN = IM; coord with person pursuing the hobby (IM)

UI = D006686

 

Hockey

MS = A game in which two parties of players provided with curved or hooked sticks seek to drive a ball or puck through opposite goals. This applies to either ice hockey or field hockey.

AN = /inj: coord IM with specific inj (IM); /physiol permitted; Manual 30.15.1

UI = D006688

 

Hodgkin Disease

MS = A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue, and the presence of large, usually multinucleate, cells (REED-STERNBERG CELLS) of unknown origin.

AN = neoplastic; do not use /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct

UI = D006689

 

Holarrhena

MS = A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. Members contain holarrhenine (a steroidal alkaloid) and TRICHOTHECENES.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D035462

 

Holcus

MS = A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains Hol l 1 and Hol l 5 allergens.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031752

 

Holidays

MS = Days commemorating events. Holidays also include vacation periods.

UI = D006693

 

Holistic Health

MS = Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.

AN = coord with specific complementary therapy if pertinent

UI = D006694

 

Holistic Nursing

MS = A philosophy of nursing practice that takes into account total patient care, considering the physical, emotional, social, economic, and spiritual needs of patients, their response to their illnesses, and the effect of illness on patients' abilities to meet self-care needs. (From Mosby's Medical, Nursing, & Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed, p745)

AN = SPEC; SPEC qualif; DF: HOLISTIC NURS

UI = D018939

 

Holmium

MS = Holmium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ho, atomic number 67, and atomic weight 164.93.

AN = a rare earth metal; Ho-165; Ho-151-170, except Ho-165 = HOLMIUM (IM) + RADIOISOTOPES (IM)

UI = D006695

 

Holocarboxylase Synthetase Deficiency

MS = The neonatal form of MULTIPLE CARBOXYLASE DEFICIENCY that is caused by a defect or deficiency in holocarboxylase synthetase. HLCS is the enzyme that covalently links biotin to the biotin dependent carboxylases (propionyl-CoA-carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, and beta-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase).

UI = D028922

 

Holocaust

MS = A massive slaughter, especially the systematic mass extermination of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps prior to and during World War II.

AN = not restricted to exterm of Jews by Nazis but when so used, spell in titles & translations with uppercase H: Holocaust

UI = D017767

 

Holoenzymes

MS = Catalytically active enzymes that are formed by the combination of an apoenzyme (APOENZYMES) and its appropriate cofactors and prosthetic groups.

AN = IM GEN only; coord NIM with specific enzyme (IM)

UI = D020035

 

Holography

MS = The recording of images in three-dimensional form on a photographic film by exposing it to a laser beam reflected from the object under study.

AN = DF: HOLOGR

UI = D006696

 

Holoprosencephaly

MS = Anterior midline brain, cranial, and facial malformations resulting from the failure of the embryonic prosencephalon to undergo segmentation and cleavage. Alobar prosencephaly is the most severe form and features anophthalmia; cyclopia; severe MENTAL RETARDATION; CLEFT LIP; CLEFT PALATE; SEIZURES; and microcephaly. Semilobar holoprosencepaly is characterized by hypotelorism, microphthalmia, coloboma, nasal malformations, and variable degrees of mental retardation. Lobar holoprosencephaly is associated with mild (or absent) facial malformations and intellectual abilities that range from mild mental retardation to normal. Holoprosencephlay is associated with CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES.

UI = D016142

 

Holothurin

MS = A highly toxic saponin occurring in the tropical sea cucumber, Holothuriodeae, phylum Echinodermata. This marine toxin is an anionic surfactant, hemolyzing red blood corpuscles. It acts irreversibly to destroy the excitability at cholinergic neuromuscular junctions.

UI = D006697

 

Holtzman Inkblot Test

MS = Personality evaluation based on the scoring of several variables as a result of the subject's responses in perceiving 47 inkblot plates.

UI = D006698

 

Home Care Agencies

MS = Public or private organizations that provide, either directly or through arrangements with other organizations, home health services in the patient's home. (Hospital Administration Terminology, 2d ed)

AN = public or private agencies; coord IM with specific home care (IM)

UI = D018574

 

Home Care Services

MS = Community health and nursing services providing coordinated multiple service home care to the patient. It includes home-offered services provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, hospitals, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.

AN = IM; coord with specific home care (IM); DF: HOME CARE SERV

UI = D006699

 

Home Care Services, Hospital-Based

MS = Hospital-sponsored provision of health services, such as nursing, therapy, and health-related homemaker or social services, in the patient's home. (Hospital Administration Terminology, 2d ed)

AN = IM; DF: HOME CARE SERV HOSP BASED

UI = D018575

 

Home Childbirth

MS = Childbirth taking place in the home.

UI = D006700

 

Home Health Aides

MS = Persons who assist ill, elderly, or disabled persons in the home, carrying out personal care and housekeeping tasks. (From Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms. 2d ed, p202)

AN = coord IM with specific home health care (IM)

UI = D018576

 

Home Infusion Therapy

MS = Use of any infusion therapy on an ambulatory, outpatient, or other non-institutionalized basis.

AN = IM; coord with specific type of infusion or infusion ther (IM); DF: HOME INFUSION THER

UI = D018718

 

Home Nursing

MS = Nursing care given to an individual in the home. The care may be provided by a family member or a friend. Home nursing as care by a non-professional is differentiated from HOME CARE SERVICES provided by professionals: visiting nurse, home health agencies, hospital, or other organized community group.

AN = by non-professionals only (family, friends, etc.): do not confuse with HOME CARE SERVICES (by professional: visiting nurse, public health nurse, etc.)

UI = D006701

 

Homebound Persons

MS = Those unable to leave home without exceptional effort and support; patients (in this condition) who are provided with or are eligible for home health services, including medical treatment and personal care. Persons are considered homebound even if they may be infrequently and briefly absent from home if these absences do not indicate an ability to receive health care in a professional's office or health care facility. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p309)

AN = IM; homebound elderly: coord IM with AGED; AGED, 80 AND OVER or FRAIL ELDERLY (IM) only when aged is point of article

UI = D018577

 

Homeless Persons

MS = Persons who have no permanent residence. The concept excludes nomadic peoples.

AN = not for nomads; note X ref SKID ROW ALCOHOLICS: do not coord with ALCOHOLISM unless particularly discussed as the disease

UI = D006703

 

Homeless Youth

MS = Runaway and homeless children and adolescents living on the streets of cities and having no fixed place of residence.

AN = check the tag CHILD or specific age group; specify geog if pertinent

UI = D018453

 

Homemaker Services

MS = Non-medical support services, such as food preparation and bathing, given by trained personnel to disabled, sick or convalescent individuals in their home.

AN = "non-med support services" in the home; DF: HOMEMAKER SERV

UI = D006704

 

Homeodomain Proteins

MS = Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).

AN = DNA-binding proteins

UI = D018398

 

Homeopathy

MS = A system of therapeutics founded by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), based on the Law of Similars where "like cures like". Diseases are treated by highly diluted substances that cause, in healthy persons, symptoms like those of the disease to be treated. The dilutions are repeated so many times that there is less than one molecule per dose and it is suggested that benefit is from the energetic life force of the original substance.

UI = D006705

 

Homeostasis

MS = The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.

UI = D006706

 

Homes for the Aged

MS = Geriatric long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.

AN = nursing homes for the aged: coord IM with NURSING HOMES (IM); check also tag AGED

UI = D006707

 

Homicide

MS = The killing of one person by another.

UI = D006708

 

Homing Behavior

MS = Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).

UI = D006702

 

Hominidae

MS = Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea). It includes Homo sapiens (modern man), the only human species still in existence.

AN = restrict to evolutionary, anthropological & historical contexts; IM; qualif permitted; check tag HUMAN

UI = D015186

 

Homoarginine

UI = D006709

 

Homocysteine

MS = A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.

AN = do not confuse with HOMOCYSTINE

UI = D006710

 

Homocystine

AN = /urine: consider also HOMOCYSTINURIA; do not confuse with HOMOCYSTEINE

UI = D006711

 

Homocystinuria

MS = An autosomal recessive inborn error of methionine metabolism usually caused by a deficiency of CYSTATHIONINE BETA-SYNTHASE and associated with elevations of homocysteine in plasma and urine. Clinical features include a tall, slender habitus, SCOLIOSIS, arachnodactyly, MUSCLE WEAKNESS, genu varis, thin blond hair, malar flush, lens dislocations, an increased incidence of MENTAL RETARDATION, and a tendency to develop fibrosis of arteries, frequently complicated by CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS and MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p979)

UI = D006712

 

Homogentisic Acid

UI = D006713

 

Homoserine

AN = an amino acid

UI = D006714

 

Homoserine Dehydrogenase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of aspartic beta-semialdehyde to homoserine, which is the branch point in biosynthesis of methionine, lysine, threonine and leucine from aspartic acid. EC 1.1.1.3.

UI = D006715

 

Homosexuality

MS = Sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same sex.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; note category; differentiate from HOMOSEXUALITY, EGO-DYSTONIC: read MeSH definition

UI = D006716

 

Homosexuality, Female

MS = Sexual attraction or relationship between females.

AN = check tag FEMALE

UI = D018452

 

Homosexuality, Male

MS = Sexual attraction or relationship between males.

AN = check tag MALE

UI = D018451

 

Homosteroids

MS = Steroids whose structure has been expanded by the addition of one or more carbon atoms to the ring skeleton in any of the four rings.

UI = D006718

 

Homovanillic Acid

UI = D006719

 

Homozygote

MS = An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.

AN = no qualif

UI = D006720

 

Honduras

UI = D006721

 

Honey

MS = A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.

UI = D006722

 

Hong Kong

MS = The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.

UI = D006723

 

Hoof and Claw

AN = for cat & dog claws (nails): not for chicken claws (whole foot); diseases: coord IM with FOOT DISEASES /vet (IM); DF: HOOF

UI = D006724

 

Hookworm Infections

MS = Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.

AN = GEN: prefer specifics; New World hookworm infection = NECATORIASIS, Old World hookworm infection = ANCYLOSTOMIASIS

UI = D006725

 

Hordeolum

MS = Purulent infection of one of the sebaceous glands of Zeis along the eyelid margin (external) or of the meibomian gland on the conjunctival side of the eyelid (internal).

AN = bact eye infect

UI = D006726

 

Hordeum

MS = A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed grain, barley, is widely used as food.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D001467

 

Hormone Antagonists

MS = Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.

AN = DF: HORMONE ANTAG

UI = D006727

 

Hormone Replacement Therapy

MS = Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.

AN = coord IM with specific hormone /ther use; ESTROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY is also available

UI = D020249

 

Hormones

MS = Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various endocrine glands and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.

AN = GEN only: prefer specifics; /biosyn /physiol permitted; /defic: see TN 194; /chem syn permitted: do not convert to HORMONES, SYNTHETIC; for hormone receptors, see note on RECEPTORS, CELL SURFACE

UI = D006728

 

Hormones, Ectopic

MS = Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.

AN = coord IM with specific hormone (IM) + ectopic site (IM) or neopl term (IM) if applicable

UI = D006729

 

Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists

MS = A collective grouping for both naturally occurring and synthetic hormones, substitutes, and antagonists.

AN = not used for indexing CATALOG: do not use

UI = D006730

 

Hormones, Synthetic

MS = Synthetic chemical compounds that mimic the activity of hormones produced in the body, but differ in structure from naturally occurring hormones.

AN = do not confuse with HORMONES /chem syn; DF: HORMONES SYN

UI = D006731

 

Horner Syndrome

MS = A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)

UI = D006732

 

Horns

AN = animal anat only: not for cutaneous horn ( = SKIN DISEASES or SKIN /abnorm); horn cancer: coord IM with NEOPLASMS /vet (IM) + histol type of neopl /vet (IM)

UI = D006733

 

Horse Diseases

MS = Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.

AN = IM GEN or unspecified; coord IM with specific dis /vet (IM) or specific horse dis (IM); for abnormalities or injuries index under HORSES /abnorm or HORSES /inj; don't forget also HORSES (NIM) & check tag ANIMAL; DF: HORSE DIS

UI = D006734

 

Horseradish Peroxidase

MS = An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.

