Glossary of Bio-Medical Terms



I Blood-Group System

MS = A blood group related both to the ABO and P systems that includes several different antigens found in most people on erythrocytes, in milk, and in saliva. The antibodies react only at low temperatures.

AN = IM; coord with disease /blood (IM), not /immunol nor /genet; TN 230

UI = D007048


I-kappa B

MS = Family of inhibitory proteins which bind to the rel family of transcription factors and modulate their activity. The transcription factor NF-KAPPA B is generally present in an inactive cytoplasmic form, bound to inhibitory IkB proteins. Cell stimulation causes its dissociation and translocation of active NF-kappa B to the nucleus.

UI = D020672


Iatrogenic Disease

MS = Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by the patient during the course of treatment.

AN = IM for general or as coord with specific iatrogenic dis; article must discuss dis as iatrogenic: do not routinely index adv eff of drugs or procedures as iatrogenic

UI = D007049



MS = One of several indole alkaloids extracted from Tabernanthe iboga, Baill. It has a complex pharmacological profile, and interacts with multiple systems of neurotransmission. Ibogaine has psychoactive properties and appears to modulate tolerance to opiates.

UI = D007050


Ibotenic Acid

MS = A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.

UI = D007051



MS = A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.

UI = D007052



UI = D007053


Ice Cream

MS = A frozen dairy food made from cream or butterfat, milk, sugar, and flavorings. Frozen custard and French-type ice creams also contain eggs.

UI = D007054



UI = D007055


Ichthyosiform Erythroderma, Congenital

MS = Designation for several severe forms of ichthyosis, present at birth, that are characterized by hyperkeratotic scaling. Infants may be born encased in a collodion membrane which begins shedding within 24 hours. This is followed in about two weeks by persistent generalized scaling. The forms include bullous (HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC), non-bullous (ICHTHYOSIS, LAMELLAR), wet type, and dry type.

AN = an ichthyosis rather than an erythroderma; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D016113



MS = Any of several generalized skin disorders characterized by dryness, roughness, and scaliness, due to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum epidermis. Most are genetic, but some are acquired, developing in association with other systemic disease or genetic syndrome.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; unspecified dryness of skin is indexed under SKIN DISEASES, not here

UI = D007057


Ichthyosis Vulgaris

MS = Most common form of ICHTHYOSIS characterized by prominent scaling especially on the exterior surfaces of the extremities. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.

AN = do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D016112


Ichthyosis, Lamellar

MS = A chronic, congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Infants are usually born encased in a collodion membrane which sheds within a few weeks. Scaling is generalized and marked with grayish-brown quadrilateral scales, adherent at their centers and free at the edges. In some cases, scales are so thick that they resemble armored plate.

AN = do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D017490


Ichthyosis, X-Linked

MS = Chronic form of ichthyosis that is inherited as a sex-linked recessive trait carried on the X-chromosome and transmitted to the male offspring. It is characterized by severe scaling, especially on the extremities, and is associated with steroid sulfatase deficiency.

AN = do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D016114



MS = A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of five genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis, Pylodictus) conprising several species, two of which are eyeless.

UI = D007059



MS = The part of the personality structure which harbors the unconscious instinctive desires and strivings of the individual.

AN = no qualif

UI = D007060



UI = D007061



MS = An orally administered anthracycline antibiotic. The compound has shown activity against breast cancer, lymphomas and leukemias, together with potential for reduced cardiac toxicity.

UI = D015255



MS = An alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist. It has been used experimentally to test the binding activity of other chemicals.

UI = D019329


Identification (Psychology)

MS = A process by which an individual unconsciously endeavors to pattern himself after another. This process is also important in the development of the personality, particularly the superego or conscience, which is modeled largely on the behavior of adult significant others.


UI = D007062


Identity Crisis

MS = Chaotic concept of self wherein one's role in life appears to be an insoluble dilemma often expressed by isolation, withdrawal, rebellion and extremism.

AN = no qualif

UI = D007063



MS = An analog of DEOXYURIDINE that inhibits viral DNA synthesis. The drug is used as an antiviral agent.

UI = D007065


Iduronate Sulfatase

MS = An enzyme that specifically cleaves the ester sulfate of iduronic acid. Its deficiency has been demonstrated in Hunter's syndrome, which is characterized by an excess of dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate. EC

UI = D007066


Iduronic Acid

MS = Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.

UI = D007067



MS = An enzyme that hydrolyzes iduronosidic linkages in desulfated dermatan. Deficiency of this enzyme produces Hurler's syndrome. EC

AN = /defic: consider also MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS I

UI = D007068



MS = Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.

UI = D007069


IgA Deficiency

MS = A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.


UI = D017098


IgG Deficiency

MS = A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.


UI = D017099



MS = Large herbivorous tropical American lizards.

AN = IM; qualif permitted

UI = D007076



MS = A genus of the family BROMOVIRIDAE which infects mainly woody plants. Species are divided into ten subgroups. Tobacco streak virus is the type species.

AN = coord IM with specific plant /virol or tree /virol

UI = D019179


Ileal Diseases

MS = Diseases of the ileum including the ileocecal valve.

AN = inflamm dis = ILEITIS

UI = D007077


Ileal Neoplasms

MS = Neoplasms of the ileum including the ileocecal valve.

AN = /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D007078



UI = D007079


Ileocecal Valve

AN = diseases: coord IM with ILEAL DISEASES (IM); neopl: coord IM with ILEAL NEOPLASMS (IM); ileocecal intussusception or invagination: index under ILEOCECAL VALVE (IM) + INTUSSUSCEPTION (IM) + ILEAL DISEASES (NIM) but not also CECAL DISEASES

UI = D007080



MS = Surgical creation of an external opening into the ileum for fecal diversion or drainage. Loop or tube procedures are most often employed.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; restrict to ileal stoma on abdom wall: do not confuse with JEJUNOILEAL BYPASS

UI = D007081



AN = do not confuse with ILEUS or ILIUM; /surg: consider ILEOSTOMY; inflammation = ILEITIS; ileocecal intussusception or invagination: index under ILEOCECAL VALVE (IM) + INTUSSUSCEPTION (IM) + ILEAL DISEASES (NIM); ileocolic intussusception: index under ILEAL DISEASES (IM) + INTUSSUSCEPTION (IM) but not also COLONIC DISEASES; ileum as smooth muscle is probably MUSCLE, SMOOTH (IM) + ILEUM (NIM); jejuno-ileal bypass or shunt or jejuno-ileostomy in obesity: index under JEJUNOILEAL BYPASS & not also under OBESITY (note XR ref)

UI = D007082



MS = A plant genus of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE. The common name of 'holly' usually refers to this genus but may sometimes refer to similar looking plants of the MAHONIA or QUERCUS genus.

AN = X ref HOLLY: restrict to ILEX; SEA HOLLY see ERYNGIUM is also available; X ref ALDER, BLACK: ALDER see ALNUS is also available; prefer specific plant; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D030017


Ilex guayusa

MS = A plant species of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE known for ritual use by Amazonian Jivaro Indians.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATION or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D030018


Ilex paraguariensis

MS = A plant species of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE. An infusion of the leaves is commonly drunk in South America for stimulating effect in much the same manner as coffee is in other cultures.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATION or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D030019


Ilex vomitoria

MS = A plant species of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE. It has been used to induce vomiting in purification rites.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATION or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D030020


Iliac Aneurysm

MS = An aneurysm of the common, internal, or external iliac arteries.

AN = aneurysm of an iliac artery; dissecting aneurysm: coord IM with ANEURYSM, DISSECTING (IM); rupture: coord with ANEURYSM, RUPTURED (IM) or if spontaneous, with RUPTURE, SPONTANEOUS (NIM)

UI = D017543


Iliac Artery

MS = Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.

UI = D007083


Iliac Vein

MS = A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.

UI = D007084



AN = part of the hip; do not confuse with ILEUM, part of the small intestine

UI = D007085


Ilizarov Technique

MS = A bone fixation technique using an external fixator (FIXATORS, EXTERNAL) for lengthening limbs, correcting pseudarthroses and other deformities, and assisting the healing of otherwise hopeless traumatic or pathological fractures and infections, such as chronic osteomyelitis. The method was devised by the Russian orthopedic surgeon Gavriil Abramovich Ilizarov (1921-1992). (From Bull Hosp Jt Dis 1992 Summer;52(1):1)

AN = bone fixation method using an external fixator; do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D018889



MS = The state of birth outside of wedlock. It may refer to the offspring or the parents.

AN = the child or the unwed parents; if with ref to parents, coord IM with PARENTS (IM)

UI = D007086



MS = A plant genus of the family Illiciaceae, order Illiciales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have evergreen, aromatic leaves and bisexual flowers. The female portion of the flower consists of 7 to 15 carpels.

AN = distinguish X ref STAR ANISE from Anise (PIMPINELLA); coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D029523



AN = CHICAGO is also available

UI = D007087



MS = The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.

AN = do not confuse with DELUSIONS

UI = D007088



MS = An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.

UI = D016285


Image Cytometry

MS = A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.

AN = a cytophotometry technique

UI = D019044


Image Enhancement

MS = Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural microscopy, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.


UI = D007089


Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted

MS = Computer systems developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc.


UI = D007090


Image Processing, Computer-Assisted

MS = A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.

UI = D007091


Imagery (Psychotherapy)

MS = The use of mental images produced by the imagination as a form of psychotherapy. It can be classified by the modality of its content: visual, verbal, auditory, olfactory, tactile, gustatory, or kinesthetic. Common themes derive from nature imagery (e.g., forests and mountains), water imagery (e.g., brooks and oceans), travel imagery, etc. Imagery is used in the treatment of mental disorders and in helping patients cope with other diseases. Imagery often forms a part of HYPNOSIS, of AUTOGENIC TRAINING, of RELAXATION TECHNIQUES, and of BEHAVIOR THERAPY. (From Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, vol. 4, pp29-30, 1994)

AN = a psychother technique; do not confuse with the imagery or mental images produced by the imagination ( = IMAGINATION); DF: IMAGERY

UI = D019018



MS = A new pattern of perceptual or ideational material derived from past experience.

AN = note see related IMAGERY (PSYCHOTHERAPY): use of images & imagery as a psychother technique so do not confuse with images produced by the imagination ( = IMAGINATION)

UI = D007092


Imaging, Three-Dimensional

MS = The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic or photographic methods. For example three 3-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.