AN = NIM

UI = D006735

 

Horses

MS = Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.

AN = see X refs at EQUIDAE

UI = D006736

 

Horseshoe Crabs

MS = An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.

AN = an arthropod subclass, not a crustacean crab; /microbiol /parasitol /virol permitted

UI = D006737

 

Hospice Care

MS = Specialized health care, supportive in nature, provided to a dying person. A holistic approach is often taken, providing patients and their families with legal, financial, emotional, or spiritual counseling in addition to meeting patients' immediate physical needs. Care may be provided in the home, in the hospital, in specialized facilities (HOSPICES), or in specially designated areas of long-term care facilities. The concept also includes bereavement care for the family. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)

AN = for the dying; /psychol permitted

UI = D017051

 

Hospices

MS = Facilities or services which are especially devoted to providing palliative and supportive care to the patient with a terminal illness and to the patient's family.

AN = "palliative & supportive care to the dying patient & his family"; specify geog

UI = D006738

 

Hospital Administration

MS = Management of the internal organization of the hospital.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif; DF: HOSP ADMIN

UI = D006739

 

Hospital Administrators

MS = Managerial personnel responsible for implementing policy and directing the activities of hospitals.

UI = D006740

 

Hospital Auxiliaries

MS = Volunteer organizations whose members perform work for the hospital without compensation.

AN = organizations: do not confuse with HOSPITAL VOLUNTEERS, people

UI = D006741

 

Hospital Bed Capacity

MS = The number of beds which a hospital has been designed and constructed to contain. It may also refer to the number of beds set up and staffed for use.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specific capacity; specify geog; do not confuse with BED OCCUPANCY which is for actual no. of beds occupied; DF: HOSP BED CAPAC

UI = D006742

 

Hospital Bed Capacity, 100 to 299

AN = NIM; specify geog; DF: HOSP BED CAPAC 100

UI = D006744

 

Hospital Bed Capacity, 300 to 499

AN = NIM; specify geog; DF: HOSP BED CAPAC 300

UI = D006745

 

Hospital Bed Capacity, 500 and over

AN = IM; specify geog; DF: HOSP BED CAPAC 500

UI = D006746

 

Hospital Bed Capacity, under 100

AN = NIM; specify geog; DF: HOSP BED CAPAC UNDER 100

UI = D006743

 

Hospital Charges

MS = The prices a hospital sets for its services. HOSPITAL COSTS (the direct and indirect expenses incurred by the hospital in providing the services) are one factor in the determination of hospital charges. Other factors may include, for example, profits, competition, and the necessity of recouping the costs of uncompensated care.

AN = prices for services: do not confuse with HOSPITAL COSTS, expenses incurred by hosp in providing services; DF: HOSP CHARGES

UI = D017722

 

Hospital Communication Systems

MS = The transmission of messages to staff and patients within a hospital.

AN = communication with staff or patients

UI = D006747

 

Hospital Costs

MS = The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).

AN = expenses incurred by hosp in providing services: do not confuse with HOSPITAL CHARGES, prices for services; DF: HOSP COSTS

UI = D017721

 

Hospital Departments

MS = Major administrative divisions of the hospital.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; for those not precoord, coord IM with specialty or service (IM); DF: HOSP DEP

UI = D006748

 

Hospital Design and Construction

MS = The architecture, functional design, and construction of hospitals.

AN = differentiate from HOSPITAL PLANNING (develop of plans at a community, state, regional or natl level): HOSPITAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION refers to architecture & decor; DF: HOSP DESIGN

UI = D006749

 

Hospital Distribution Systems

MS = Systems for delivering hospital supplies, food, laundry, etc., to patient care areas.

AN = within a hosp or between hosps

UI = D006750

 

Hospital Information Systems

MS = Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.

AN = DF: HOSP INFORMATION SYSTEMS

UI = D006751

 

Hospital Mortality

MS = A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.

AN = death statist from any cause in hosp patients; DF: HOSP MORTAL

UI = D017052

 

Hospital Planning

MS = Areawide planning for hospitals or planning of a particular hospital unit on the basis of projected consumer need. This does not include hospital design and construction or architectural plans.

AN = differentiate from HOSPITAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION (architecture & decor): HOSPITAL PLANNING is for develop of plans at a community, state, regional or natl level

UI = D006752

 

Hospital Records

MS = Compilations of data on hospital activities and programs; excludes patient medical records.

AN = FORMS AND RECORDS CONTROL, also available, is probably NIM when coord; DF: HOSP RECORDS

UI = D006753

 

Hospital Restructuring

MS = Reorganization of the hospital corporate structure.

AN = restruct the corporate struct

UI = D006754

 

Hospital Shared Services

MS = Cooperation among hospitals for the purpose of sharing various departmental services, e.g., pharmacy, laundry, data processing, etc.

AN = sharing between or among hosp

UI = D006755

 

Hospital Shops

MS = Stores located in hospitals selling merchandise or services for the convenience of patients, staff, and visitors.

AN = for purchases by visitors, patients or staff

UI = D006756

 

Hospital Units

MS = Those areas of the hospital organization not considered departments which provide specialized patient care. They include various hospital special care wards.

AN = special care wards go here or specific unit; consider also PATIENTS' ROOMS & see X refs there

UI = D006757

 

Hospital Volunteers

MS = Individuals who donate their services to the hospital.

AN = do not confuse with HOSPITAL AUXILIARIES, volunteer organizations

UI = D006758

 

Hospital-Patient Relations

MS = Interactions between hospital staff or administrators and patients. Includes guest relations programs designed to improve the image of the hospital and attract patients.

AN = no qualif; DF: HOSP PATIENT RELAT

UI = D015285

 

Hospital-Physician Joint Ventures

MS = A formal financial agreement made between one or more physicians and a hospital to provide ambulatory alternative services to those patients who do not require hospitalization.

AN = DF: JOINT VENTURES

UI = D006759

 

Hospital-Physician Relations

MS = Includes relationships between hospitals, their governing boards, and administrators in regard to physicians, whether or not the physicians are members of the medical staff or have medical staff privileges.

AN = no qualif; DF: HOSP PHYSICIAN RELAT

UI = D018578

 

Hospitalists

MS = Physicians who are employed to work exclusively in hospital settings, primarily for managed care organizations. They are the attending or primary responsible physician for the patient during hospitalization.

UI = D020445

 

Hospitalization

MS = The confinement of a patient in a hospital.

AN = being in a hosp or being placed in a hosp: do not confuse with PATIENT ADMISSION or PATIENT READMISSION

UI = D006760

 

Hospitals

MS = Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.

AN = /legis = LEGISLATION, HOSPITAL or HOSPITALS (IM) + JURISPRUDENCE (IM); note specific hosp depts & specific types of hosp available; hosp admission, discharge & readmiss are available as PATIENT ADMISSION; PATIENT DISCHARGE & PATIENT READMISSION (see notes under each); specify geog: Manual 36.19

UI = D006761

 

Hospitals, Animal

AN = specify geog

UI = D006762

 

Hospitals, Chronic Disease

MS = Hospitals which provide care to patients with long-term illnesses.

AN = coord IM with hosp ownership term (e.g., HOSPITALS, COUNTY; HOSPITALS, PROPRIETARY; etc.) (IM or NIM) if pertinent; specify geog

UI = D006763

 

Hospitals, Community

MS = Institutions with permanent facilities and organized medical staff which provide the full range of hospital services primarily to a neighborhood area.

AN = coord IM with special hosp (e.g., HOSPITALS, CHRONIC DISEASE; HOSPITALS, MATERNITY; etc.) or med specialty (IM or NIM) if pertinent; specify geog

UI = D006764

 

Hospitals, Convalescent

MS = Hospitals which provide care to the patient for the period following an acute illness until health is restored.

AN = coord IM with special hosp or med specialty (IM or NIM) or with hosp ownership term (e.g., HOSPITALS, COUNTY) (IM or NIM) if pertinent; specify geog

UI = D006765

 

Hospitals, County

MS = Hospitals controlled by the county government.

AN = coord IM with special hosp (e.g., HOSPITALS, CHRONIC DISEASE; HOSPITALS, MATERNITY; etc.) or med specialty (IM or NIM) if pertinent; specify geog

UI = D006766

 

Hospitals, District

MS = Government-controlled hospitals which represent the major health facility for a designated geographic area.

AN = coord IM with special hosp (e.g., HOSPITALS, CHRONIC DISEASE; HOSPITALS, MATERNITY; etc.) or med specialty (IM or NIM) if pertinent; specify geog

UI = D006767

 

Hospitals, Federal

MS = Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the U.S. federal government.

AN = US only; add UNITED STATES + state for location if pertinent

UI = D006768

 

Hospitals, General

MS = Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.

AN = coord IM with hosp ownership term (e.g., HOSPITALS, COUNTY; HOSPITALS, PROPRIETARY; etc.) (IM or NIM) if pertinent; specify geog

UI = D006769

 

Hospitals, Group Practice

MS = Hospitals organized and controlled by a group of physicians who practice together and provide each other with mutual support.

AN = coord IM with special hosp (e.g., HOSPITALS, CHRONIC DISEASE; HOSPITALS, MATERNITY; etc.) or med specialty (IM or NIM) if pertinent; specify geog

UI = D006770

 

Hospitals, Maternity

MS = Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.

AN = coord IM with hosp ownership term (e.g., HOSPITALS, COUNTY; HOSPITALS, PROPRIETARY; etc.) (IM or NIM) if pertinent; specify geog; check also tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY

UI = D006771

 

Hospitals, Military

MS = Hospitals which provide care for the military personnel and usually for their dependents.

AN = add UNITED STATES if US or other country, + state for Amer location

UI = D006772

 

Hospitals, Municipal

MS = Hospitals controlled by the city government.

AN = coord IM with special hosp (e.g., HOSPITALS, CHRONIC DISEASE; HOSPITALS, MATERNITY; etc.) or med specialty (IM or NIM) if pertinent; specify city if in MeSH or state, province or country if city is not in MeSH

UI = D006773

 

Hospitals, Osteopathic

MS = Hospitals providing care utilizing the generally accepted medical and surgical methods but with emphasis on the osteopathic system of therapy.

AN = coord IM with hosp ownership term (e.g., HOSPITALS, PROPRIETARY) (IM or NIM) if pertinent; specify geog

UI = D006774

 

Hospitals, Packaged

MS = Hospital equipment and supplies, packaged for long-term storage, sufficient to set up a general hospital in an emergency situation. They are also called Packaged Disaster Hospitals and formerly Civil Defense Emergency Hospitals.

AN = packaged for long-term storage toward an emergency; specify geog

UI = D006775

 

Hospitals, Pediatric

MS = Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.

AN = coord IM with hosp ownership term (e.g., HOSPITALS, COUNTY; HOSPITALS, PROPRIETARY; etc.) (IM or NIM) if pertinent; check also tag CHILD or specific; specify geog

UI = D006776

 

Hospitals, Private

MS = A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)

AN = non-government profit or not-for-profit; coord NIM with special hosp (e.g., HOSPITALS, CHRONIC DISEASE) or med specialty (IM or NIM) if pertinent; specify geog

UI = D016304

 

Hospitals, Proprietary

MS = Hospitals owned and operated by a corporation or an individual that operate on a for-profit basis, also referred to as investor-owned hospitals.

AN = privately organized & controlled hosp operated for profit; coord NIM with special hosp (e.g., HOSPITALS, CHRONIC DISEASE) or med specialty (IM or NIM) if pertinent; specify geog

UI = D006777

 

Hospitals, Psychiatric

MS = Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.

AN = coord IM with hosp ownership term (e.g., HOSPITALS, COUNTY; HOSPITALS, PROPRIETARY; etc.) (IM or NIM) if pertinent; specify geog

UI = D006778

 

Hospitals, Public

MS = Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.

AN = government-owned; coord IM with special hosp (e.g., HOSPITALS, CHRONIC DISEASE; HOSPITALS, MATERNITY; etc.) or med specialty (IM or NIM) if pertinent; specify geog

UI = D006779

 

Hospitals, Religious

MS = Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.