AN = for analysis of images use IMAGE ANALYSIS, COMPUTER-ASSISTED

UI = D021621



AN = includes imidazolines, imidazolidines

UI = D007093



AN = do not confuse with IMINES or AMIDES

UI = D007094



MS = One of ANTIPROTOZOAL AGENTS used especially against BABESIA in livestock. Toxicity has been reported.

UI = D007095



MS = Esters of the hypothetical imidic acids. They react with amines or amino acids to form amidines and are therefore used to modify protein structures and as cross-linking agents.

AN = reagents; D25-26 qualif

UI = D007096



AN = do not confuse with IMIDES or AMINES

UI = D007097


Imino Acids

AN = do not confuse with AMINO ACIDS; DF: AA SECOND for X ref

UI = D007098



MS = Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.

UI = D015378



MS = The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.

UI = D007099


Imitative Behavior

MS = The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.

AN = human & animal

UI = D007100


Immediate-Early Proteins

MS = Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.

AN = proteins coded by immed-early genes: read MeSH definition for history of "immediate-early"

UI = D017874



MS = The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.

UI = D007101


Immersion Foot

MS = A condition of the feet produced by prolonged exposure of the feet to water. Exposure for 48 hours or more to warm water causes tropical immersion foot or warm-water immersion foot common in Vietnam where troops were exposed to prolonged or repeated wading in paddy fields or streams. Trench foot results from prolonged exposure to cold, without actual freezing. It was common in trench warfare during World War I, when soldiers stood, sometimes for hours, in trenches with a few inches of cold water in them. (Andrews' Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p27)

UI = D007102



MS = The act of rendering whole or part of the body immobile, whether accidental or deliberate. This also refers to the state of immobility.

AN = restrict to deliberate act of rendering whole or part of human or animal body immobile or for the state of immobility; in Russian lit "hypokinesia" = IMMOBILIZATION, not see related HYPOKINESIA (see definition there); deliberate or accidental; immobilization of animals for easy handling can go here if by tranquilizers or methods other than RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL (see note there); "bedridden patients" can go here; not for immobilization of fractures ( = FRACTURE FIXATION: see TN 87); TN 166: do not confuse with BED REST

UI = D007103


Immune Adherence Reaction

MS = A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.

UI = D007104


Immune Complex Diseases

MS = Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other systemic immunologic diseases including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.

AN = dis caused by deposition of antigen-antibody complexes with resultant damage to tissue; "immune complex" = IMMUNE COMPLEX see ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEX

UI = D007105


Immune Sera

MS = Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by antigen injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.

UI = D007106


Immune System

MS = The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.

AN = GEN: prefer specifics; /physiol: consider also IMMUNITY & its indentions

UI = D007107


Immune Tolerance

MS = The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.

AN = do not confuse X ref IMMUNOSUPPRESSION (PHYSIOLOGY) with the Cat E immunol technique IMMUNOSUPPRESSION: Manual 28.21.1

UI = D007108



MS = Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.

AN = IM GEN only for "immunity" or "immune process"; NIM with specific disease /immunol (IM); "immune response": index under ANTIBODY FORMATION (usually discusses B-lymphocytes) or IMMUNITY, CELLULAR (usually discusses T-lymphocytes); TN 242

UI = D007109


Immunity, Active

MS = Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.

AN = IM general only, NIM with specific disease /immunol (IM): TN 242

UI = D007110


Immunity, Cellular

MS = Those manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.

AN = IM general only, NIM with specific disease /immunol (IM): TN 242

UI = D007111


Immunity, Herd

MS = The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.

AN = human & animal

UI = D032521


Immunity, Maternally-Acquired

MS = Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.

AN = of fetus by transplacental transfer or of neonate through colostrum or milk; do not add MATERNAL-FETAL EXCHANGE; note category: do not confuse with IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE (Cat E); TN 242

UI = D007112


Immunity, Mucosal

MS = Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.

AN = IM general only, NIM with specific disease /immunol (IM)

UI = D018928


Immunity, Natural

MS = The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from non-specific mechanisms such as naturally occurring antiviral and bactericidal substances, PHAGOCYTOSIS, and constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE, oxygen tension, and age.

AN = coord IM or NIM with specific disease /immunol (IM)

UI = D007113



MS = Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. Active immunization involves administration of antigens or immunologic adjuvants. Passive immunization involves administration of immune sera or lymphocytes or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).

AN = IM; do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D007114


Immunization Programs

MS = Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.

AN = IM; coord with specific dis /prev (IM) or specific vaccine or other type of immunization (IM); specify geog if pertinent

UI = D017589


Immunization Schedule

MS = Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.

AN = no qualif

UI = D007115


Immunization, Passive

MS = Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).

AN = IM; note category: do not confuse with IMMUNITY, MATERNALLY-ACQUIRED (Cat G) nor X ref PASSIVE TRANSFER OF IMMUNITY with passive transfer of immune tolerance ( = IMMUNOSUPPRESSION) nor X ref IMMUNOGLOBULIN THERAPY with IMMUNOGLOBULINS, INTRAVENOUS

UI = D007116


Immunization, Secondary

MS = Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.

UI = D007117



MS = Immunochemical assay or detection of a substance by serologic or immunologic methods. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; NIM

UI = D007118


Immunoblastic Lymphadenopathy

MS = A disorder characterized by proliferation of arborizing small vessels, prominent immunoblastic proliferations and amorphous acidophilic interstitial material. Clinical manifestations include fever, sweats, weight loss, generalized lymphadenopathy and frequently hepatosplenomegaly.

UI = D007119



MS = Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.

AN = GEN or unspecified: prefer specifics; DF: IMMUNOBLOT

UI = D015151



MS = Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.

AN = GEN; avoid as coord; SPEC qualif when IM; no qualif when NIM

UI = D007120



MS = The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.

AN = "immunologically competent cells" = B-LYMPHOCYTES or T-LYMPHOCYTES but do not add IMMUNOCOMPETENCE

UI = D007121


Immunocompromised Host

MS = A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.

AN = note category: a physiol state in man or animal; coord IM with disease or physiol state complicating the immunocompromised state (IM with /immunol) or with the immunosuppressive agent (IM with pertinent subh)

UI = D016867



MS = Autoantibodies directed against newly-formed EPITOPES created as the COMPLEMENT cascade is activated and the proteins involved change their conformations.

UI = D037561



MS = Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as immunoglobulins, monoclonal antibodies or antigens. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of drugs and radioisotopes in the chemotherapy and radioimmunotherapy of certain cancers.

AN = useful in targeting drugs & radioisotopes in chemo- & radioimmunother

UI = D018796


Immunodeficiency Virus, Bovine

MS = The type species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus bovine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, BOVINE), found in cattle and causing lymphadenopathy, LYMPHOCYTOSIS, central nervous system lesions, progressive weakness, and emaciation. It has immunological cross-reactivity with other lentiviruses including HIV.

AN = infection: coord IM with LENTIVIRUS INFECTIONS (IM); DF: BIV

UI = D016087


Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline

MS = A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.


UI = D016089



MS = Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.


UI = D005779


Immunodominant Epitopes

MS = Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.

AN = subunits of epitopes most easily recognized by the immune system

UI = D016056



MS = A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; NIM

UI = D007122


Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional

MS = Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.


UI = D007123


Immunoenzyme Techniques

MS = Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.

AN = coord with specific enzyme with no qualif (NIM) but do not bother to add PEROXIDASES or specific; EMIT (ENZYME MULTIPLIED IMMUNOASSAY TECHNIQUE) is available

UI = D007124



MS = A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).

AN = GEN or SPEC; prefer specifics: Manual 28.22.5, 28.24.6

UI = D007125


Immunoglobulin A

MS = Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.


UI = D007070


Immunoglobulin A, Secretory

MS = The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULINS, J-CHAIN).


UI = D007071


Immunoglobulin Allotypes

MS = Hereditary serologic types based on antigenic differences in the light and heavy chains of immunoglobulins due to allelic genes in the gene loci coding the chains. The Inv system applies to the kappa light chains, the Gm system applies to the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; for defic see TN 225; Am allotype goes here (IM) + IMMUNOGLOBULIN A (IM); DF: IG ALLOTYPES

UI = D007126


Immunoglobulin Class Switching

MS = Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.

UI = D017578


Immunoglobulin Constant Region

MS = That region of the immunoglobulin (antibody) molecule that is invariable in its amino acid sequence within any class of immunoglobulins. It confers the biological specificity to the Ig and is grossly species specific. It comprises the C-terminus half of the light chains and three quarters or more of the heavy chains, all of the Fc fragment, and the C-terminus half of the Fab fragment.

AN = for defic see TN 225; DF: IG CONSTANT REGION

UI = D007127


Immunoglobulin D

MS = An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B lymphocytes.


UI = D007072


Immunoglobulin E

MS = An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).


UI = D007073


Immunoglobulin Fragments

AN = for defic see TN 225; DF: IG FRAGMENTS

UI = D007128


Immunoglobulin G

MS = The major immunoglobulin in normal human serum.


UI = D007074


Immunoglobulin Gm Allotypes

MS = Hereditary allotypic markers associated with the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.


UI = D007129


Immunoglobulin Idiotypes

MS = Unique, genetically controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.


UI = D007130


Immunoglobulin Inv Allotypes

MS = Hereditary allotypic markers associated with the light chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.


UI = D007131


Immunoglobulin Isotypes

MS = The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.

AN = for defic see TN 225; DF: IG ISOTYPES

UI = D007132


Immunoglobulin Joining Region

MS = Segment of light and heavy chains of mouse and human immunoglobulins where the genes for the variable region upstream join those of the constant region downstream (an important part of the ANTIBODY DIVERSITY mechanism). In the joining region of the light chain are the genes coding for amino acids 96 to 107.

AN = for defic see TN 225; DF: IG JOINING REGION

UI = D007133


Immunoglobulin M

MS = A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULINS, MU-CHAIN). IgM can fix complement. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.


UI = D007075


Immunoglobulin Switch Region

MS = A site on a segment of a B-cell immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) can occur. It is involved in isotype or allotype switching and maturation of the immune response. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five immunoglobulin heavy chains.


UI = D007134


Immunoglobulin Variable Region

MS = That region of the immunoglobulin (antibody) molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, confers the antigenic specificity, and is thought to comprise the binding site for the antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.


UI = D007135



MS = Glycoproteins present in the blood (ANTIBODIES) and in other tissue. They are classified by structure and activity into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M).

AN = GEN: prefer specifics; /admin: consider also IMMUNOGLOBULINS, INTRAVENOUS; /defic permitted but consider also IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES ; /ther use: consider also IMMUNOGLOBULIN THERAPY see IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE; allotypes = IMMUNOGLOBULIN ALLOTYPES or specifics

UI = D007136


Immunoglobulins, alpha-Chain

MS = Heavy chains found in the Fab and Fc fragments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and having a molecular weight of approximately 58 kD. They contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to the Fc fragment.

AN = for defic see TN 225; gammopathy or excess = IMMUNOGLOBULINS, ALPHA CHAIN (NIM) + HEAVY CHAIN DISEASE (IM): TN 226; DF: IG ALPHA CHAIN

UI = D007137


Immunoglobulins, delta-Chain

MS = Heavy chains found in the Fab and Fc fragments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN D and having a molecular weight of approximately 64 kD. They contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment.

AN = for defic see TN 225; gammopathy or excess = IMMUNOGLOBULINS, DELTA CHAIN (NIM) + HEAVY CHAIN DISEASE (IM): TN 226; DF: IG DELTA CHAIN

UI = D007138


Immunoglobulins, epsilon-Chain

MS = Heavy chains found in the Fab and Fc fragments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E and having a molecular weight of approximately 72 kD. They contain about 550 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and about three times more carbohydrate than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, IMMUNOGLOBULIN D, and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.

AN = for defic see TN 225; gammopathy or excess = IMMUNOGLOBULINS, EPSILON CHAIN (NIM) + HEAVY CHAIN DISEASE (IM): TN 226; DF: IG EPSILON CHAIN

UI = D007139


Immunoglobulins, Fab

MS = Antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire light chain and about half of one of the heavy chains, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the antigen binding site which is part of the variable region of the immunoglobulin molecule.

AN = for defic see TN 225; DF: IG FAB

UI = D007140


Immunoglobulins, Fc

MS = Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both heavy chains linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments are responsible for the effector functions of antibodies (complement fixation, binding to cell membranes, and placental transport).

AN = for defic see TN 225; DF: IG FC

UI = D007141


Immunoglobulins, gamma-Chain

MS = Heavy chains found in the Fab and Fc fragments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G and having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kD. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment. The gamma chains of the four IMMUNOGLOBULIN G subgroups are not identical, but resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of a different immunoglobulin.

AN = for defic see TN 225; gammopathy or excess = IMMUNOGLOBULINS, GAMMA CHAIN (NIM) + HEAVY CHAIN DISEASE (IM): TN 226; DF: IG GAMMA CHAIN

UI = D007142


Immunoglobulins, Heavy-Chain

MS = Major components of immunoglobulin molecules. They are the larger of the two types of polypeptide chains responsible for the biological and immunological properties of the different immunoglobulins. They differ according to the class of Ig from which they were isolated, contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kD. One Ig molecule comprises two heavy and two light chains.

AN = for defic see TN 225; gammopathies: TN 226; DF: IG HEAVY CHAIN

UI = D007143


Immunoglobulins, Intravenous

MS = Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS, primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA, SCID, CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, chronic lymphocytic LEUKEMIA, Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.

AN = /adv eff-pois-tox /admin /blood-csf-urine /ther use permitted; usually infused intravenously so do not coord with INFUSIONS, INTRAVENOUS; DF: IG IV or IGIV

UI = D016756


Immunoglobulins, J-Chain

MS = The immunoglobulin fragments found in the light chain fractions of secretory IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in a ratio of one J chain per one IMMUNOGLOBULIN A dimer or one IMMUNOGLOBULIN M pentamer. It is a polypeptide with a molecular weight of about 17 kD and probably serves either to bind the components of the globulins together or to transfer the globulins across membranes.

AN = for defic see TN 225; DF: IG J CHAIN

UI = D007144


Immunoglobulins, kappa-Chain

MS = One of the light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kD. They constitute about 60% of all light chains and can be recognized serologically as well as by their specific amino acid sequence.

AN = for defic see TN 225; gammopathy or excess: indexing instructions in TN 226; DF: IG KAPPA CHAIN

UI = D007145


Immunoglobulins, lambda-Chain

MS = One of the light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kD. They constitute about 40% of all light chains and can be recognized serologically as well as by their specific amino acid sequence.

AN = for defic see TN 225; gammopathy or excess: indexing instructions in TN 226; DF: IG LAMBDA CHAIN

UI = D007146


Immunoglobulins, Light-Chain

MS = Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues, isolated from immunoglobulins and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kD. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. In man they are found in a ratio of 60% to 40%, respectively. Both chains consist of linear repeating, similar, but not identical, segments of about 110 amino acid residues. In each segment a disulfide bond establishes a tightly folded approximately 60-membered loop or domain. Adjacent domains are linked by less tightly folded regions. Both light chains contain two such domains. Two light and two heavy chains make one immunoglobulin molecule, but both light chains in one Ig are of the same type.

AN = for defic see TN 225; gammopathy or excess: indexing instructions in TN 226; DF: IG LIGHT CHAIN

UI = D007147


Immunoglobulins, mu-Chain

MS = Heavy chains found in the Fab and Fc fragments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN M and having a molecular weight of approximately 72 kD. They contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.

AN = for defic see TN 225; gammopathy or excess = IMMUNOGLOBULINS, MU CHAIN (NIM) + HEAVY CHAIN DISEASE (IM): TN 226; DF: IG MU CHAIN

UI = D007148


Immunoglobulins, Surface

MS = Immunoglobulins bound to the surface of lymphocytes.

AN = for defic see TN 225; DF: IG SURFACE

UI = D007149


Immunoglobulins, Thyroid-Stimulating

MS = Autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROTROPIN) on thyroid epithelial cells. The autoantibodies mimic TSH causing an unregulated production of thyroid hormones characteristic of GRAVES' DISEASE.


UI = D018828



MS = Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

AN = GEN; avoid as coord; SPEC qualif when IM; no qualif when NIM; immunohistochem of disease is disease /diag or /metab

UI = D007150


Immunologic and Biological Factors

MS = A collective grouping for biologically active substances that play a role in the functioning of the immune system and those that show biological or physiological activity.

AN = not used for indexing; IMMUNOLOGIC FACTORS & BIOLOGICAL FACTORS are available CATALOG: do not use

UI = D007151


Immunologic Capping

MS = The process by which lymphoid cell surface immunoglobulin receptors, when exposed to bivalent anti-Ig antibodies, collect in patches and form a cap at one pole of the cell. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment in the form of antigen-antibody complexes. Capping has also been induced by lectins and antigens.

AN = titles say "capping" or "capping of lymphocytes" or "receptor capping" or "leukocyte capping": read MeSH definition; DF: IMMUNOL CAPPING

UI = D007152


Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes

MS = Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.

AN = GEN or unspecified; for defic of specific immunoprotein, IMMUNOGLOBULINS or specific immunoglobulin, use specific with /defic; TN 223: definition & use; TN 225: differentiation from immunoglobulin defic; Manual 23.25.2; DF: IMMUNOL DEFIC SYNDROMES

UI = D007153


Immunologic Diseases

MS = Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated or both.

AN = GEN: prefer specifics

UI = D007154


Immunologic Factors

MS = Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.

AN = GEN; prefer specifics; used for mapping supplementary chemicals

UI = D007155


Immunologic Memory

MS = The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.

UI = D007156


Immunologic Surveillance

MS = The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.

AN = a function of T-lymphocytes: nothing to do with epidemiol surveillance

UI = D007157


Immunologic Techniques

AN = GEN: prefer specifics; NIM; do not confuse with IMMUNOLOGIC TESTS ( = immunol techniques applied to diag); DF: IMMUNOL TECHNIQUES

UI = D007158


Immunologic Tests

MS = Diagnostic techniques involving the demonstration or measurement of an immune response, including antibody production or assay, antigen-antibody reactions, serologic cross-reactivity, delayed hypersensitivity reactions, or heterogenetic responses.

AN = GEN: prefer specifics; NIM; do not confuse with IMMUNOLOGIC TECHNIQUES: see note there; do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D007159


Immunomagnetic Separation

MS = A cell-separation technique where magnetizable microspheres or beads are first coated with monoclonal antibody, allowed to search and bind to target cells, and are then selectively removed when passed through a magnetic field. Among other applications, the technique is commonly used to remove tumor cells from the marrow (BONE MARROW PURGING) of patients who are to undergo autologous bone marrow transplantation.

UI = D018189



MS = Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.

UI = D016130



MS = Members of a family of highly conserved proteins which are all cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE). They bind the immunosuppressant drugs CYCLOSPORINE; TACROLIMUS and SIROLIMUS. They possess rotomase activity, which is inhibited by the immunosuppressant drugs that bind to them. EC 5.2.1.-

UI = D020104


Immunoproliferative Disorders

MS = Disorders characterized by abnormal proliferation of primary cells of the immune system or by excessive production of immunoglobulins.

AN = GEN or unspecified: prefer specifics

UI = D007160


Immunoproliferative Small Intestinal Disease

MS = A spectrum of conditions ranging from a benign plasma cell hyperplasia to a highly malignant lymphoma of the small intestine.

AN = do not use /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct

UI = D007161



MS = Blood proteins whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D007162


Immunoradiometric Assay

MS = Form of radioimmunoassay in which excess specific labeled antibody is added directly to the test antigen being measured.

AN = NIM; do not confuse with RADIOIMMUNOASSAY; DF: IRMA

UI = D015592


Immunosorbent Techniques

MS = Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.

AN = NIM; do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D007163



MS = An insoluble support for an antigen or antibody used to adsorb the homologous antibody or antigen from a mixture; the adsorbed entity may then be eluted in pure form for assay or analysis; many different substances are used, among them sepharose, glutaraldehyde, copolymers of anhydrides, polyacrylamides, etc.

UI = D007164



MS = Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.

AN = note category: "deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response": do not confuse with IMMUNOSUPPRESSION (PHYSIOLOGY) see IMMUNE TOLERANCE (G4); do not use /util except by MeSH definition; OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS is available if particularly discussed: see note there

UI = D007165


Immunosuppressive Agents

MS = Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of suppressor T-cell populations or by inhibiting the activation of helper cells. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of interleukins and other cytokines are emerging.

UI = D007166



MS = Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.

AN = GEN only; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; for ther: coord IM with dis /ther (IM)

UI = D007167


Immunotherapy, Active

MS = Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.

AN = IM; do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D016233


Immunotherapy, Adoptive

MS = Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)

AN = IM; do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D016219



MS = Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including radioactive isotopes and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as immunoglobulins, monoclonal antibodies, and antigens. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.