AN = coord IM with specific religion or religious group (NIM) or with special hosp (e.g., HOSPITALS, CHRONIC DISEASE) or med specialty (IM); specify geog

UI = D016519

 

Hospitals, Rural

MS = Hospitals located in a rural area.

AN = coord IM with special hosp or med specialty (IM or NIM) if pertinent; specify geog

UI = D006780

 

Hospitals, Satellite

MS = Those hospitals which are extensions of a main hospital and are wholly or partly administered by that hospital.

AN = extensions of a main hosp & admin by it; coord IM with hosp ownership term (e.g., HOSPITALS, FEDERAL; HOSPITALS, PROPRIETARY; etc.) (IM or NIM) or specialty hosp or med specialty (IM or NIM) if relevant; specify geog

UI = D006781

 

Hospitals, Special

MS = Hospitals which provide care for a single category of illness with facilities and staff directed toward a specific service.

AN = coord IM with med special (IM) & hosp ownership term (e.g., HOSPITALS, COUNTY) (IM or NIM) if pertinent; specify geog; sanatoria & sanitaria (often used interchangeably) can go here but consider also HEALTH RESORTS

UI = D006782

 

Hospitals, State

MS = Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the state government.

AN = coord IM with special hosp (e.g., HOSPITALS, CHRONIC DISEASE; HOSPITALS, MATERNITY; etc.) or med specialty (IM or NIM) if pertinent; specify state if US, province if Canada, or other country

UI = D006783

 

Hospitals, Teaching

MS = Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.

AN = coord IM with special hosp (e.g., HOSPITALS, CHRONIC DISEASE; HOSPITALS, MATERNITY; etc.) or med specialty (IM or NIM) if pertinent; specify geog; consider also INTERNSHIP AND RESIDENCY

UI = D006784

 

Hospitals, University

MS = Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.

AN = coord IM with special hosp (e.g., HOSPITALS, CHRONIC DISEASE; HOSPITALS, MATERNITY; etc.) or med specialty (IM or NIM) if pertinent; specify geog; DF: HOSP UNIV

UI = D006785

 

Hospitals, Urban

MS = Hospitals located in metropolitan areas.

AN = coord IM with special hosp or med specialty (IM or NIM) if pertinent; specify geog

UI = D006786

 

Hospitals, Veterans

MS = Hospitals providing medical care to veterans of wars.

AN = coord IM with special hosp (e.g., HOSPITALS, CHRONIC DISEASE; HOSPITALS, PSYCHIATRIC; etc.) or med specialty (IM or NIM) if pertinent; specify geog

UI = D006787

 

Hospitals, Voluntary

MS = Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.

AN = coord NIM with special hosp (e.g., HOSPITALS, CHRONIC DISEASE) or med specialty (IM or NIM) if pertinent; specify geog

UI = D006788

 

Host Factor 1 Protein

MS = An integration host factor that was orginally identified as a bacterial protein required for the integration of bacteriophage Q beta (ALLOLEVIVIRUS). Its cellular function may be to regulate mRNA stability and processing in that it binds tightly to poly(A) RNA and interferes with ribosome binding.

UI = D035001

 

Host vs Graft Reaction

MS = The immune responses of a host to a graft. A specific response is GRAFT REJECTION.

AN = do not confuse with GRAFT VS HOST REACTION (Cat G) nor GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE (Cat C)

UI = D006789

 

Host-Parasite Relations

MS = The interactions between two organisms, one of which lives at the expense of the other.

AN = coord NIM with host /parasitol (IM) + parasite /physiol or other more specific qualif (IM); DF: HOST PARASITE RELAT

UI = D006790

 

Hosta

MS = A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain steroidal saponins.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031422

 

Hostility

MS = Tendency to feel anger toward and to seek to inflict harm upon a person or group.

AN = no qualif

UI = D006791

 

Hot Flashes

MS = A sudden, temporary sensation of heat predominantly experienced by some women during MENOPAUSE. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

AN = do not confuse with FLUSHING

UI = D019584

 

Hotlines

MS = A direct communication system, usually telephone, established for instant contact. It is designed to provide special information and assistance through trained personnel and is used for counseling, referrals, and emergencies such as poisonings and threatened suicides.

UI = D015277

 

House Calls

MS = Visits to the patient's home by professional personnel for the purpose of diagnosis and/or treatment.

UI = D006792

 

Houseflies

MS = Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.

AN = /microbiol /parasitol /virol permitted; do not use /drug eff for insecticides: TN 111; note X ref MUSCA DOMESTICA but other Musca species & genera of family Muscidae go under MUSCIDAE

UI = D006793

 

Household Articles

MS = Various material objects and items in the home. It includes temporary or permanent machinery and appliances. It does not include furniture or interior furnishings (FURNITURE see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS; INTERIOR FURNISHINGS see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS).

AN = various household items & appliances; do not confuse with HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTS (substances & material used in "housekeeping or personal routine"); BEDDING AND LINENS & COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS are also available; does not include furniture (FURNITURE see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS) or furnishings (INTERIOR FURNISHINGS see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS)

UI = D006794

 

Household Products

MS = Substances or materials used in the course of housekeeping or personal routine.

AN = these are consumable (like housecleaning products): differentiate from HOUSEHOLD ARTICLES, more or less permanent (like rugs)

UI = D006795

 

Housekeeping

MS = The care and management of property.

AN = not restricted to domestic housekeeping; HOUSEKEEPING, HOSPITAL is also available

UI = D006796

 

Housekeeping, Hospital

MS = Hospital department which manages and provides the required housekeeping functions in all areas of the hospital.

UI = D006797

 

Housing

MS = Living facilities for humans.

AN = for persons; for animals use HOUSING, ANIMAL

UI = D006798

 

Housing for the Elderly

MS = Housing arrangements for the elderly or aged, intended to foster independent living. The housing may take the form of group homes or small apartments. It is available to the economically self-supporting but the concept includes housing for the elderly with some physical limitations. The concept should be differentiated from HOMES FOR THE AGED which is restricted to long-term geriatric facilities providing supervised medical and nursing services.

AN = for the able-bodied: do not confuse with HOMES FOR THE AGED, med & nurs care for the aged sick

UI = D016852

 

Housing, Animal

UI = D006799

 

HT29 Cells

MS = Human colonic adenocarcinoma cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells. These cells have mainly been used for studies related to glucose metabolism and hormone receptors.

AN = human colon adenocarcinoma cell line; check HUMAN & do not add ADENOCARCINOMA or COLONIC NEOPLASMS

UI = D019073

 

HTLV-I Antibodies

MS = Antibodies reactive with the HTLV-I ANTIGENS.

AN = do not coord with ANTIBODY FORMATION for /biosyn

UI = D015481

 

HTLV-I Antigens

MS = Antigens associated with HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1.

UI = D015486

 

HTLV-I Infections

AN = GEN or unspecified; consider also LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED & PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC; DF: HTLV I INFECT

UI = D015490

 

HTLV-II Antibodies

MS = Antibodies reactive with the HTLV-II ANTIGENS.

AN = do not coord with ANTIBODY FORMATION for /biosyn

UI = D015482

 

HTLV-II Antigens

MS = Antigens associated with HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2.

UI = D015487

 

HTLV-II Infections

AN = GEN or unspecified; consider also LEUKEMIA, T-CELL, HTLV-II-ASSOCIATED; DF: HTLV II INFECT

UI = D015491

 

Huckleberry Plant

MS = Several plant species of the genus VACCINIUM known for the edible huckleberry fruit.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D029797

 

Human

AN = check tag only; Manual 18.8+ CATALOG: do not use: for indexers only

UI = D006801

 

Human Activities

MS = Activities performed by humans.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D006802

 

Human Body

MS = The human being as a non-anatomical and non-zoological entity. The emphasis is on the philosophical or artistic treatment of the human being, and includes lay and social attitudes toward the body in history. (From J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)

AN = the human body as a whole, viewed from an artistic, cultural, historical, or social perspective; no qualif

UI = D018594

 

Human Characteristics

MS = The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)

UI = D040821

 

Human Development

MS = Continuous sequential changes which occur in the physiological and psychological functions during the individual's life.

AN = no qualif

UI = D006803

 

Human Engineering

MS = The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.

AN = "medical ergonomics": index here but do not coord with MEDICINE

UI = D006804

 

Human Experimentation

MS = The use of humans as investigational subjects.

AN = IM for moral, legal, ethical, sociolog, religious aspect of experiments on humans; coord IM with aspect (IM); do not routinely add for research involving human disease, therapy or physiology

UI = D006805

 

Human Genome Project

MS = A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human genome.

AN = CATALOG: use NAF entry

UI = D016045

 

Human Growth Hormone

MS = A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.

AN = note species specificity; do not confuse with GROWTH HORMONE, unspecified; despite X ref, coord with RECOMBINANT PROTEINS for recombinant human growth hormone

UI = D019382

 

Human Rights

MS = The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.

AN = specify geog

UI = D006806

 

Human T-lymphotropic virus 1

MS = A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-1-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPIC SPASTIC).

AN = infection = HTLV-I INFECTIONS or its specifics; t-cell lymphoma caused by this virus = LYMPHOMA, T-CELL + HTLV-I INFECTIONS

UI = D015368

 

Human T-lymphotropic virus 2

MS = A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2 that can transform normal T-lymphocytes and can replicate in both T- and B-cell lines. The virus is related to but distinct from HTLV-1. It is associated with T-cell hairy cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA, T-CELL, HTLV-II-ASSOCIATED), a relatively benign disease.

AN = infection = HTLV-II INFECTIONS but consider also LEUKEMIA, T-CELL, HTLV-II-ASSOCIATED

UI = D015367

 

Humanism

MS = An ethical system which emphasizes human values and the personal worth of each individual, as well as concern for the dignity and freedom of humankind.

UI = D006808

 

Humanities

UI = D006809

 

Humeral Fractures

AN = fract of humerus except of proximal humerus ( = SHOULDER FRACTURES which includes humeral head, neck & tuberosities)

UI = D006810

 

Humerus

AN = disloc at shoulder = SHOULDER DISLOCATION: do not add HUMERUS

UI = D006811

 

Humic Acids

MS = Allomelanins found in soils, coals, and peat, resulting from the decomposition of organic matter, particularly dead plants. They are a mixture of complex macromolecules having polymeric phenolic structures with the ability to chelate metals, especially iron. (Merck Index, 11th ed)

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D006812

 

Humidity

UI = D006813

 

Humor [Publication Type]

MS = Works consisting of jokes and facetiae relating to a subject.

UI = D020480

 

Humoralism

MS = An ancient Greek medical theory that health and illness result from a balance or imbalance of body fluids or "humors". The humors are blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile.

UI = D019364

 

Humulus

MS = A plant genus in the CANNABACEAE family. Best known for the buds of Humulus lupulus L. used in BEER.

AN = BEER is also available; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATION or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D027582

 

Hungary

AN = in translations of historical articles use spelling People's Republic, not Peoples' nor Peoples

UI = D006814

 

Hunger

MS = The desire for food generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the stomach.

UI = D006815

 

Huntington Disease

MS = A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse CHOREA involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)

UI = D006816

 

Huperzia

MS = A plant genus of the family LYCOPODIACEAE. Members contain huperzine, one of the CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D032501

 

Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle

MS = A cellular subtype of malignant melanoma. It is a pigmented lesion composed of melanocytes occurring on sun-exposed skin, usually the face and neck. The melanocytes are commonly multinucleated with a "starburst" appearance. It is considered by many to be the in situ phase of lentigo maligna melanoma.

AN = coord IM with SKIN NEOPLASMS (IM) + site (IM or NIM) if relevant

UI = D018327

 

Hyacinthus

MS = A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Do not confuse with water hyacinth (EICHHORNIA).

AN = HYACINTH, WATER see EICHHORNIA is also available; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031423

 

Hyalin

MS = A clear, homogenous, structureless, eosinophilic substance occurring in pathological degeneration of tissues.

UI = D006818

 

Hyaline Membrane Disease

MS = A disorder affecting newborn infants (usually premature) characterized pathologically by the development of a hyaline-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory passages. Extensive atelectasis is attributed to the lack of surfactant. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = a resp distress syndrome; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; check tags HUMAN & INFANT, NEWBORN

UI = D006819

 

Hyaluronic Acid

MS = A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the umbilical cord, in vitreous humor, in synovial fluid, in pathologic joints, in group A and C hemolytic streptococci, and in Wharton's jelly. (Merck, 11th ed)

UI = D006820

 

Hyaluronoglucosaminidase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)

UI = D006821

 

Hybrid Cells

AN = A 11 qualif; not for micro-organisms

UI = D006822

 

Hybrid Vigor

MS = The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.

UI = D006823

 

Hybridization, Genetic

MS = The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.

AN = GEN or unspecified production of hybrids; for hybrid nucleic acids use NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION, for hybrid proteins use PROTEIN HYBRIDIZATION: see notes there

UI = D006824

 

Hybridomas

MS = Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure or "monoclonal" antibodies or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent, and continually grow and divide as the neoplastic parent.

AN = note category: not a tumor but "cells artif created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells"; A 11 qualif

UI = D006825

 

Hycanthone

MS = Potentially toxic, but effective antischistosomal agent, it is a metabolite of LUCANTHONE.

UI = D006826

 

Hydantoins

UI = D006827

 

Hydatidiform Mole

MS = Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.

AN = do not confuse with HYDATID CYST see ECHINOCOCCOSIS or specifics; coord IM with UTERINE NEOPLASMS (IM); check the tags FEMALE and PREGNANCY

UI = D006828

 

Hydatidiform Mole, Invasive

MS = A uterine tumor derived from persistent gestational TROPHOBLASTS, most likely after a molar pregnancy (HYADITIFORM MOLE). Invasive hyaditiform mole develops in about 15% of patients after evacuation of a complete mole and less frequently after other types of gestation. It may perforate the MYOMETRIUM and erode uterine vessels causing hemorrhage.

AN = coord IM with UTERINE NEOPLASMS (IM); check the tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY

UI = D002820

 

Hydra

MS = A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.

UI = D006829

 

Hydralazine

MS = A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.

UI = D006830

 

Hydranencephaly

MS = A congenital condition where the greater portions of the cerebral hemispheres and CORPUS STRIATUM are replaced by CSF and glial tissue. The meninges and the skull are well formed, which is consistent with earlier normal embryogenesis of the telencephalon. Bilateral occlusions of the internal carotid arteries in utero is a potential mechanism. Clinical features include intact brainstem reflexes without evidence of higher cortical activity. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p307)

UI = D006832

 

Hydrangea

MS = A plant genus of the family HYDRANGEACEAE. Members contain hydrangenol, thunberginols, hydramacrosides A and B, and secoiridoid glucosides.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031966

 

Hydrangeaceae

MS = A plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D029628

 

Hydrarthrosis

MS = Accumulation of watery fluid in the cavity of a joint. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = fluid in a joint cavity

UI = D006833

 

Hydrastis

MS = A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain BERBERINE.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D039321

 

Hydrazines

AN = do not confuse with HYDRAZONES

UI = D006834

 

Hydrazones

MS = Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

AN = do not confuse with HYDRAZINES

UI = D006835

 

Hydro-Lyases

MS = Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.

AN = do not confuse with HYDROLASES

UI = D006836

 

Hydroa Vacciniforme

MS = A vesicular and bullous eruption having a tendency to recur in summer during childhood and commonly appearing on sun-exposed skin. The lesions are surrounded by an erythematous zone and resemble a vaccination. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = a vesiculobullous skin dis on sun-exposed skin

UI = D006837

 

Hydrobromic Acid

MS = Hydrobromic acid (HBr). A solution of hydrogen bromide gas in water.

UI = D018054

 

Hydrocarbons

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specific hydrocarbon groups or specific hydrocarbons; POLYCYCLIC HYDROCARBONS (D4) & CYCLOPARAFFINS (D2) are also available

UI = D006838

 

Hydrocarbons, Acyclic

MS = Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.

AN = GEN; prefer specifics; used for mapping supplementary chemicals; do not confuse with HYDROCARBONS, ALICYCLIC

UI = D006839

 

Hydrocarbons, Alicyclic

MS = Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen. Three or more carbon atoms are arranged in a cyclic structure and they possess aliphatic properties.

AN = GEN; prefer specifics; used for mapping supplementary chemicals; do not confuse with HYDROCARBONS, ACYCLIC

UI = D006840

 

Hydrocarbons, Aromatic

MS = Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.

AN = GEN; prefer specifics; used for mapping supplementary chemicals

UI = D006841

 

Hydrocarbons, Brominated

UI = D006842

 

Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated

AN = do not confuse with CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS

UI = D006843

 

Hydrocarbons, Cyclic

MS = Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.

AN = GEN; prefer specifics; used for mapping supplementary chemicals; do not confuse with HYDROCARBONS, ACYCLIC

UI = D006844

 

Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated

AN = do not confuse with FLUOROCARBONS nor with CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS

UI = D006845

 

Hydrocarbons, Halogenated

AN = GEN; note specific halogenated hydrocarbon groups available

UI = D006846

 

Hydrocarbons, Iodinated

UI = D006847

 

Hydrocele

MS = A circumscribed collection of fluid, especially a collection of fluid in the tunica vaginalis of the testicle or along the spermatic cord. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = collection of fluid in testis or along spermatic cord; "vaginal hydrocele" is of the tunica vaginalis of the testis, not of the vagina; hydrocele of Nuck's canal is a watery dilatation of the processus vaginalis peritonei (also called Nuck's canal): index under PERITONEAL DISEASES

UI = D006848

 

Hydrocephalus

MS = Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA (and in infants macrocephaly). This condition may be caused by obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid pathways due to neurologic abnormalities, INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions. Impaired resorption of cerebrospinal fluid from the arachnoid villi results in a communicating form of hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus ex-vacuo refers to ventricular dilation that occurs as a result of brain substance loss from CEREBRAL INFARCTION and other conditions.

UI = D006849

 

Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure

MS = A form of compensated hydrocephalus characterized clinically by a slowly progressive gait disorder (see GAIT DISORDERS, NEUROLOGIC), progressive intellectual decline, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. Spinal fluid pressure tends to be in the high normal range. This condition may result from processes which interfere with the absorption of CSF including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, chronic MENINGITIS, and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp631-3)

UI = D006850

 

Hydrocharitaceae

MS = A plant family of the order Hydrocharitales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031321

 

Hydrochloric Acid

MS = A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.

AN = HCl; not for gastric HCl ( = GASTRIC ACID); /analogs = CHLORIDES or specific chloride; = "chlorhydrate" in foreign texts: translate as "hydrochloric acid", not "chlorhydrate"

UI = D006851

 

Hydrochlorothiazide

MS = A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It has been used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.

UI = D006852

 

Hydrocodone

MS = Narcotic analgesic related to CODEINE, but more potent and more addicting by weight. It is used also as cough suppressant.

AN = do not confuse HYDROCODONE X refs with OXYCODONE X refs

UI = D006853

 

Hydrocortisone

MS = The main glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.

AN = /biosyn /physiol permitted; /admin: consider also HYDROCORTISONE, TOPICAL

UI = D006854

 

Hydrocortisone, Topical

MS = Hydrocortisone that is applied topically as an anti-inflammatory agent.

AN = if an analog of hydrocortisone is to be admin topically, index under /analogs with HYDROCORTISONE instead

UI = D006855

 

Hydroflumethiazide

MS = A thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p822)

UI = D006857

 

Hydrofluoric Acid

MS = Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.

AN = hydrogen fluoride in water; can cause burns; /analogs = FLUORIDES or specific fluoride

UI = D006858

 

Hydrogel

MS = A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.

AN = a specific compound; do not confuse with HYDROGELS

UI = D020136

 

Hydrogels

MS = Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

AN = HYDROGEL is also available

UI = D020100

 

Hydrogen

MS = Hydrogen. The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight 1. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.

AN = H or H1; H2 or 2H (superscript) = DEUTERIUM, H2 (subscript) = HYDROGEN; H3 or 3H = TRITIUM; prod of H ions = probably PH

UI = D006859

 

Hydrogen Bonding

MS = A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.

AN = NIM

UI = D006860

 

Hydrogen Cyanide

MS = Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.

AN = toxic liquid or gas; /analogs = CYANIDES

UI = D006856

 

Hydrogen Peroxide

MS = A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.

UI = D006861

 

Hydrogen Sulfide

MS = A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

AN = /analogs = SULFIDES or SULFHYDRYL COMPOUNDS or specifics

UI = D006862

 

Hydrogen-Ion Concentration

AN = NIM

UI = D006863

 

Hydrogenase

MS = An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of ferredoxin and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis. EC 1.18.99.1.

UI = D006864

 

Hydrogenation

MS = Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)

AN = almost never IM; enzymatic hydrogenation: coord NIM with specific enzyme (IM) + substrate (NIM)

UI = D006865

 

Hydrolases

MS = Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.

AN = do not confuse with HYDRO-LYASES

UI = D006867

 

Hydrolysis

MS = The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.

AN = almost never IM

UI = D006868

 

Hydromorphone

MS = An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.

AN = do not confuse with X ref DIHYDROMORPHINE, also an opioid analgesic

UI = D004091

 

Hydronephrosis

MS = A distention of the pelvis and calices of the kidney with urine, as a result of obstruction of the ureter, with accompanying atrophy of the parenchyma of the organ. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = kidney distention with urine

UI = D006869

 

Hydrophid Venoms

MS = Venoms of sea snakes, Hydrophiinae, found around Pacific islands. The venoms contain fewer enzymes and more neuro- or myotoxins than land snakes. The neurotoxic proteins are similar to elapid small, short, or type I neurotoxins, some of which have been characterized.

AN = hydrophids are sea snakes; /antag permitted but consider also ANTIVENINS; /enzymol permitted; TN 241: common & scientific names of various hydrophids

UI = D006870

 

Hydrophidae

MS = A family of sea snakes comprising about 50 species with flattened oar-like tails used as sculls. They are found mostly in the coastal waters of south Asia and Australia. The largest reach a length of almost 9 feet but most species are only about a third as long. They are all venomous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp331-3; Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p159)

AN = a family of poisonous sea snakes

UI = D017857

 

Hydrophobicity

MS = The property of substances of reduced affinity for or repulsion of water.

AN = do not confuse with HYDROPHOBIA see RABIES

UI = D027141

 

Hydrophthalmos

MS = Congenital open-angle glaucoma that results from dysgenesis of the angle structures accompanied by increased intraocular pressure and enlargement of the eye. Treatment is both medical and surgical.

AN = a type of open-angle glaucoma; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D006871

 

Hydrophyllaceae

MS = The waterleaf plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. They have alternate leaves, regular flowers with five-lobed corollas (united petals), and a one- or two-celled ovary.

AN = prefer specific plant; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D029522

 

Hydropneumothorax

MS = A collection of fluid and gas within the pleural cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = pneumothorax with fluid in pleural cavity

UI = D006872

 

Hydroponics

MS = A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)

AN = a plant-growing method; SPEC: SPEC qualif

UI = D018527

 

Hydrops Fetalis

MS = Edema of the entire body due to abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the tissues, associated with severe anemia and occurring in ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL.

AN = edema of entire body of fetus in fetal erythroblastosis; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D015160

 

Hydroquinones

UI = D006873

 

Hydrostatic Pressure

AN = NIM

UI = D006874

 

Hydrotherapy

MS = External application of water for therapeutic purposes.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; external with natural water only, with emphasis on water temperature & motion of water (note X ref WHIRLPOOL BATHS); do not confuse with BALNEOLOGY (see note there); if in doubt, use word of text

UI = D006875

 

Hydrothorax

MS = A collection of watery fluid in the pleural cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = fluid in pleural cavity

UI = D006876

 

Hydroxamic Acids

MS = A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH.

UI = D006877

 

Hydroxides

MS = Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D006878

 

Hydroxocobalamin

MS = A B 12 vitamin. It has been used therapeutically in the treatment and prevention of VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.

UI = D006879

 

Hydroxy Acids

MS = Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.