AN = IM; coord with specific toxin (IM) + specific immune substance (NIM)

UI = D000922


IMP Dehydrogenase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of inosine 5'-phosphate to xanthosine 5'-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC

UI = D007168



MS = A plant genus of subsucculent annual or perennial plants in the family BALSAMINACEAE, order Geraniales.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATION or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D029069



MS = A common superficial bacterial infection caused by STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS or group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Characteristics include pustular lesions that rupture and discharge a thin, amber-colored fluid that dries and forms a crust. This condition is commonly located on the face, especially about the mouth and nose.

AN = a staph or strep infect of the skin

UI = D007169


Implants, Experimental

MS = Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.

UI = D020007


Implosive Therapy

MS = A method for extinguishing anxiety by a saturation exposure to the feared stimulus situation or its substitute.

AN = a psychother technique, a form of psychol desensitization; DF: IMPLOSIVE THER

UI = D007171



MS = The inability to perform sexual intercourse.

UI = D007172


Impotence, Vasculogenic

MS = Impotence caused by a diminution of blood flow to the penis. Arteries involved can be the terminal aorta, hypogastric, pudendal, penile, and cavernous arteries. Ectopic drainage of the corpora cavernosa via large superficial dorsal veins or abnormally large cavernous and crural veins can cause venogenic impotence. (From Walsh, et al., Campbell's Urology, 6th ed, p720). The expression "venous leakage" is seen often in international literature. Leakage refers to the failure of the blood to reach the penile erectile tissues.

AN = do not coord with PENIS /blood supply + specific artery or vein unless the vasc heading is particularly discussed (probably NIM)

UI = D018783


Imprinting (Psychology)

MS = A particular kind of learning characterized by occurrence in very early life, rapidity of acquisition, and relative insusceptibility to forgetting or extinction. Imprinted behavior includes most (or all) behavior commonly called instinctive, but imprinting is used purely descriptively.

AN = human & animal

UI = D007173



MS = A highly potent and specific histamine H2 receptor agonist. It has been used diagnostically as a gastric secretion indicator.

UI = D017446


Impulse Control Disorders

MS = Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.

UI = D007174


Impulsive Behavior

MS = An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.

AN = use Cat F3 qualif

UI = D007175


In Situ Hybridization

MS = A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.

AN = to locate specific nucleic acid seq

UI = D017403


In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence

MS = A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.

UI = D017404


In Situ Nick-End Labeling

MS = An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during apoptosis. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA fragmentation.

UI = D020287


In Vitro

AN = check tag only; Manual 18.10+ CATALOG: do not use: for indexers only

UI = D007176


Inappropriate ADH Syndrome

MS = Hyponatremia and renal salt loss attributed to overexpansion of body fluids resulting from sustained release of VASOPRESSINS (i.e., antiduretic hormone) despite the absence of appropriate stimuli. Associated conditions include medication effect; MENINGITIS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; HYDROCEPHALUS; PNEUMONIA; ASTHMA; THYROID DISEASES; and other conditions. This condition may also be idiopathic or result from ectopic (extra-pituitary) production of ADH. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp59-62)

UI = D007177



MS = The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.

AN = animal only: for humans use CONSANGUINITY; no qualif; restrict to inbreeding as a genetic concept or a technique: not a routine term for inbred animals ( = ANIMALS, INBRED STRAINS or specific)

UI = D007178



MS = Sexual intercourse between persons so closely related that they are forbidden by law to marry.

AN = /ethnol /psychol permitted

UI = D007179



MS = The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.

AN = IM GEN only; coord NIM with disease /epidemiol (IM); no qualif; total number of new cases: do not confuse with PREVALENCE, total number of new & old cases; read MeSH definitions; specify geog if pertinent

UI = D015994


Incidental Findings

MS = Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.

AN = HUMAN only

UI = D033162



MS = High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.

AN = restrict to waste disposal

UI = D017745



MS = Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)

AN = one of the 8 front teeth; NIM when merely locational; "incisive papilla", a projection on the palate posterior to the central incisors: index under PALATE & do not add INCISOR

UI = D007180


Inclusion Bodies

MS = A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or Mallory bodies), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = A 11 qualif except /cytol; /genet permitted; for bacteria, coord IM with specific bacterium (IM); for viruses, INCLUSION BODIES, VIRAL is available: see note there

UI = D002479


Inclusion Bodies, Viral

MS = An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.

AN = A11 qualif except /cytol; /genet permitted; coord IM with specific virus (IM)

UI = D007181



MS = Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.

AN = includes income from salaries, annuities, stocks, etc.; does not include fees charged by a professional ( = FEES AND CHARGES)

UI = D007182


Income Tax

MS = Tax on the net income of an individual, organization, or business.

AN = IM; specify geog

UI = D007183


Incontinence Pads

MS = Absorbent pads used for URINARY INCONTINENCE and usually worn as underpants or pants liners by the ELDERLY.

AN = restrict to ELDERLY or adults; for infants use DIAPERS, INFANT see INFANT CARE

UI = D016496


Incontinentia Pigmenti

MS = A genodermatosis occurring mostly in females and characterized by skin changes in three phases - vesiculobullous, verrucous papillomatous, and macular melanodermic. Hyperpigmentation is bizarre and irregular. Sixty percent of patients have abnormalities of eyes, teeth, central nervous system, and skin appendages.

AN = multiple skin & other abnorm; do not confuse with INCONTINENTIA PIGMENTI ACHROMIANS see PIGMENTATION DISORDERS

UI = D007184



MS = Insulated enclosures in which temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions can be regulated at levels optimal for growth, hatching, reproduction, or metabolic reactions.

AN = for eggs, microbial cultures, cell cultures, etc.; INCUBATORS, INFANT is also available

UI = D007185


Incubators, Infant

MS = Electrically powered devices that are intended to assist in the maintenance of the thermal balance of infants, principally by controlling the air temperature and humidity in an enclosure. (from UMDNS, 1999)

UI = D007186



AN = before 1501; IM; no qualif

UI = D007187



MS = One of three ossicles of the middle ear. It conducts sound vibrations from the MALLEUS to the STAPES.

UI = D007188



UI = D007189



MS = A sulfamyl diuretic with about 16x the effect of furosemide. It has also been shown to be an effective antihypertensive agent in the clinic.

UI = D007190



UI = D007191



MS = A family of fused-ring hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar that act as intermediates in various chemical reactions and are used in the production of coumarone-indene resins.

AN = aromatic hydrocarbons

UI = D007192


Independent Practice Associations

MS = A partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity that enters into an arrangement for the provision of services with persons who are licensed to practice medicine, osteopathy, and dentistry, and with other care personnel. Under an IPA arrangement, licensed professional persons provide services through the entity in accordance with a mutually accepted compensation arrangement, while retaining their private practices. Services under the IPA are marketed through a prepaid health plan. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)


UI = D007193


Independent State of Samoa

MS = An island group and constitutional monarchy in the southwest central Pacific Ocean. The capital is Apia. The islands were jointly administered by England, the United States, and Germany 1889-99, with the chief islands of Savai'i and Upolu recognized as German until 1919. Western Samoa gained independence in 1962 and assumed its present formal name in 1997.

AN = a monarchy; do not confuse with SAMOA, the island group in Polynesia; AMERICAN SAMOA is also available

UI = D014905


Indexes [Publication Type]

MS = Works providing an analytical subject approach to materials in a field of knowledge.

UI = D020481



AN = Indians are of CAUCASOID RACE unless otherwise specified

UI = D007194


Indian Ocean

MS = A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)

AN = no qualif; includes X refs PERSIAN GULF & RED SEA but do not index Persian Gulf War here ( = WAR + MIDDLE EAST)

UI = D019156


Indian Ocean Islands

MS = Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).

AN = in addition to indentions here, includes Maldives, Pemba & Cocos (Keeling) Islands

UI = D007195



UI = D007196


Indians, Central American

MS = An ethnic group belonging to the Mongoloid racial stock in Central America. This does not include Mexican Indians.

AN = IM; specify geog locale if possible; as ethnic group: Manual 30.6.1-30.6.3; not for Indians of Mexico ( = INDIANS, NORTH AMERICAN + MEXICO)

UI = D007197


Indians, North American

MS = An ethnic group belonging to the Mongoloid racial stock in North America.

AN = IM; specify geog locale if possible; in titles capitalize both Native and American; as ethnic group: Manual 30.6.1-30.6.3

UI = D007198


Indians, South American

MS = An ethnic group belonging to the Mongoloid racial stock in South America.

AN = IM; specify geog locale if possible; as ethnic group: Manual 30.6.1-30.6.3

UI = D007199



MS = A substance occurring in the urine of mammals and also in blood plasma as the normal metabolite of tryptophan. An increased urinary excretion of indican is seen in Hartnup disease from the bacterial degradation of unabsorbed tryptophan.

AN = do not confuse with indican, a glycoside from plants yielding indigo (index under GLYCOSIDES)

UI = D007200


Indicator Dilution Techniques

MS = Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = NIM; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; DYE DILUTION TECHNIQUE and RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE are also available

UI = D007201


Indicators and Reagents

MS = Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)

AN = NIM; coord with specific substance (IM or NIM); D25-26 qualif except /diag use; REAGENT KITS, DIAGNOSTIC & REAGENT STRIPS are also available; DF: INDICATORS

UI = D007202



MS = A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The common name of indigo also refers to Baptisia or Amorpha genera (FABACEAE).

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATION or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D029883


Indigotindisulfonate Sodium

MS = An indolesulfonic acid that is used as a dye in renal function testing and as a reagent for the detection of nitrates and chlorates and in the testing of milk.

UI = D007203



MS = A potent and specific HIV protease inhibitor that appears to have good oral bioavailability.

UI = D019469



MS = A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = In-115; In-113 = INDIUM (IM) + ISOTOPES (NIM) but In-113m = INDIUM RADIOISOTOPES (IM); In-106-112, 114, 116-124 = INDIUM RADIOISOTOPES (IM)

UI = D007204


Indium Radioisotopes

MS = Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.

AN = In-106-112, 113m, 114, 116-124; /blood-csf-urine /metab permitted but not for tracer studies ( = /diag use)

UI = D007205



MS = Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.

AN = do not confuse with PERSONHOOD

UI = D007206



MS = A process of differentiation having for its goal the development of the individual personality.

AN = no qualif

UI = D007207


Indocyanine Green

MS = A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D007208


Indole Alkaloids

MS = Group of alkaloids containing a benzylpyrrole group (derived from TRYPTOPHAN)

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D026121


Indole-3-Glycerol-Phosphate Synthase

MS = An enzyme in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway. EC

UI = D007209


Indoleacetic Acids

MS = Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)

AN = plant growth regulators

UI = D007210



AN = includes isoindoles

UI = D007211



UI = D007212



MS = A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

UI = D007213



MS = A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.