UI = D006880

 

Hydroxyacetylaminofluorene

MS = A N-hydroxylated derivative of 2-ACETYLAMINOFLUORENE that has demonstrated carcinogenic action.

UI = D006881

 

Hydroxyapatites

MS = A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

AN = in phosphorite deposits & biol tissue

UI = D006882

 

Hydroxybenzoic Acids

MS = Benzoic acid substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.

UI = D006883

 

Hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase

UI = D006884

 

Hydroxybutyrates

MS = Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.

UI = D006885

 

Hydroxychloroquine

MS = A chemotherapeutic agent that acts against erythrocytic forms of malarial parasites. Hydroxychloroquine appears to concentrate in food vacuoles of affected protozoa. It inhibits plasmodial heme polymerase. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p970)

UI = D006886

 

Hydroxycholecalciferols

MS = Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.

UI = D006887

 

Hydroxycholesterols

MS = Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.

UI = D006888

 

Hydroxycorticosteroids

MS = A group of corticosteroids carrying hydroxy groups, usually in the 11- or 17-positions. They comprise the bulk of the corticosteroids used systemically. As they are relatively insoluble in water, salts of various esterified forms are often used for injections or solutions.

UI = D006889

 

Hydroxydopamines

MS = Dopamines with a hydroxy group substituted in one or more positions.

UI = D006892

 

Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids

MS = Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.

UI = D006893

 

Hydroxyestrones

MS = Estrone derivatives substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position. They are important metabolites of estrone and other estrogens.

UI = D006894

 

Hydroxyethylrutoside

MS = Monohydroxyethyl derivative of rutin. Peripheral circulation stimulant used in treatment of venous disorders.

UI = D006896

 

Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid

AN = DF: HIAA

UI = D006897

 

Hydroxyl Radical

MS = The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.

UI = D017665

 

Hydroxylamine

MS = A colorless inorganic compound (HONH2) used in organic synthesis and as a reducing agent, due to its ability to donate nitric oxide.

UI = D019811

 

Hydroxylamines

MS = Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.

UI = D006898

 

Hydroxylation

MS = Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)

AN = almost never IM; enzymatic hydroxylation: coord NIM with MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES (IM) + substrate (NIM) or specific hydroxylase (IM)

UI = D006900

 

Hydroxylysine

MS = A hydroxylated derivative of the amino acid LYSINE that is present in certain collagens.

UI = D006901

 

Hydroxymercuribenzoates

MS = Hydroxylated benzoic acid derivatives that contain mercury. Some of these are used as sulfhydryl reagents in biochemical studies.

UI = D006902

 

Hydroxymethyl and Formyl Transferases

MS = Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hydroxymethyl or formyl groups. EC 2.1.2.

UI = D019877

 

Hydroxymethylbilane Synthase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of hydroxymethylbilane from four molecules of porphobilinogen. EC 4.3.1.8.

AN = /defic: consider also PORPHYRIA

UI = D011163

 

Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases

MS = Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-HYDROXY-3-METHYLGLUTARYL-COENZYME A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.

UI = D006903

 

Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors

MS = Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.

AN = X ref STATINS, HMG-COA: do not confuse with STATIN PROTEIN in SCR

UI = D019161

 

Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductases, NAD-Dependent

MS = Specific hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductases that utilize the cofactor NAD. This class of enzymes performs a catabolic role in microorganisms such as Pseudomonas mevalonii where it oxidatively acetylates MEVALONIC ACID to form 3-HYDROXY-3-METHYLGLUTARYL-COENZYME A and NADH.

AN = do not confuse with HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTATRYL-COA-REDUCTASES, NADP-DEPENDENT

UI = D025781

 

Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. This is a key enzyme in steroid biosynthesis. EC 4.1.3.5.

AN = DF: HMG COA SYNTHASE

UI = D006904

 

Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-Reductases, NADP-dependent

MS = Specific hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductases that utilize the cofactor NAD. In liver enzymes of this class are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis.

AN = do not confuse with HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTATRYL-COA REDUCTASES, NAD-DEPENDENT

UI = D025782

 

Hydroxyphenylazouracil

MS = Inhibitor of DNA replication in gram-positive bacteria.

UI = D006906

 

Hydroxypregnenolone

UI = D006907

 

Hydroxyprogesterones

UI = D006908

 

Hydroxyproline

MS = A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.

UI = D006909

 

Hydroxypropiophenone

UI = D006910

 

Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases

MS = Catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of prostaglandins.

AN = DF: HYDROXYPG DEHYDROGENASES

UI = D006911

 

Hydroxyquinolines

MS = The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.

UI = D006912

 

Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases

MS = Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.

UI = D006913

 

Hydroxysteroids

MS = Steroids in which one or more hydroxy groups have been substituted for hydrogen atoms either within the ring skeleton or on any of the side chains.

UI = D006914

 

Hydroxytestosterones

MS = 17 beta-Hydroxy-4-androsten-3-ones. Testosterone derivatives formed by the substitution of one or more hydroxyl groups in any position.

UI = D006915

 

Hydroxytryptophol

MS = 5-Hydroxy-indole-3-ethanol.

UI = D006917

 

Hydroxyurea

MS = An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.

UI = D006918

 

Hydroxyzine

MS = A histamine H1 receptor antagonist that is effective in the treatment of chronic urticaria, dermatitis, and histamine-mediated pruritus. Unlike its major metabolite CETIRIZINE, it does cause drowsiness. It is also effective as an antiemetic, for relief of anxiety and tension, and as a sedative.

UI = D006919

 

Hydrozoa

MS = A class in the phylum CNIDARIA which alternates between polyp and medusa forms during their life cycle. There are over 2700 species in five orders.

AN = do not confuse X ref LIRIOPE TETRAPHYLLA with LIRIOPE PLANT

UI = D037402

 

Hygiene

MS = The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)

AN = hygiene as a principle & personal hygiene go here; dental hygiene = DENTAL HYGIENE see ORAL HYGIENE; industrial hygiene = INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE see OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH; mental hygiene = MENTAL HYGIENE see MENTAL HEALTH; MILITARY HYGIENE is also available

UI = D006920

 

Hygromycin B

MS = Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. It is used as an anthelmintic against swine infections by large roundworms, nodular worms, and whipworms.

UI = D006921

 

Hylobates

MS = A genus of the family HYLOBATIDAE consisting of six species. The members of this genus inhabit rain forests in southeast Asia. They are arboreal and differ from other anthropoids in the great length of their arms and very slender bodies and limbs. Their major means of locomotion is by swinging from branch to branch by their arms. Hylobates means dweller in the trees. Some authors refer to Symphalangus and Nomascus as Hylobates. The six genera include: H. concolor (crested or black gibbon), H. hoolock (Hoolock gibbon), H. klossii (Kloss's gibbon; dwarf siamang), H. lar (common gibbon), H. pileatus (pileated gibbon), and H. syndactylus (siamang). H. lar is also known as H. agilis (lar gibbon), H. moloch (agile gibbon), and H. muelleri (silvery gibbon).

AN = gibbon, not monkey & not ape; NIM when exper animal: no qualif; when IM, qualif permitted; diseases: coord IM with specific dis /vet (IM)

UI = D006922

 

Hylobatidae

MS = A family of the suborder HAPLORHINI comprising only one genus, HYLOBATES (also called Nomascus or Symphalangus).

AN = a family with only one genus (HYLOBATES): gibbon, not monkey & not ape; IM; qualif permitted; diseases: coord IM with specific dis /vet (IM)

UI = D016674

 

Hymecromone

MS = A coumarin derivative possessing properties as a spasmolytic, choleretic and light-protective agent. It is also used in analytical chemistry for the determination of nitric acid.

UI = D006923

 

Hymen

UI = D006924

 

Hymenolepiasis

MS = Infection with tapeworms of the genus Hymenolepis.

AN = tapeworm infect

UI = D006925

 

Hymenolepis

MS = A genus of small tapeworms of birds and mammals.

AN = infection = HYMENOLEPIASIS; for antigens, coord with ANTIGENS, HELMINTH, for antibodies, coord with ANTIBODIES, HELMINTH

UI = D006926

 

Hymenoptera

MS = An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.

AN = includes ANTS, BEES, WASPS; /microbiol /parasitol /virol permitted

UI = D006927

 

Hymenostomatida

MS = An order of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include a ventral oral area and a well-defined buccal cavity. It comprises three suborders: TETRAHYMENINA, Ophryoglenina, and PENICULINA.

AN = an order of ciliate protozoa

UI = D016803

 

Hyoid Bone

AN = mylohyoid ridge or groove is indexed under MANDIBLE

UI = D006928

 

Hyoscyamus

MS = A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE which contains TROPANES.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D032304

 

Hyperacusis

MS = An abnormally disproportionate increase in the sensation of loudness in response to auditory stimuli of normal volume. COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; STAPES SURGERY; and other disorders may be associated with this condition.

UI = D012001

 

Hyperaldosteronism

MS = An abnormality of electrolyte function caused by excessive secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = caused by adrenal hyperfunction; do not confuse with HYPOALDOSTERONISM

UI = D006929

 

Hyperalgesia

MS = An increased sensation to painful stimuli that may follow damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve. Hyperalgesia can occur both at the site of tissue damage (primary hyperalgesia) and in the surrounding undamaged areas (secondary hyperalgesia). (Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p386)

AN = coord with TOUCH or HEAT if pertinent

UI = D006930

 

Hyperammonemia

MS = Metabolic disorder characterized by elevated level of ammonia in blood.

UI = D022124

 

Hyperamylasemia

MS = A condition with abnormally elevated level of AMYLASES in the serum. Hyperamylasemia due to PANCREATITIS or other causes may be differentiated by identifying the amylase isoenzymes.

UI = D034321

 

Hyperandrogenism

MS = A state characterized or caused by an excessive secretion of androgens by the adrenal cortex, ovaries, or testes. The clinical significance in males is negligible, so the term is used most commonly with reference to the female. The common manifestations in women are hirsutism and virilism. It is often caused by ovarian disease (particularly the POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME) and by adrenal diseases (particularly ADRENAL GLAND HYPERFUNCTION).

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specific manifestation such as HIRSUTISM; VIRILISM; etc.

UI = D017588

 

Hyperargininemia

MS = A rare autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle. It is caused by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme type I ARGINASE. Arginine is elevated in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and periodic hyperammonemia may occur. Disease onset is usually in infancy or early childhood. Clinical manifestations include seizures, microcephaly, progressive mental impairment, hypotonia, ataxia, spastic diplegia, and quadriparesis. (From Hum Genet 1993 Mar;91(1):1-5; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p51)

UI = D020162

 

Hyperbaric Oxygenation

MS = The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisims, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; coord IM with disease /ther (IM), not /drug ther

UI = D006931

 

Hyperbilirubinemia

MS = Pathologic process consisting of an abnormal increase in the amount of BILIRUBIN in the circulating blood, which may result in JAUNDICE.

UI = D006932

 

Hyperbilirubinemia, Hereditary

MS = Inborn errors of bilirubin metabolism resulting in excessive amounts of bilirubin in the circulating blood, either because of increased bilirubin production or because of delayed clearance of bilirubin from the blood.

AN = do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D006933

 

Hypercalcemia

MS = Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.

AN = high blood calcium levels; do not confuse with HYPOCALCEMIA; X ref is also called Burnett's syndrome or milk-drinker's syndrome

UI = D006934

 

Hypercapnia

MS = A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.

AN = CARBON DIOXIDE/blood is also available

UI = D006935

 

Hypercementosis

MS = A regressive change of teeth characterized by excessive development of secondary cementum on the tooth surface. It may occur on any part of the root, but the apical two-thirds are most commonly affected. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = excessive develop of secondary cementum on tooth surface

UI = D006936

 

Hypercholesterolemia

MS = Abnormally high levels of cholesterol in the blood.

AN = high blood cholesterol levels

UI = D006937

 

Hypercholesterolemia, Familial

MS = A familial disorder characterized by increased plasma concentration of cholesterol carried in low density lipoproteins (LDL) and by a deficiency in a cell surface receptor which regulates LDL degradation and cholesterol synthesis.

AN = do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D006938

 

Hyperemesis Gravidarum

MS = Pernicious vomiting of pregnancy. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = excessive vomiting in pregn; check tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY

UI = D006939

 

Hyperemia

MS = The presence of an increased amount of blood in a part or organ. (Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = increased amount of blood in an organ

UI = D006940

 

Hypereosinophilic Syndrome

MS = A heterogeneous group of disorders with the common feature of prolonged eosinophilia of unknown cause and associated organ system dysfunction, including the heart, central nervous system, kidneys, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. There is a massive increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood, mimicking leukemia, and extensive eosinophilic infiltration of the various organs. It is often referred to as idiopathic.

AN = do not confuse X ref LOEFFLER'S ENDOCARDITIS with LOEFFLER SYNDROME see PULMONARY EOSINOPHILIA

UI = D017681

 

Hyperesthesia

MS = Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.

AN = do not confuse with HYPESTHESIA, diminished sensitivity; coord with TOUCH or HEAT if pertinent

UI = D006941

 

Hypergammaglobulinemia

MS = An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the blood. It is seen frequently in chronic infectious diseases. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = coord IM with specific immunoglobulin (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) (IM); for light-chain gammopathy see TN 226; for heavy-chain gammopathy index under HEAVY CHAIN DISEASE (IM) + specific heavy chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN, ALPHA CHAIN; IMMUNOGLOBULIN, DELTA CHAIN, etc.) (NIM) (TN 226)

UI = D006942

 

Hyperglycemia

MS = Abnormally increased content of sugar in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = high blood sugar levels; do not confuse with HYPOGLYCEMIA; obese hyperglycemic mice go under MICE, OBESE: do not index under HYPERGLYCEMIA or OBESITY unless particularly discussed as disease; Somogyi effect or rebound hyperglycemia: index under HYPERGLYCEMIA /chem ind + DIABETES MELLITUS /drug ther + INSULIN /adv eff; "induced hyperglycemia" in disease states or physiol studies: index under BLOOD GLUCOSE, not HYPERGLYCEMIA

UI = D006943

 

Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma

MS = A syndrome consisting of extreme hyperglycemia, serum hyperosmolarity and dehydration in the absence of ketosis and acidosis.

AN = a type of diabetic coma; not for nonketotic hyperglycinemia (= AMINO ACID METAB INBORN ERR + GLYCINE/metab); DF: HHNC or HHNK

UI = D006944

 

Hyperglycinemia, Nonketotic

MS = An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by deficiencies in the mitochondrial GLYCINE cleavage system; an enzyme system with four components: P-, T-, H-, and L-proteins. Deficiency of the P-protein is the most prevalent form. Neonatal and juvenile presentations have been reported. Neonatal onset is more common and may be fatal. Clinical features include SEIZURES; hypotonia; APNEA; and COMA. When the illness presents in childhood there tends to be an associated progressive DEMENTIA accompanied by extrapyramidal signs. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p46; Jpn J Hum Genet 1997 Mar;42(1):13-22)

UI = D020158

 

Hypergravity

MS = Condition wherein the force of gravity is greater than or is increased above that on the surface of the earth. This is expressed as being greater than 1 g.

AN = natural or artificial; do not confuse with HYPOGRAVITY; /adv eff permitted

UI = D018471

 

Hyperhidrosis

MS = Excessive sweating. In the localized type, the most frequent sites are the palms, soles, axillae, inguinal folds, and the perineal area. Its chief cause is thought to be emotional. Generalized hyperhidrosis may be induced by a hot, humid environment, by fever, or by vigorous exercise.

AN = excessive sweating; do not confuse with HYPOHIDROSIS, reduced sweating

UI = D006945

 

Hyperhomocysteinemia

MS = An inborn error of methionone metabolism which produces an excess of homocysteine in the blood. It is often caused by a deficiency of CYSTATHIONINE BETA-SYNTHASE and is a risk factor for coronary vascular disease.

UI = D020138

 

Hypericum

MS = Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATION or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D020902

 

Hyperinsulinemia

MS = Excessively high blood insulin levels. It should be differentiated from HYPERINSULINISM, excessive secretion of insulin by the pancreatic islets, in that hyperinsulinemia may be the result of a variety of conditions, such as obesity and pregnancy. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = excessively high blood insulin levels from a variety of clin or exper conditions: do not confuse with HYPERINSULINISM, excessive insulin secretion by islet cells

UI = D019171

 

Hyperinsulinism

MS = Excessive secretion of INSULIN by the pancreatic islets, resulting in hypoglycemia. (Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = excessive insulin secretion by pancreas: do not confuse with HYPERINSULINEMIA, excessively high blood insulin levels resulting from a variety of clinical & exper conditions

UI = D006946

 

Hyperkalemia

MS = Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = high blood potassium levels; do not confuse with HYPOKALEMIA

UI = D006947

 

Hyperkeratosis, Epidermolytic

MS = A form of congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by erythroderma and severe hyperkeratosis. It is manifested at birth by blisters followed by the appearance of thickened, horny, verruciform scales over the entire body, but accentuated in flexural areas.

AN = a form of congen ichthyosis; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D017488

 

Hyperkinesis

MS = Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.

AN = human & animal; MOTOR ACTIVITY is also available: see note there; do not confuse with MYOKYMIA or ISAACS SYNDROME

UI = D006948

 

Hyperlipidemia

MS = An excess of lipids in the blood.

AN = high blood lipid levels; for X ref DYSLIPIDEMIA, prefer specific indentions; /drug ther: consider also ANTILIPEMIC AGENTS

UI = D006949

 

Hyperlipidemia, Familial Combined

MS = A disorder genetically distinct from the other inherited hyperlipidemias characterized by the type II or type IV lipoprotein pattern (the pattern may change from time to time and the lipid level may be normal at one time and abnormal at another time).

AN = familial or acquired

UI = D006950

 

Hyperlipoproteinemia

MS = Metabolic disease characterized by excess plasma LIPOPROTEINS.

AN = do not confuse with HYPOLIPOPROTEINEMIA; familial or acquired; GEN or unspecified: specific Types I-V are available

UI = D006951

 

Hyperlipoproteinemia Type III

MS = A rather uncommon form of familial hyperlipemia characterized by the presence of lipoproteins of abnormal composition. The main abnormal lipoproteins are called beta-VLDL and have a different apoprotein content and a higher proportion of cholesterol relative to triglyceride than normal VLDL.

AN = do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D006952

 

Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV

MS = A familial disorder characterized by an isolated elevation in the plasma level of endogenously synthesized triglyceride carried in VLDL. It is considered to be an autosomal dominant trait.

AN = do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D006953

 

Hyperlipoproteinemia Type V

MS = A severe familial adult-onset hypertriglyceridemia different from that due to lipoprotein lipase deficiency.

AN = do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D006954

 

Hyperlysinemias

MS = A group of inherited metabolic disorders which have in common elevations of serum LYSINE levels. Enzyme deficiencies of alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase and the SACCHAROPINE DEHYDROGENASES have been associated with hyperlysinemia. Clinical manifestations include mental retardation, recurrent emesis, hypotonia, lethargy, diarrhea, and developmental delay. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p56)

UI = D020167

 

Hypermedia

MS = Computerized compilations of information units (text, sound, graphics, and/or video) interconnected by logical nonlinear linkages that enable users to follow optimal paths through the material and also the systems used to create and display this information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)

AN = a type of computer software

UI = D019146

 

Hypernatremia

MS = Excessive amount of sodium in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = high blood sodium levels; do not confuse with HYPONATREMIA

UI = D006955

 

Hyperopia

MS = A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = refractive error; note X ref

UI = D006956

 

Hyperostosis

MS = Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.

UI = D015576

 

Hyperostosis Frontalis Interna

MS = Thickening of the inner table of the frontal bone, which may be associated with hypertrichosis and obesity. It most commonly affects women near menopause.

AN = frontalis refers to frontal bone of skull

UI = D006957

 

Hyperostosis, Cortical, Congenital

MS = A disease of young infants characterized by soft tissue swellings over the affected bones, fever, and irritability, and marked by periods of remission and exacerbation. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = cortical refers to cortex of bone; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D006958

 

Hyperostosis, Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal

MS = A disease of elderly men characterized by large osteophytes that bridge vertebrae and ossification of ligaments and tendon insertions.

AN = DF: DISH

UI = D004057

 

Hyperostosis, Sternocostoclavicular

MS = A rare, benign rheumatologic disorder or syndrome characterized by hyperostosis and soft tissue ossification between the clavicles and the anterior part of the upper ribs. It is often associated with the dermatologic disorder palmoplantar pustulosis, particularly in Japan. Careful diagnosis is required to distinguish it from psoriatic arthritis, OSTEITIS DEFORMANS, and other diseases. Spondylitis of pustulosis palmaris et plantaris is one of the possible causes; also, evidence suggests one origin may be bone infection. Bone imaging is especially useful for diagnosis. It was originally described by Sonozaki in 1974.

AN = a type of rheum dis; DF: SCCH

UI = D015218

 

Hyperotreti

MS = A group of invertebrate chordates (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATES) in the subphylum Craniota. They include the single order Myxiniformes, which comprise various HAGFISHES.

UI = D024561

 

Hyperoxaluria

MS = Excretion of an excessive amount of oxalate in the urine.

AN = HYPEROXALURIA, PRIMARY is also available

UI = D006959

 

Hyperoxaluria, Primary

MS = Either of two genetic disorders characterized by urinary excretion of large amounts of oxalate, with nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, early onset of renal failure, and often a generalized deposit of calcium oxalate, resulting from a defect in glyoxalate metabolism.

AN = do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D006960

 

Hyperoxia

MS = An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.

AN = restrict to dis or clin state in humans or higher animals: do not confuse with hyperoxic state in lower animals or micro-organisms ( = OXYGEN or AEROBIOSIS); do not confuse with HYPOXIA see ANOXIA

UI = D018496

 

Hyperparathyroidism

MS = Abnormally increased activity of the parathyroid glands, which may be primary or secondary (HYPERPARATHYRODISM, SECONDARY). Primary hyperparathyroidism is associated with neoplasia or hyperplasia. The excess of parathyroid hormone leads to alteration in function of bone, renal tubules, and gastrointestinal mucosa. (Dorland, 27th ed)

UI = D006961

 

Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary

UI = D006962

 

Hyperphagia

MS = Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.

UI = D006963

 

Hyperpigmentation

MS = Excessive pigmentation of the skin, usually as a result of increased epidermal or dermal melanin pigmentation, hypermelanosis. Hyperpigmentation can be localized or generalized. The condition may arise from exposure to light, chemicals or other substances, or from a primary metabolic imbalance.

AN = do not confuse with HYPOPIGMENTATION

UI = D017495

 

Hyperpituitarism

MS = Inappropriate secretion of anterior pituitary gland hormones. The most common hormones involved in over-secretion are GROWTH HORMONE (which may cause ACROMEGALY) and PROLACTIN (which results in HYPERPROLACTINEMIA). THYROTROPIN; luteinizing hormone (LH); CORTICOTROPIN; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE may also be secreted at inappropriate levels. Hypersecretion syndromes are frequently associated with the presence of a pituitary ADENOMA (see also PITUITARY NEOPLASMS).

AN = coord with specific hormone/secret if pertinent

UI = D006964

 

Hyperplasia

MS = An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.

AN = see MeSH definition for differentiation from HYPERTROPHY; coord NIM with organ/pathol (IM); many specific hyperplasia terms are available; check MeSH; congen adrenal hyperplasia = ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL but non-congen adrenal hyperplasia = ADRENAL GLANDS /pathol (IM) + HYPERPLASIA (NIM); note HYPERPLASIA, REACTIVE LYMPHOID see PSEUDOLYMPHOMA; GIANT LYMPH NODE HYPERPLASIA is also available

UI = D006965

 

Hyperprolactinemia

MS = Increased levels of prolactin in the blood, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the pituitary gland, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)

UI = D006966

 

Hypersensitivity

MS = Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.