AN = Indonesians are of MONGOLOID RACE unless otherwise specified

UI = D007214



UI = D007215



MS = A drug that has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Following reports of adverse reactions including reports of carcinogenicity in animal studies it was withdrawn from the market worldwide. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p21)

UI = D007216



MS = A hypotensive agent with some anti-arrhythmic effects.

UI = D007217


Industrial Microbiology

MS = The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif; coord IM with specific bact, virus or fungus (IM) if pertinent; DF: INDUST MICROBIOL

UI = D007218


Industrial Oils

MS = Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.

AN = coord IM with specific oil (IM or NIM) if pertinent; DF: INDUST OILS

UI = D007219


Industrial Waste

MS = Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations. It represents an ecological problem and health hazard.

AN = specify geog if pertinent; DF: INDUST WASTE

UI = D007220



MS = The aggregate of manufacturing or technically productive enterprises in a particular field, often named after its principle product, as "the automobile industry", "the steel industry". It includes the ownership and management of companies, factories, industrial plants, etc. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)


UI = D007221


Inert Gas Narcosis

MS = Progressive mental disturbances and unconsciousness due to breathing mixtures of oxygen and inert gases (argon, helium, xenon, krypton, and atmospheric nitrogen) at high pressure.

AN = IM; specify gas (IM)

UI = D007222



MS = A child between 1 and 23 months of age.

AN = age 1-23 mo; IM as psychol & sociol or social entity: Manual 18.5.11, 34.9.2; NIM as check tag: 18.5.7, 18.5.8; no qualif IM; psychol of the infant = INFANT PSYCHOLOGY see CHILD PSYCHOLOGY & check the tag INFANT

UI = D007223


Infant Behavior

MS = Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.

AN = check also tag INFANT or INFANT, NEWBORN but see note there

UI = D018730


Infant Care

MS = Care of infants in the home or institution.

AN = in home or institutions; care of newborn inf in hosp = INFANT CARE (IM) + INFANT, NEWBORN (IM) but consider also INTENSIVE CARE, NEONATAL; check the tag INFANT

UI = D007224


Infant Equipment

MS = Equipment and furniture used by infants and babies in the home, car, and play area.

UI = D015370


Infant Food

MS = Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.

AN = check the tag INFANT

UI = D007225


Infant Mortality

MS = Perinatal, neonatal, and infant deaths in a given population.

AN = a largely statist concept & not a substitute for /mortal with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES or with specific dis in inf; specify geog; check the tag INFANT

UI = D007226


Infant Nutrition

MS = Nutrition of children from birth to 2 years of age.

AN = from birth up to age 2; check the tag INFANT

UI = D007227


Infant Nutrition Disorders

MS = Malnutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months, which is due to insufficient intake of food, dietary nutrients, or a pathophysiologic condition which prevents the absorption and utilization of food. Growth and development are markedly affected.

AN = check the tag INFANT

UI = D007228


Infant Welfare

MS = Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the infant.

AN = specify geog if pertinent; check the tag INFANT

UI = D007229


Infant, Low Birth Weight

MS = An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.

AN = born weighing 2500 gms (5.5 lbs) or less; qualif permitted as for INFANT, NEWBORN; check tag INFANT, NEWBORN; INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is also available; DF: INFANT LBW

UI = D007230


Infant, Newborn

MS = An infant during the first month after birth.

AN = from birth to 1 mo; IM; qualif permitted: /blood-csf-urine /growth /immunol /metab /physiol /psychol; also a check tag; as IM: Manual 18.5.9, 34.8, 34.9.1; specialty for only newborn inf = NEONATOLOGY, specialty for fetus & newborn inf = PERINATOLOGY

UI = D007231


Infant, Newborn, Diseases

MS = Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.

AN = IM GEN only; for specific dis in newborn inf use specific dis (IM) + check tag INFANT, NEWBORN; do not use /compl /congen; check the tag INFANT, NEWBORN: Manual 18.5.10; relation to /congen: Manual 19.8.18, 23.21+; TN 109: relation to other Cat C16 terms

UI = D007232


Infant, Postmature

MS = An infant born at or after 42 weeks of gestation.

AN = IM; born after 42 wks gestation: do not confuse with FETAL MACROSOMIA (fetus "weighing more than 4000 grams"); qualif permitted as for INFANT, NEWBORN; check the tag INFANT, NEWBORN

UI = D007233


Infant, Premature

MS = An infant born before 38 weeks of gestation.

AN = IM; born before 38 wks gestation; qualif permitted as for INFANT, NEWBORN; check the tag INFANT, NEWBORN

UI = D007234


Infant, Premature, Diseases

AN = IM; do not use /compl /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; check the tag INFANT, NEWBORN: Manual 23.21.4

UI = D007235


Infant, Small for Gestational Age

MS = An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.

AN = born weighing less than expected for age; qualif permitted as for INFANT, NEWBORN; check the tag INFANT, NEWBORN; DF: INFANT SGA

UI = D007236


Infant, Very Low Birth Weight

MS = An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.

AN = born weighing 1500 gms (3.3 lb) or less; check the tag INFANT, NEWBORN; DF: INFANT VLBW

UI = D019102



MS = The killing of infants at birth or soon after.

AN = restrict to humans: do not use for the killing of young of other primates or other animals in scientific exper; do not use for killing of newborn or young animals by their parents ( = BEHAVIOR, ANIMAL)

UI = D007237



MS = A pathological process consisting of a sudden insufficient blood supply to an area, which results in necrosis of that area. It is usually caused by a thrombus, an embolus, or a vascular torsion.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specific see relateds; IM; coord with organ /blood supply (IM): Manual 23.14.2; DF: INFARCT

UI = D007238


Infarction, Anterior Cerebral Artery

MS = An infarction in the vascular distribution of the anterior cerebral artery which supplies the majority of the medial surface of the cerebral hemispheres, and provides branches (including Heubner's artery) to the anterior limb of the internal capsule, head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS, and anterior GLOBUS PALLIDUS. Clinical manifestations may include contralateral lower extremity weakness and sensory loss. Bilateral anterior cerebral artery infarctions are associated with abulia, PARAPLEGIA, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp789-93)


UI = D020243


Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery

MS = The formation of an area of coagulation necrosis in the vascular distribution of the middle cerebral artery secondary to ISCHEMIA. Clinical features include contralateral weakness and loss of sensation in the arm and face and a contralateral homonymous hemianopsia. Dominant hemisphere lesions may produce APHASIA, alexia, AGRAPHIA, acalculia, finger agnosia, and right-left confusion. Nondominant hemisphere lesions may produce unilateral neglect, dressing APRAXIA, anosognosia, and constructional apraxia. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p786)

UI = D020244


Infarction, Posterior Cerebral Artery

MS = Formation of an area of coagulation necrosis induced by ischemia in the vascular distribution of the posterior cerebral artery. This artery supplies portions of the MESENCEPHALON (see also BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS) and thalamus, inferomedial TEMPORAL LOBE, and medial OCCIPITAL LOBE. Clinical manifestations vary with the size and location of infarction, but include a variety of midbrain and thalamic syndromes, HEMIANOPSIA, and behavioral syndromes related to memory and processing visual information. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp793-8)


UI = D020762



MS = Invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues, which may be clinically inapparent or result in local cellular injury. A local infection may persist and spread by extension to become an acute, subacute, or chronic clinical infection or disease state. It may also become systemic when the microorganisms gain access to the lymphatic or vascular system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = GEN only as concept of dis caused by organisms; many texts saying "infection" & many saying "sepsis" mean BACTERIAL INFECTIONS: check text but note that SEPSIS is available; "infectious disease" can be INFECTION but is more likely COMMUNICABLE DISEASES; policy: Manual 22.12-.19, 23.12+; relation to organisms: Manual 22.11-.19 & TN 209; /drug ther: consider also ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS & its specific groups; /prev = INFECTION CONTROL but see note there

UI = D007239


Infection Control

MS = Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.

AN = differentiate from COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL which tends to be on a large geog, demog or social level (e.g., city, underprivileged, elementary school, prison) while INFECTION CONTROL tends to be restricted within hosp or other health care facilities; if in doubt, use term of author; DF: INFECT CONTROL

UI = D017053


Infection Control Practitioners

MS = Physicians or other qualified individuals responsible for implementing and overseeing the policies and procedures followed by a health care facility to reduce the risk of infection to patients and staff.


UI = D016357


Infection Control, Dental

MS = Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.

AN = prev of infect in dent health facilities, not prev of tooth infect in mouth; DF: INFECT CONTROL DENT

UI = D019552


Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine

MS = A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.

AN = infection = EQUINE INFECTIOUS ANEMIA; DF: note short X ref

UI = D004860


Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis

MS = A herpesvirus infection of cattle characterized by inflammation and necrosis of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract.

AN = caused by a herpesvirus; don't forget also CATTLE (NIM) & check tag ANIMAL; DF: INFECT BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS

UI = D007241


Infectious bronchitis virus

MS = A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.


UI = D001351


Infectious bursal disease virus

MS = A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is thought to be through contaminated feed or water. Vaccines have been used with varying degrees of success.

AN = infection: coord IM with BIRNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM); DF: note short cross ref

UI = D007243


Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

MS = The type species of NOVIRHABDOVIRUS, in the family RHABDOVIRIDAE. It is a major pathogen of TROUT and SALMON.


UI = D029142


Infectious Laryngotracheitis-like Viruses

MS = A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRIDAE, with a single species: HERPESVIRUS 1, GALLID.


UI = D025921


Infectious Mononucleosis

MS = A common, acute infection usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN). There is an increase in mononuclear white blood cells and other atypical lymphocytes, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and occasionally hepatomegaly with hepatitis.

AN = if not caused by EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) coord IM with specific infection (IM)

UI = D007244


Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

MS = The type species of AQUABIRNAVIRUS, causing infectious pancreatic necrosis in salmonid fish and other freshwater and marine animals including mollusks.

AN = infection: coord IM with BIRNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM); DF: note short X ref

UI = D018061


Inferior Colliculus

UI = D007245



MS = The diminished or absent ability to conceive or produce an offspring while sterility is the complete inability to conceive or produce an offspring.

AN = GEN or unspecified as male or female; prefer the specifics

UI = D007246


Infertility, Female

MS = Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.