AN = IM; use qualif with caution; /drug ther: consider also ANTI-ALLERGIC AGENTS; atopic = HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE; to food = FOOD HYPERSENSITIVITY; to light = PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS; RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY is also available; in occup or environ exposure MULTIPLE CHEMICAL SENSITIVITY is also available

UI = D006967

 

Hypersensitivity, Delayed

MS = An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.

AN = IM; use qualif with caution; /chem ind: coord IM with DRUG HYPERSENSITIVITY or specifics (IM)

UI = D006968

 

Hypersensitivity, Immediate

MS = Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.

AN = /chem ind: coord with DRUG HYPERSENSITIVITY or specifics

UI = D006969

 

Hypersomnolence, Idiopathic

MS = A sleep disorder of central nervous system origin characterized by prolonged nocturnal sleep and periods of daytime drowsiness. Affected individuals experience difficulty with awakening in the morning and may have associated sleep drunkenness, automatic behaviors, and memory disturbances. This condition differs from narcolepsy in that daytime sleep periods are longer, there is no association with CATAPLEXY, and the multiple sleep latency onset test does not record sleep-onset rapid eye movement sleep. (From Chokroverty, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, pp319-20; Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998 Apr:52(2):125-129)

UI = D020177

 

Hypersplenism

MS = Condition characterized by splenomegaly, some reduction in the number of circulating blood cells in the presence of a normal or hyperactive bone marrow, and the potential for reversal by splenectomy.

AN = increase in splenic hemolytic function: do not confuse with SPLENOMEGALY, increase in spleen size

UI = D006971

 

Hypertelorism

MS = Abnormal increase in the interorbital distance due to overdevelopment of the lesser wings of the sphenoid.

AN = a form of craniofacial dysostosis; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D006972

 

Hypertension

MS = Persistently high arterial blood pressure. Currently accepted threshold levels are 140 mm Hg systolic and 90 mm Hg diastolic pressure.

AN = only blood pressure; not for intracranial or intraocular pressure; relation to BLOOD PRESSURE: Manual 23.27+; /drug ther: consider also ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS; Goldblatt kidney or Goldblatt hypertension is HYPERTENSION, GOLDBLATT see HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR; hypertension with kidney dis is probably HYPERTENSION, RENAL, not HYPERTENSION; EPH (Edema, Proteinuria, Hypertension) = GESTOSIS, EPH & do not index under HYPERTENSION unless it is particularly discussed; venous hypertension: index under VENOUS PRESSURE (IM) & do not coord with HYPERTENSION

UI = D006973

 

Hypertension, Malignant

MS = Severe hypertension characterized by papilledema and necrosis of small arteries and arterioles. The diastolic pressure is generally greater than 130 mm Hg.

AN = malignant does not refer to neoplasm: refers to severe hypertension with papilledema & arterial necrosis

UI = D006974

 

Hypertension, Portal

MS = Abnormally increased pressure in the portal venous system; frequently seen in cirrhosis of the liver and in other conditions which cause obstruction of the portal vein.

AN = increased pressure in portal venous system

UI = D006975

 

Hypertension, Pulmonary

MS = Increased pressure within the pulmonary circulation, usually secondary to cardiac or pulmonary disease.

AN = increased pressure within pulm circ; DF: HYPERTENSION PULM

UI = D006976

 

Hypertension, Renal

MS = Hypertension due to renal diseases, especially chronic parenchymal disease. Hypertension as a result of compression or obstruction of the renal artery or its branches is HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR.

AN = hypertension caused by kidney dis; coord IM with specific kidney dis (IM) if pertinent; Goldblatt hypertension or Goldblatt kidney is HYPERTENSION, GOLDBLATT see HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR

UI = D006977

 

Hypertension, Renovascular

MS = Hypertension due to compression or obstruction of the renal artery or its branches.

AN = hypertension caused by compression or obstruct of renal artery or branches: do not routinely index also under RENAL ARTERY or RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION

UI = D006978

 

Hypertensive Encephalopathy

MS = Brain dysfunction or damage resulting from MALIGNANT HYPERTENSION, usually associated with a diastolic blood pressure in excess of 125 mmHg. Clinical manifestations include headache, nausea, emesis, seizures, altered mental status (in some cases progressing to COMA); PAPILLEDEMA; and RETINAL HEMORRHAGE. Focal neurologic signs may develop. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with the formation of ischemic lesions in the brain (BRAIN ISCHEMIA).

UI = D020343

 

Hyperthermia, Induced

MS = Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.

AN = differentiate X ref FEVER THERAPY from FEVER /ther ( = treatment of fever); coord IM with disease /ther (IM); do not index under specific type of induction unless the point of the article & then probably only NIM

UI = D006979

 

Hyperthyroidism

MS = Excessive functional activity of the thyroid gland.

AN = THYROTOXICOSIS & THYROID CRISIS are available: do not make a diagnosis: use term of author

UI = D006980

 

Hyperthyroxinemia

MS = Excess of thyroxine in the blood.

UI = D006981

 

Hypertonic Solutions

MS = Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.

AN = GEN; NIM; no qualif when NIM coord; SALINE SOLUTION, HYPERTONIC & GLUCOSE SOLUTION, HYPERTONIC are available; DF: HYPERTONIC SOL

UI = D006982

 

Hypertrichosis

MS = Localized or generalized excess hair. The concept does not include HIRSUTISM, which is excess hair in females and children with an adult male pattern of distribution.

AN = "localized or generalized excess hair": differentiate from HIRSUTISM, "excess hair in females & child with an adult male pattern distrib"; do not confuse with HYPOTRICHOSIS

UI = D006983

 

Hypertriglyceridemia

MS = Condition of elevated triglyceride concentration in the blood; an inherited form occurs in familial hyperlipoproteinemia IIb and HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IV. It has been linked to higher risk of heart disease and arteriosclerosis.

AN = high blood triglyceride levels; consider also HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA, FAMILIAL see HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IV & the adult-onset hypertriglyceridemia of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE V & the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL

UI = D015228

 

Hypertrophy

MS = General increase in bulk of a part or organ, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells.

AN = NIM; GEN or unspecified: prefer many precoord organ/hypertrophy terms, like PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; see MeSH definition for differentiation from HYPERPLASIA; coord with organ /pathol

UI = D006984

 

Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular

MS = Enlargement of the left ventricle of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

UI = D017379

 

Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular

MS = Enlargement of the right ventricle of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is often attributed to pulmonary hypertension and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

UI = D017380

 

Hyperuricemia

MS = Excessive URIC ACID or urate in blood as defined by its solubility in plasma at 37 degrees C; greater than 0.42mmol per liter (7.0mg/dL) in men or 0.36mmol per liter (6.0mg/dL) in women. This condition is caused by overproduction of uric acid or impaired renal clearance. Hyperuricemia can be acquired, drug-induced or genetically determined (LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME). It is associated with HYPERTENSION and GOUT.

UI = D033461

 

Hyperventilation

MS = A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.

AN = respiratory, not environmental; hyperventilation syndrome: coord IM with /psychol + emotional aspect (IM or NIM)

UI = D006985

 

Hypervitaminosis A

MS = A symptom complex resulting from ingestion of excessive amounts of vitamin A.

AN = excessive intake of vitamin A

UI = D006986

 

Hypesthesia

MS = Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.

AN = do not confuse with HYPERESTHESIA, increased sensitivity; coord with TOUCH or HEAT if pertinent

UI = D006987

 

Hyphae

MS = Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.

AN = coord with specific fungus

UI = D025301

 

Hyphema

MS = Bleeding in the anterior chamber of the eye.

UI = D006988

 

Hyphomicrobium

MS = A genus of rod-shaped, oval, or bean-shaped bacteria found in soil and fresh water. Polar prosthecae are present and cells reproduce by budding at the tips of the prosthecae. Cells of this genus are aerobic and grow best with one-carbon compounds. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)

UI = D020582

 

Hypnosis

MS = A state of increased receptivity to suggestion and direction, initially induced by the influence of another person.

AN = a psychother technique

UI = D006990

 

Hypnosis, Anesthetic

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D006991

 

Hypnosis, Dental

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; DF: HYPNOSIS DENT

UI = D006992

 

Hypnotics and Sedatives

MS = Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.

AN = CNS depressants; GEN: prefer specifics; DF: HYPNOTICS

UI = D006993

 

Hypoalbuminemia

MS = A condition in which albumin level in blood (SERUM ALBUMIN) is below the normal range. Hypoalbuminemia may be due to decreased hepatic albumin synthesis, increased albumin catabolism, altered albumin distribution, or albumin loss through the urine (ALBUMINURIA).

UI = D034141

 

Hypoaldosteronism

MS = Aldosterone deficiency, usually associated with hypoadrenalism, and characterized by hypotension, dehydration, and a tendency to excrete excessive amounts of sodium. A selective aldosterone deficiency resulting from low renin production is called hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism. (From Dorland, 28th ed; Stedman, 26th ed)

AN = caused by adrenal hypofunction; do not confuse with HYPERALDOSTERONISM or PSEUDOHYPOALDOSTERONISM

UI = D006994

 

Hypobetalipoproteinemia

MS = A disease in which the low density lipoprotein (beta-lipoprotein) concentrations are far below normal.

AN = low blood beta-lipoprotein levels; do not confuse with ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D006995

 

Hypocalcemia

MS = Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = low blood calcium levels; do not confuse with HYPERCALCEMIA

UI = D006996

 

Hypocapnia

MS = Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.

AN = CARBON DIOXIDE/blood is also available

UI = D016857

 

Hypochlorous Acid

MS = An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.

UI = D006997

 

Hypochondriasis

MS = Preoccupation with the fear of having, or the idea that one has, a serious disease based on the person's misinterpretation of bodily symptoms. (APA, DSM-IV)

UI = D006998

 

Hypocotyl

MS = The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)

AN = part of plant stem below the seed leaf; IM GEN or unspecified; coord probably IM in genetics & space physiol, NIM in pharmacognosy, with specific plant (IM or NIM)

UI = D018546

 

Hypocrea

MS = A genus of fungus in the family Hypocreaceae, order HYPOCREALES. Anamorphs include TRICHODERMA.

UI = D035901

 

Hypocreales

MS = An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.

UI = D006999

 

Hypodermyiasis

MS = Infestation with larvae of the genus Hypoderma, the warble fly.

AN = Hypoderma is indexed under DIPTERA

UI = D007000

 

Hypogastric Plexus

MS = A complex network of nerve fibers in the pelvic region. The hypogastric plexus distributes sympathetic fibers from the lumbar paravertebral ganglia and the aortic plexus, parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerve, and visceral afferents. The bilateral pelvic plexus is in its lateral extent.

AN = a network of autonomic nerve fibers in the pelvic region

UI = D007001

 

Hypoglossal Nerve

MS = The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.

AN = neopl = HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE DISEASES (IM) + CRANIAL NERVE NEOPLASMS (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D007002

 

Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases

MS = Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.

AN = neopl: coord IM with CRANIAL NERVE NEOPLASMS (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D020437

 

Hypoglycemia

MS = An abnormally diminished concentration of glucose in the blood, which may lead to tremulousness, cold sweat, piloerection, hypothermia, and headache, accompanied by irritability, confusion, hallucinations, bizarre behavior, and ultimately, convulsions and coma. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = low blood sugar levels; do not confuse with HYPERGLYCEMIA

UI = D007003

 

Hypoglycemic Agents

MS = Agents which lower the blood glucose level.

UI = D007004

 

Hypoglycins

MS = Methylene cyclopropyl alanine and congeners isolated from the unripe edible fruit of the akee plant (Blighia sapida); hypoglycin B is the gamma-glutamyl congener of hypoglycin A; they are very toxic and teratogenic, causing a fall in blood glucose due to the interference of fatty acid and leucine metabolism which leads to vomiting, liver damage, convulsions and death; the syndrome is called Jamaican Vomiting Sickness.

AN = toxins; /biosyn permitted if by plant; /pois: coord IM with PLANT POISONING (IM) for Jamaican vomiting sickness

UI = D007005

 

Hypogonadism

MS = Condition resulting from or characterized by abnormally decreased functional activity of the gonads, with retardation of growth and sexual development.