AN = /chem ind permitted but not for testing of contraceptives

UI = D007247


Infertility, Male

MS = Diminished or absent ability of the male to effect conception.

AN = /chem ind permitted but not for testing of contraceptives

UI = D007248



MS = A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.

AN = IM general inflammatory process; look for specific inflamm dis in MeSH as -ITIS; NIM as coord for organ /dis not in MeSH as -ITIS; /drug ther: consider also ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS & its specifics; ACUTE PHASE REACTION (an early local inflammatory reaction to inj: see MeSH definition) is available; Manual 23.13+; DF: INFLAMM

UI = D007249


Inflammation Mediators

MS = The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).

AN = endogenous & exogenous mediators; do not confuse with ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS which are exogenous & counteract or treat inflamm; DF: INFLAMM MEDIATORS

UI = D018836


Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

MS = Chronic, non-specific disorders of unknown etiology. Includes Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. Extracolonic manifestations are often associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and involve the liver, joints and skin.

AN = "chronic non-specific disord of unknown etiol"; CROHN DISEASE & COLITIS, ULCERATIVE are also available; DF: INFLAMM BOWEL DIS

UI = D015212


Inflation, Economic

MS = An increase in the volume of money and credit relative to available goods resulting in a substantial and continuing rise in the general price level.

AN = specify geog if pertinent

UI = D007250



MS = An acute viral infection involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the nasal mucosa, the pharynx, and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.

AN = caused by an orthomyxovirus; coord IM with specific orthomyxovirus (IM)

UI = D007251


Influenza A virus

MS = The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes INFLUENZA and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks).

AN = infection: coord IM with ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM) or with INFLUENZA (IM); INFLUENZAVIRUS A is also available

UI = D009980


Influenza A Virus, Avian

MS = Strains of INFLUENZA A VIRUS causing influenza in birds. Transmission is caused by close contact or is waterborne in aquatic species.

AN = a strain of INFLUENZA A VIRUS; infection = FOWL PLAGUE (IM) but see note there; DF: note short X ref

UI = D009977


Influenza A Virus, Human

MS = Strains of INFLUENZA A VIRUS causing influenza and sometimes pneumonia in humans. Transmission is by aerosol.

AN = a strain of INFLUENZA A VIRUS; infection: coord IM with INFLUENZA (IM)

UI = D009978


Influenza A Virus, Porcine

MS = Strains of INFLUENZA A VIRUS causing influenza and pneumonia in domestic pigs.

AN = a strain of INFLUENZA A VIRUS; infection: coord IM with ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM) or with INFLUENZA (IM)

UI = D009979


Influenza B virus

MS = Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.

AN = infection: coord IM with ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM) or with INFLUENZA (IM); INFLUENZAVIRUS B is also available

UI = D009981


Influenza Vaccine

MS = A killed virus vaccine. Both whole virion and subvirion vaccines are available. The composition of the vaccine is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two influenza virus A strains and one influenza virus B strain. Annual immunization before November is recommended for high-risk individuals (persons over 65 years of age and persons with chronic disease). (Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = coord IM with specific orthomyxovirus or orthomyxovirus infection (IM or NIM) if pertinent; not for Haemophilus influenzae vaccine ( = HAEMOPHILUS VACCINES)

UI = D007252


Influenzavirus A

MS = A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing INFLUENZA and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.

AN = infection: coord IM with ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM) or INFLUENZA (IM); INFLUENZA A VIRUS is also available

UI = D029521


Influenzavirus B

MS = A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRUS causing INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. In contrast to INFLUENZAVIRUS A, no distinct antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTINS) and NEURAMINIDASE are recognized.

AN = infection: coord IM with ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM) or INFLUENZA (IM); INFLUENZA B VIRUS is also available

UI = D029524


Influenzavirus C

MS = A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.

AN = a genus of the family Orthomyxoviridae; infection: coord IM with ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM) or with INFLUENZA (IM)

UI = D009982


Information Centers

MS = Facilities for collecting and organizing information. They may be specialized by subject field, type of source material, persons served, location, or type of services.

AN = med inform cent: do not coord with MEDICINE

UI = D007253


Information Dissemination

MS = The circulation or wide dispersal of information.

UI = D033181


Information Management

MS = Management of the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)

AN = management of acquis, organiz, storage & retrieval of information; SPEC qualif

UI = D019451


Information Science

MS = The field of knowledge, theory, and technology dealing with the collection of facts and figures, and the processes and methods involved in their manipulation, storage, dissemination, publication, and retrieval. It includes the fields of COMMUNICATION, PUBLISHING, LIBRARY SCIENCE and informatics.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif

UI = D007254


Information Services

MS = Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

AN = med inform serv: do not coord with MEDICINE; DRUG INFORMATION SERVICES is available; DF: INFORMATION SERV

UI = D007255


Information Storage and Retrieval

MS = A branch of computer or library science relating to the storage, locating, searching, and selecting, upon demand, relevant data on a given subject.


UI = D016247


Information Systems

MS = Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.

AN = for automated systems do not coord with AUTOMATIC DATA PROCESSING; for medical information systems do not coord with MEDICINE

UI = D007256


Information Theory

MS = An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.

UI = D007257


Informed Consent

MS = Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.

AN = competency to consent: coord IM with MENTAL COMPETENCY (IM)

UI = D007258


Infrared Rays

MS = That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.

AN = non-ionizing; radiation policy: Manual 28.11+; black light goes here or under ULTRAVIOLET RAYS depending on text but unspecified index under ULTRAVIOLET RAYS

UI = D007259


Infratentorial Neoplasms

MS = Intracranial tumors originating in the region of the brain inferior to the tentorium cerebelli, which contains the cerebellum, fourth ventricle, cerebellopontine angle, brain stem, and related structures. Primary tumors of this region are more frequent in children, and may present with ATAXIA; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; vomiting; HEADACHE; HYDROCEPHALUS; or other signs of neurologic dysfunction. Relatively frequent histologic subtypes include TERATOMA; MEDULLOBLASTOMA; GLIOBLASTOMA; ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA; and choroid plexus papilloma (PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS).

AN = coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D015192


Infusion Pumps

MS = Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.

AN = /psychol permitted; coord IM with drug /admin (IM); INFUSION PUMPS, IMPLANTABLE is also available

UI = D007260


Infusion Pumps, Implantable

MS = Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristaltically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.

UI = D015918


Infusions, Intra-Arterial

MS = Regional infusion of drugs via an arterial catheter. Often a pump is used to impel the drug through the catheter. Used in therapy of cancer, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infection, and peripheral vascular disease.

AN = do not confuse with PERFUSION, REGIONAL (though both are used in cancer ther) or with INJECTIONS, INTRA-ARTERIAL; do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D007261


Infusions, Intralesional

MS = The administration of medication or fluid directly into localized lesions, by means of gravity flow or INFUSION PUMPS.

AN = do not confuse with INJECTIONS, INTRALESIONAL

UI = D036502


Infusions, Intraosseous

MS = The adminstration of medication or fluid through a needle directly into the bone marrow. The technique is especially useful in the management of pediatric emergencies when intravenous access to the systemic circulation is difficult.

AN = admin of drugs or fluids via needle directly into bone marrow; do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D017148


Infusions, Intravenous

MS = The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.

AN = NIM; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; do not confuse with INJECTIONS, INTRAVENOUS

UI = D007262


Infusions, Parenteral

MS = The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.

AN = restrict to method of admin of drugs & chemicals; not for replacement of fluids ( = FLUID THERAPY) nor for nourishment ( = PARENTERAL FEEDING); GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D007263


Inguinal Canal

AN = internal canal only: do not confuse with GROIN, external only

UI = D007264


Inhalation Exposure

MS = The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.

AN = may or may not result in a disease; coord IM with specific inhalant (IM)

UI = D019570


Inhalation Spacers

MS = A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.

AN = do not confuse with spacer inhalers see METERED DOSE INHALERS

UI = D036503


Inheritance Patterns

MS = The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.

UI = D040582


Inhibin-beta Subunits

MS = They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.

UI = D028322



MS = Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively

AN = /biosyn /physiol permitted

UI = D007265


Inhibition (Psychology)

MS = The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.

AN = human & animal; no qualif; DF: INHIBITION

UI = D007266


Inhibitory Concentration 50

MS = The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.

AN = do not confuse with LETHAL DOSE 50, determined in animals

UI = D020128



AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; NIM; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; periodontal ligament injection (PDLI) = PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT (IM) + ANESTHESIA, DENTAL (IM); Manual 26.25; DF: INJECT

UI = D007267


Injections, Epidural

MS = The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.

AN = NIM; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; DF: INJECT EPIDURAL

UI = D007268


Injections, Intra-Arterial

AN = NIM; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; do not confuse with INFUSIONS, INTRA-ARTERIAL; DF: INJECT INTRA ARTERIAL

UI = D007269


Injections, Intra-Articular

AN = NIM; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; INJECT INTRA ARTICULAR

UI = D007270


Injections, Intradermal

MS = The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.

AN = NIM; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; DF: INJECT INTRADERMAL

UI = D007271


Injections, Intralesional

MS = Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.

AN = must be "directly into localized lesions"; NIM; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; DF: INJECT INTRALESIONAL

UI = D015552


Injections, Intralymphatic

MS = Injections into the lymph nodes or the lymphatic system.

AN = NIM; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; X ref INJECTIONS, ENDOLYMPHATIC is seen mostly in foreign lit: nothing to do with ENDOLYMPH; DF: INJECT INTRALYMPHATIC

UI = D007272


Injections, Intramuscular

MS = Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.

AN = NIM; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; DF: INJECT INTRAMUSCULAR

UI = D007273


Injections, Intraperitoneal

MS = Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.

AN = NIM; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; DF: INJECT INTRAPERITONEAL

UI = D007274


Injections, Intravenous

MS = Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.

AN = NIM; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; do not confuse with INFUSIONS, INTRAVENOUS ( = "long-term (minutes to hours) admin"); DF: INJECT INTRAVENOUS

UI = D007275


Injections, Intraventricular

MS = Injections into the cerebral ventricles.

AN = brain, not heart; NIM; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; DF: INJECT INTRAVENTRICULAR

UI = D007276


Injections, Jet

MS = The injection of solutions into the skin by compressed air devices so that only the solution pierces the skin.

AN = NIM; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; DF: INJECT JET

UI = D007277


Injections, Spinal

AN = NIM; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; DF: INJECT SPINAL

UI = D007278


Injections, Subcutaneous

MS = Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.

AN = NIM; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; DF: INJECT SUBCUTANEOUS

UI = D007279


Injury Severity Score

MS = An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.

AN = no qualif

UI = D015601



AN = no qualif

UI = D007281


Ink Blot Tests

MS = Projective tests utilizing ink blots to which a subject responds. They are used in personality diagnosis.

UI = D007282


Inlay Casting Wax

MS = A mixture of several dental waxes, usually containing paraffin wax, ceresin, beeswax, resins, and other natural and synthetic waxes. It is used for making patterns to determine the shape of the metallic framework and other parts of removable partial dentures. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p868)

AN = a dent impression material; D25-26 qualif

UI = D007283



MS = Restorations of metal, porcelain, or plastic made to fit a cavity preparation, then cemented into the tooth. Onlays are restorations which fit into cavity preparations and overlay the occlusal surface of a tooth or teeth. Onlays are retained by frictional or mechanical factors.

AN = coord IM with specific tooth (IM) if pertinent + specific material (IM)

UI = D007284


Inorganic Chemicals

MS = A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specific groups or specific chemicals

UI = D007287



MS = A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)

UI = D007288


Inosine Diphosphate

MS = An inosine nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.

UI = D007290


Inosine Monophosphate

MS = Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.

AN = /biosyn /physiol permitted

UI = D007291


Inosine Nucleotides

AN = /biosyn /physiol permitted

UI = D007292


Inosine Pranobex

MS = An alkylamino-alcohol complex of inosine used in the treatment of a variety of viral infections. Unlike other antiviral agents, it acts by modifying or stimulating cell-mediated immune processes rather than acting on the virus directly.

UI = D007542


Inosine Triphosphate

MS = Inosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). An inosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonym: IRPPP.

AN = /biosyn /physiol permitted

UI = D007293



MS = An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.

AN = a B vitamin & lipotropic factor

UI = D007294


Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate

MS = Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.

UI = D015544


Inositol Phosphates

MS = Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.

UI = D007295



MS = A family of rod-shaped or filamentous bacteriophages consisting of single-stranded DNA. There are two genera: INOVIRUS and PLECTROVIRUS.

AN = a family of bacteriophages

UI = D017911



MS = A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS, VIBRIO, and XANTHOMONAS.

AN = coord with specific bacterium /virol

UI = D017912



MS = Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.

AN = inpatients as people or as a social, sociol, psychol, etc., group; do not confuse with HOSPITALIZATION

UI = D007297


Insanity Defense

MS = A legal concept that an accused is not criminally responsible if, at the time of committing the act, the person was laboring under such a defect of reason from disease of the mind as not to know the nature and quality of the act done or if the act was known, to not have known that what was done was wrong. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed)

UI = D007298


Insect Bites and Stings

MS = Bites and stings inflicted by insects.

AN = coord IM with specific insect (IM); DF: INSECT BITES

UI = D007299


Insect Control

MS = The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.

AN = for sexual sterilization of insects, coord specific insect (IM) + PEST CONTROL, BIOLOGICAL (IM) but not also STERILIZATION, SEXUAL (see note there) & not also INSECT CONTROL

UI = D007300


Insect Hormones

MS = Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.

AN = coord IM with specific insect (IM)

UI = D007301


Insect Proteins

MS = Proteins found in any species of insect.

AN = /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted; /physiol permitted for function within the insect; coord IM with specific protein (IM) + specific insect (IM)

UI = D019476


Insect Repellents

MS = Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.

AN = specify insect if pertinent

UI = D007302


Insect Vectors

MS = Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.

AN = coord IM with specific insect (IM); specify both infecting organism & vector if pertinent; in the trypanosome-tsetse fly-cow relationship, the fly (not the cow) is the insect vector

UI = D007303


Insect Viruses

MS = Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.

AN = IM; coord with specific insect /virol (IM)

UI = D007304


Insecticide Resistance

MS = The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.

AN = IM when general; NIM when with specific insecticide (IM) & specific insect (IM)

UI = D007305



MS = Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specific groups or specific insecticides; TN 111 for eff on insects; use for killing or control of ticks even though ticks are not insects

UI = D007306


Insecticides, Botanical

MS = Insecticides derived from plant materials.

AN = insecticides derived from plants, not "effective on plant insects"; TN 111 for eff on insects

UI = D007307


Insecticides, Carbamate

MS = Insecticides, which owe their activity to the carbamate moiety in the molecule.

AN = TN 111 for eff on insects

UI = D007308


Insecticides, Organochlorine

MS = A class of insecticides composed of chlorinated organic compounds.

AN = TN 111 for eff on insects

UI = D007309


Insecticides, Organophosphate

MS = A class of insecticides composed of an organic radical bound to a phosphorus-containing radical.

AN = /antag: consider also CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS; TN 111: eff on insects

UI = D007310


Insecticides, Organothiophosphate

MS = A class of insecticides composed of an organic radical bound to a thiophosphorus acid radical. One or more of the oxygen atoms of the phosphorus acid radical may be replaced by one or more sulfur atoms.

AN = /antag: consider also CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS; TN 111: eff on insects

UI = D007311



MS = An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.

AN = do not confuse with ANTEATERS see XENARTHRA

UI = D007312



MS = Insects are a class, Insecta, of Arthropoda whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth, several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. They have lived on earth for about 350 million years, as compared with less than 2 million for man. While insects are often commercially valuable and useful as scavengers, many species are harmful, causing enormous losses in agriculture and storage. Three orders, HEMIPTERA, DIPTERA, and Siphonaptera, are of medical interest in that they cause disease in man and animal. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)

AN = GEN: prefer specifics; /microbiol /parasitol /virol permitted; /drug eff: TN 111

UI = D007313



UI = D007314


Insemination, Artificial

MS = Artificial introduction of semen into the vagina for the purpose of inducing conception.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D007315


Insemination, Artificial, Heterologous

MS = Human artificial insemination in which the semen used is that of a man other than the woman's husband.

AN = human only: semen other than husband's; DF: INSEMINATION ARTIFICIAL HETEROL

UI = D007316


Insemination, Artificial, Homologous

MS = Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.

AN = human only; use of husband's semen; DF: INSEMINATION ARTIFICIAL HOMOL

UI = D007317


Inservice Training

MS = On the job training programs for personnel carried out within an institution or agency. It includes orientation programs.


UI = D007318


Insomnia, Fatal Familial

MS = An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by degeneration of the THALAMUS and progressive insomnia. It is caused by a mutation in the prion protein (PRIONS).

UI = D034062


Inspiratory Capacity

MS = The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the tidal volume and the inspiratory reserve volume. Common abbreviation is IC.


UI = D007320


Inspiratory Reserve Volume

MS = The extra volume of air that can be inspired with maximal effort after reaching the end of a normal, quiet inspiration. Common abbreviation is IRV.

AN = NIM; in texts as IRV

UI = D007321


Instillation, Drug

MS = The administration of therapeutic agents drop by drop, as eye drops, ear drops, or nose drops. It is also administered into a body space or cavity through a catheter. It differs from irrigation in that the irrigate is removed within minutes, but the instillate is left in place.

AN = NIM but only if discussed: do not index here routinely for every instilled drug; read MeSH definition; no qualif

UI = D007322



MS = Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.

AN = human & animal; no qualif

UI = D007323


Institute of Medicine (U.S.)

MS = Identifies, for study and analysis, important issues and problems that relate to health and medicine. The Institute initiates and conducts studies of national policy and planning for health care and health-related education and research; it also responds to requests from the federal government and other agencies for studies and advice.

AN = add UNITED STATES (NIM); research support by this agency is checked as NON-US GOVT SUP; DF: IOM CATALOG: use NAF entry

UI = D015969


Institutional Management Teams

MS = Administrator-selected management groups who are responsible for making decisions pertaining to the provision of integrated direction for various institutional functions.

AN = IM; toward integration of various institutional functions: do not confuse with PATIENT CARE TEAM (directed to personal care)

UI = D007324


Institutional Practice

MS = Professional practice as an employee or contractee of a health care institution.

UI = D007325



MS = The caring for individuals in institutions and their adaptation to routines characteristic of the institutional environment, and/or their loss of adaptation to life outside the institution.

AN = coord IM with type of institution (IM) if pertinent; institutionalization of mentally ill: consider also COMMITMENT OF MENTALLY ILL

UI = D007326


Instruction [Publication Type]

MS = Works consisting of nonfiction films and video designed to teach, instruct, or train. (From Moving Image Materials: Genre Terms, 1988)

AN = publication type only; retrict to instruction by motion pictures & video, not by lectures, classroom or printed matter; used for historical materials only

UI = D019514



MS = The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.

AN = for air & other gases, powders, etc., do not use /util except by MeSH definition; for specific insufflation procedures consider other terms under PNEUMO-

UI = D007327


Insulator Elements

MS = Nucleic acid regulatory sequences that limit or oppose the action of ENHANCER ELEMENTS and define the boundary between differentially regulated gene loci.

UI = D038101



MS = A protein hormone secreted by beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, generally promoting the cellular utilization of glucose. It is also an important regulator of protein and lipid metabolism. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

AN = /biosyn /physiol permitted; /admin: consider also INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS; /blood: consider also HYPERINSULINEMIA (excessively high blood insulin levels) but do not confuse with HYPERINSULINISM (excessive secretion of insulin by pancreas); /immunology: consider also INSULIN ANTIBODIES; /ther use: if by INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS use INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS & not also INSULIN /ther use; precursor = PROINSULIN

UI = D007328


Insulin Antagonists

MS = Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.


UI = D007329


Insulin Antibodies

UI = D007330


Insulin Coma

AN = caused by excess exogenous insulin

UI = D007331


Insulin Infusion Systems

MS = Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; does not include conventional insulin injections ( = INSULIN /admin + specific injection term); permitted as IM coord with DIABETES MELLITUS & specifics instead of INSULIN /ther use; for implantable insulin infusion devices coord IM with INFUSION PUMPS, IMPLANTABLE (NIM); insulin patches do not go here: index INSULIN /admin (IM) + ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS (NIM)

UI = D007332


Insulin Like Growth-Factor-Binding Protein 4

MS = One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.

AN = /biosyn /drug eff /physiol /ultrastruct permitted; DF: note short X refs

UI = D018974


Insulin Resistance

MS = Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: Requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent hyperglycemia or ketosis. It is usually due to insulin binding by antibodies (INSULIN ANTIBODIES), but abnormalities in insulin receptors (RECEPTOR, INSULIN) on cell surfaces also occur. It is associated with obesity, ketoacidosis, infection, and certain rare conditions. (from Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = for insulin resistance syndrome X use METABOLIC SYNDROME X

UI = D007333


Insulin, Isophane

MS = A modified form of insulin that contains protamine and zinc. Isophane insulin is an intermediate-acting INSULIN with time of onset of 2 hours and duration of 24 hours.