AN = for male or female; do not routinely interpret hypogonadism in male as EUNUCHISM: use terminology of author

UI = D007006

 

Hypogravity

MS = Condition wherein the force of gravity is less than or is decreased below that on the surface of the earth. This is expressed as being between 0 and 1 g.

AN = natural or artificial; do not confuse with HYPERGRAVITY; /adv eff permitted

UI = D018472

 

Hypohidrosis

MS = Abnormally diminished or absent perspiration. Both generalized and segmented (reduced or absent sweating in circumscribed locations) forms of the disease are usually associated with other underlying conditions.

AN = diminished sweating; do not confuse with HYPERHIDROSIS, excessive sweating

UI = D007007

 

Hypokalemia

MS = Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = low blood potassium levels; do not confuse with HYPERKALEMIA

UI = D007008

 

Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis

MS = An autosomal dominant familial disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of skeletal muscle weakness associated with falls in serum potassium levels. The condition usually presents in the first or second decade of life with attacks of trunk and leg paresis during sleep or shortly after awakening. Symptoms may persist for hours to days and generally are precipitated by exercise or a meal high in carbohydrates. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1483)

UI = D020514

 

Hypokinesia

MS = Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility; and other conditions.

UI = D018476

 

Hypolipoproteinemia

MS = The presence of abnormally low levels of lipoproteins in the serum.

AN = low blood lipoprotein levels; do not confuse with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA; hypolipoproteinemia, VLDL (hypoprebetalipoproteinemia): coord IM with LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL /blood (IM); hypolipoproteinemia, HDL (hypoalphalipoproteinemia): coord IM with LIPOPROTEINS, HDL/blood (IM); hypolipoproteinemia, LDL = HYPOBETALIPOPROTEINEMIA; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; for near absence of apolipoprotein B, use ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA

UI = D007009

 

Hyponatremia

MS = Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = low blood sodium levels; do not confuse with HYPERNATREMIA

UI = D007010

 

Hypoparathyroidism

UI = D007011

 

Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms

MS = Tumors or cancer of the HYPOPHARYNX.

AN = coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D007012

 

Hypopharynx

MS = The portion of the pharynx between the inferior portion of the oropharynx and the larynx.

AN = inflammation: coord IM with PHARYNGITIS (IM)

UI = D007013

 

Hypophosphatasia

MS = A genetic metabolic disorder resulting from serum and bone alkaline phosphatase deficiency leading to hypercalcemia, ethanolamine phosphatemia, and ethanolamine phosphaturia. Clinical manifestations include severe skeletal defects resembling vitamin D-resistant rickets, failure of the calvarium to calcify, dyspnea, cyanosis, vomiting, constipation, renal calcinosis, failure to thrive, disorders of movement, beading of the costochondral junction, and rachitic bone changes. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = defic of blood phosphatases; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D007014

 

Hypophosphatemia

MS = An abnormally decreased level of phosphates in the blood. The manifestations include hemolysis, lassitude, weakness, and convulsions. It may be found in hyperparathyroidism, rickets, osteomalacia, and several renal tubular abnormalities. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = a clin entity (abnorm decreased blood phosphates): not for transient decreased blood phosphate levels ( = PHOSPHATES /blood); do not use /congen ( = HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA, FAMILIAL)

UI = D017674

 

Hypophosphatemia, Familial

MS = Familial disorder characterized by hypophosphatemia associated with decreased renal tubular reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus. It is sometimes associated with osteomalacia or rickets which do not respond to the usual doses of vitamin D.

AN = a clin entity: not for decreased blood phosphate levels ( = PHOSPHATES /blood); do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D007015

 

Hypophysectomy

MS = Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D007016

 

Hypophysectomy, Chemical

MS = Total or subtotal destruction of the pituitary gland by chemical injection. It is usually achieved by injection of ethyl alcohol via trans-sphenoidal cannulation under stereotaxic control. It is usually performed for the treatment of intractable pain.

AN = coord IM with disease /ther (IM), not /surg; usually performed with ethyl alcohol so do not index under ETHANOL unless particularly discussed

UI = D007017

 

Hypopigmentation

MS = A condition caused by a deficiency or a loss of melanin pigmentation in the epidermis, also known as hypomelanosis. Hypopigmentation can be localized or generalized, and may result from genetic defects, trauma, inflammation, or infections.

AN = do not confuse with HYPERPIGMENTATION

UI = D017496

 

Hypopituitarism

MS = Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.

UI = D007018

 

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

MS = A condition characterized by underdevelopment of the left cardiac chambers, atresia or stenosis of the aorta or mitral valve or both, and hypoplasia of the aorta. These anomalies are a common cause of heart failure in early infancy.

AN = a congen heart defect; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D018636

 

Hypoproteinemia

MS = A condition in which total serum protein level is below the normal range. Hypoproteinemia can be caused by protein malabsorption in the gastrointestinal tract, EDEMA, or PROTEINURIA.

UI = D007019

 

Hypoprothrombinemias

MS = Absence or reduced levels of prothrombin in the blood.

UI = D007020

 

Hypospadias

MS = A developmental anomaly in the male in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis or on the perineum.

AN = a urethral-penile abnorm; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASE

UI = D007021

 

Hypotension

MS = Abnormally low blood pressure seen in shock but not necessarily indicative of it. (Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = only blood pressure; not for intracranial pressure; relation to BLOOD PRESSURE: Manual 23.27+

UI = D007022

 

Hypotension, Controlled

AN = note category: a technique; do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D007023

 

Hypotension, Orthostatic

MS = A drop in blood pressure upon standing or after standing motionless in a static position.

UI = D007024

 

Hypothalamic Area, Lateral

MS = This area is bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of fornix. The medial edge of the internal capsule and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p710)

AN = diseases: coord IM with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES (IM)

UI = D007026

 

Hypothalamic Diseases

MS = Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

AN = GEN: prefer specifics; coord IM with specific part of hypothalamus (IM)

UI = D007027

 

Hypothalamic Hormones

MS = Hormones isolated from the hypothalamus which exercise control over other organs, primarily the pituitary gland. Well-known members include certain pituitary hormone-releasing hormones and pituitary hormone release inhibiting hormones. Vasopressin and oxytocin which are found in the posterior pituitary may also be secreted by the hypothalamus but are not grouped here (PITUITARY HORMONES, POSTERIOR).

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; /biosyn /physiol permitted; consider also PITUITARY HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONES & PITUITARY HORMONE RELEASE INHIBITING HORMONES & their specifics

UI = D007028

 

Hypothalamic Neoplasms

MS = Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

AN = coord IM with site in hypothalamus (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D007029

 

Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System

MS = A neuroendocrine system of neurons, fiber tracts, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels which produces and releases pituitary hormones into the systemic circulation.

AN = hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis: coord HYPOTHALAMO-HYPOPHYSEAL SYSTEM + PITUITARY-ADRENAL SYSTEM; emphasis here is on interrelation between hypothalamus & pituitary: do not use as a substitute for HYPOTHALAMUS & PITUITARY GLAND as entities; restrict use to MeSH definition; diseases: coord IM with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES (IM)

UI = D007030

 

Hypothalamus

MS = Ventral part of the diencephalon extending from the region of the optic chiasm to the caudal border of the mammillary bodies and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the third ventricle.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specific structures & areas in the hypothalamus; HYPOTHALAMO-HYPOPHYSEAL SYSTEM is available for the hypothalamus-pituitary relationship

UI = D007031

 

Hypothalamus, Anterior

MS = The front portion of the HYPOTHALAMUS separated into the preoptic region and the supraoptic region. The preoptic region is made up of the periventricular gray matter of the rostral portion of the third ventricle and contains the preoptic ventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus. The supraoptic region contains the PARAVENTRICULAR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS, the ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS.

AN = diseases: coord IM with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES (IM); do not confuse with ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS

UI = D007032

 

Hypothalamus, Middle

MS = That middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, and ventromedial nuclei, and the tuber cinereum. The pituitary gland can also be considered part of the middle hypothalamic region.

AN = diseases: coord IM with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES (IM); HYPOTHALAMIC AREA, LATERAL is also available

UI = D007033

 

Hypothalamus, Posterior

MS = The part of the hypothalamus posterior to the middle region consisting of several nuclei including the medial mamillary nucleus, lateral mamillary nucleus, and posterior hypothalamic nucleus (posterior hypothalamic area). The posterior hypothalamic area is concerned with control of sympathetic responses and is sensitive to conditions of decreasing temperature and controls the mechanisms for the conservation and increased production of heat.

AN = diseases: coord IM with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES (IM)

UI = D007034

 

Hypothermia

MS = Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals; in man usually accidental or unintentional.

AN = do not confuse with HYPOTHERMIA, INDUCED for cooling of organs during surg or for ther; relation to BODY TEMPERATURE: see Manual 23.27+

UI = D007035

 

Hypothermia, Induced

MS = Abnormally low body temperature intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means.

AN = induced by cold or by drugs; cooling of organs during surg or for ther goes here; do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D007036

 

Hypothyroidism

MS = The clinical syndrome that results from decreased secretion of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland. It leads to a slowing of metabolic processes and in its most severe form to the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides in the skin, causing a nonpitting edema termed myxedema. Cretinism is the congenital form leading to abnormalities of intellectual and physical development. (Bennett, et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 20th ed)

UI = D007037

 

Hypotonic Solutions

MS = Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.

AN = GEN; NIM; no qualif when NIM coord; SALINE SOLUTION, HYPERTONIC & GLUCOSE SOLUTION, HYPERTONIC are available; DF: HYPOTONIC SOL

UI = D007038

 

Hypotrichida

MS = An order of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include a dorsoventrally flattened, highly mobile body with a unique cursorial type of locomotion.

AN = an order of ciliate protozoa

UI = D016810

 

Hypotrichosis

MS = Presence of less than the normal amount of hair. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = less than normal amt of hair; do not confuse with HYPERTRICHOSIS, localized or generalized excess hair

UI = D007039

 

Hypoventilation

MS = A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.

AN = respiratory, not environmental

UI = D007040

 

Hypovolemia

MS = An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).

UI = D020896

 

Hypoxanthine

MS = A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.

AN = do not confuse with HYPOXANTHINES

UI = D019271

 

Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC 2.4.2.8.

AN = /defic: consider also LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME or GOUT; DF: note short X ref

UI = D007041

 

Hypoxanthines

MS = Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.

AN = do not confuse with the specific chem HYPOXANTHINE; hypoxanthine riboside, hypoxanthine ribonucleoside = INOSINE

UI = D007042

 

Hypoxia, Brain

MS = A reduction in brain oxygen supply. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1109-11)

AN = do not confuse with BRAIN ISCHEMIA, a reduced blood supply

UI = D002534

 

Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain

MS = A disorder characterized by a reduction in oxygen supply (HYPOXIA) combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain. This condition may result from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.

UI = D020925

 

Hypoxis

MS = Hypoxis is a plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypoxidaceae).

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D027802

 

Hyptis

MS = A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains 5-methoxydehydropodophyllotoxin (a PODOPHYLLOTOXIN) and other LIGNANS.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031331

 

Hyraxes

MS = Any of certain small mammals of the order Hyracoidea.

AN = IM; qualif permitted

UI = D007043

 

Hysterectomy

MS = Excision of the uterus.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; abdominal: do not coord with ABDOMEN

UI = D007044

 

Hysterectomy, Vaginal

MS = Removal of the uterus through the vagina.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D007045

 

Hysteria

MS = Historical term for a chronic, but fluctuating, disorder beginning in early life and characterized by recurrent and multiple somatic complaints not apparently due to physical illness. This diagnosis is not used in contemporary practice.

UI = D007046

 

Hysterosalpingography

MS = Radiography of the uterus and fallopian tubes after the injection of a contrast medium.

AN = NIM; /drug eff /rad eff permitted; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; DF: HYSTEROSALPINGOGR

UI = D007047

 

Hysteroscopes

MS = Endoscopes for examining the interior of the uterus.

UI = D020702

 

Hysteroscopy

MS = Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the uterus.

UI = D015907

 

Hysterotomy

MS = An incision in the uterus, performed through either the abdomen or the vagina.

UI = D020883