UI = D007336


Insulin, Lente

MS = Sterile suspension, in a buffered water medium, of insulin modified by the addition of zinc chloride in a manner such that the solid phase of the suspension conisists of a mixture of crystals and amorphous material in a ratio of approximately 7:3. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p4888)

AN = a hypoglycemic

UI = D007337


Insulin, Protamine Zinc

MS = A long-acting, modified form of INSULIN containing protamine and zinc. Its duration of action lasts up to 36 hours.

UI = D007338


Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3

MS = One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.

AN = /biosyn /drug eff /physiol /ultrastruct permitted; DF: note short X refs

UI = D018972


Insulin-Like Growth Factor I

MS = A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.

UI = D007334


Insulin-Like Growth Factor II

MS = A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.

UI = D007335


Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein 2

MS = One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.

AN = /biosyn /drug eff /physiol /ultrastruct permitted; DF: note short X refs

UI = D018971


Insulin-Like Growth-Factor Binding Protein 1

MS = One of the six homologous proteins that specifically bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions. The function of this protein is not completely defined. However, several studies demonstrate that it inhibits IGF binding to cell surface receptors and thereby inhibits IGF-mediated mitogenic and cell metabolic actions. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1993;204(1):4-29)

AN = /biosyn /drug eff /physiol /ultrastruct permitted; DF: note short X refs

UI = D018970


Insulin-Like Growth-Factor-Binding Proteins

MS = A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; /biosyn /drug eff /physiol /ultrastruct permitted; DF: note short X refs

UI = D018969


Insulin-Like Growth-Factor-Binding-Protein 5

MS = One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.

AN = /biosyn /drug eff /physiol /ultrastruct permitted; DF: note short X refs

UI = D018975


Insulin-Like-Growth-Factor-Binding Protein 6

MS = One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.

AN = /biosyn /drug eff /physiol /ultrastruct permitted; DF: note short X refs

UI = D018976



MS = A tumor of the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans. Although usually benign, such tumors are among the most important causes of hypoglycemia. Insulinomas usually occur in patients between the ages of 20 and 75 years, the average age being 44-46. Women are 60% of the patients in most series. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1324)

AN = /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with PANCREATIC NEOPLASMS (IM)

UI = D007340



MS = An enzyme the catalyzes the degradation of insulin, glucagon and other polypeptides. It is inhibited by bacitracin, chelating agents EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, and by thiol-blocking reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide, but not phosphoramidon. (Eur J Biochem 1994;223:1-5) EC

UI = D007339



MS = Coverage by contract whereby one part indemnifies or guarantees another against loss by a specified contingency.

AN = specify geog if possible

UI = D007341


Insurance Benefits

MS = Payments or services provided under stated circumstances under the terms of an insurance policy. In prepayment programs, benefits are the services the programs will provide at defined locations and to the extent needed.

AN = coord IM with specific type of insurance (IM) + geog if pertinent

UI = D007342


Insurance Carriers

MS = Organizations which assume the financial responsibility for the risks of policyholders.

AN = specify geog if possible

UI = D007343


Insurance Claim Reporting

MS = The design, completion, and filing of forms with the insurer.

UI = D007344


Insurance Claim Review

MS = Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.

UI = D007345


Insurance Coverage

MS = Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)

AN = coord IM with specific type of insurance (IM); not restricted to health insurance; specify geog if pertinent; UNIVERSAL COVERAGE (restricted to health insurance) is also available

UI = D019458


Insurance Pools

MS = An organization of insurers or reinsurers through which particular types of risk are shared or pooled. The risk of high loss by a particular insurance company is transferred to the group as a whole (the insurance pool) with premiums, losses, and expenses shared in agreed amounts.

AN = specify geog if possible

UI = D015271


Insurance Selection Bias

MS = Adverse of favorable selection bias exhibited by insurers or enrollees resulting in disproportionate enrollment of certain groups of people.

AN = no qualif

UI = D015273


Insurance, Accident

MS = Insurance providing coverage for physical injury suffered as a result of unavoidable circumstances.

AN = specify geog if possible

UI = D007346


Insurance, Dental

MS = Insurance providing coverage for dental care.

AN = specify geog if possible; DF: INSURANCE DENT

UI = D007347


Insurance, Disability

MS = Insurance designed to compensate persons who lose wages because of illness or injury; insurance providing periodic payments that partially replace lost wages, salary, or other income when the insured is unable to work because of illness, injury, or disease. Individual and group disability insurance are two types of such coverage. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p207)

AN = IM; coord with specific disability if pertinent (IM); specific geog if possible

UI = D018868


Insurance, Health

MS = Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.

AN = specify geog if possible; CHAMPUS: index under HEALTH BENEFIT PLANS, EMPLOYEE

UI = D007348


Insurance, Health, Reimbursement

MS = Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)

AN = specify geog if possible

UI = D007349


Insurance, Hospitalization

MS = Health insurance providing benefits to cover or partly cover hospital expenses.

AN = specify geog if possible

UI = D007350


Insurance, Liability

MS = Insurance against loss resulting from liability for injury or damage to the persons or property of others.

AN = specify geog if possible

UI = D007351


Insurance, Life

MS = Insurance providing for payment of a stipulated sum to a designated beneficiary upon death of the insured.

AN = specify geog if possible

UI = D007352


Insurance, Long-Term Care

MS = Health insurance to provide full or partial coverage for long-term home care services or for long-term nursing care provided in a residential facility such as a nursing home.

AN = specify geog if possible

UI = D007353


Insurance, Major Medical

MS = Insurance providing a broad range of medical services and supplies, when prescribed by a physician, whether or not the patient is hospitalized. It frequently is an extension of a basic policy and benefits will not begin until the basic policy is exhausted.

AN = specify geog if possible; DF: INSURANCE MAJOR MED

UI = D007354


Insurance, Medigap

MS = A supplemental health insurance policy sold by private insurance companies and designed to pay for health care costs and services that are not paid for either by Medicare alone or by a combination of Medicare and existing private health insurance benefits. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)

AN = insures the gap between payments by private insurers & Medicare; specify geog

UI = D017054


Insurance, Nursing Services

MS = Insurance providing benefits for the costs of care provided by nurses, especially nurse practitioners and nurse clinicians.

AN = specify geog if possible; DF: INSURANCE NURS SERV

UI = D007355


Insurance, Pharmaceutical Services

MS = Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.

AN = specify geog if possible; DF: INSURANCE PHARM SERV

UI = D007356


Insurance, Physician Services

MS = Insurance providing benefits for the costs of care by a physician which can be comprehensive or limited to surgical expenses or for care provided only in the hospital. It is frequently called "regular medical expense" or "surgical expense".

AN = specify geog if possible; DF: INSURANCE PHYSICIAN SERV

UI = D007357


Insurance, Psychiatric

MS = Insurance providing benefits to cover part or all of the psychiatric care.

AN = specify geog if possible

UI = D007358


Insurance, Surgical

MS = A specific type of health insurance which provides surgeons' fees for specified amounts according to the type of surgery listed in the policy.

AN = specify geog if possible; DF: INSURANCE SURG

UI = D007359



MS = An enzyme that inserts DNA into the host genome. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and also by temperate bacteriophages, the best known being bacteriophage lambda. EC 2.7.7.-.

AN = HIV INTEGRASE is also available

UI = D019426


Integrase Inhibitors

MS = Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of integrase.

UI = D019429


Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems

MS = A concept, developed in 1983 under the aegis of and supported by the National Library of Medicine under the name of Integrated Academic Information Management Systems, to provide professionals in academic health sciences centers and health sciences institutions with convenient access to an integrated and comprehensive network of knowledge. It addresses a wide cross-section of users from administrators and faculty to students and clinicians and has applications to planning, clinical and managerial decision-making, teaching, and research. It provides access to various types of clinical, management, educational, etc., databases, as well as to research and bibliographic databases. In August 1992 the name was changed from Integrated Academic Information Management Systems to Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems to reflect use beyond the academic milieu.

AN = DF: note short X ref

UI = D016490


Integration Host Factors

MS = Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.

AN = see SCR for organism-specific terms

UI = D034982


Integrin alpha Chains

MS = The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF-HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short (>50 AA) with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.

UI = D039001


Integrin alpha1

MS = An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.

UI = D039423


Integrin alpha1beta1

MS = Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.

UI = D039222


Integrin alpha2

MS = An integrin alpha subunit that primarily combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the INTEGRIN ALPHA2BETA1 heterodimer. It contains a domain which has homology to collagen-binding domains found in von Willebrand factor.

UI = D039421


Integrin alpha2beta1

MS = An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.

UI = D038982


Integrin alpha3

MS = An integrin alpha subunit that occurs as alternatively spliced isoforms. The isoforms are differentially expressed in specific cell types and at specific developmental stages. Integrin alpha3 combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form INTEGRIN ALPHA3BETA1 which is a heterodimer found primarily in epithelial cells.

UI = D039422


Integrin alpha3beta1

MS = Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.

UI = D039201


Integrin alpha4

MS = An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.

UI = D039441


Integrin alpha4beta1

MS = Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell-EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS, NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.

UI = D039041


Integrin alpha5

MS = This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.

UI = D039482


Integrin alpha5beta1

MS = An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.


UI = D039081


Integrin alpha6

MS = An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.

UI = D039503


Integrin alpha6beta1

MS = A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS, LEUKOCYTES and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.

UI = D039121


Integrin alpha6beta4

MS = This INTEGRIN is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.

UI = D039161


Integrin alphaV

MS = An alpha integrin with a molecular weight of 160 kD that is found in a variety of cell types. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds. Integrin alphaV can combine with several different beta subunits to form heterodimers that generally bind to RGD sequence-containing extracellular matrix proteins.

AN = "V" in alphaV is the letter not the roman numeral

UI = D039564


Integrin alphaVbeta3

MS = An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).


UI = D039302


Integrin alphaXbeta2

MS = A major adhesion-associated heterodimer molecule expressed by MONOCYTES, GRANULOCYTES, NK CELLS, and some LYMPHOCYTES. The alpha subunit is the CD11c ANTIGEN (also called Leu-M5), a surface antigen expressed on some myeloid cells. The beta subunit is the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18).


UI = D016167


Integrin beta Chains

MS = Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.

UI = D039641


Integrin beta3

MS = An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85kD in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.

UI = D039661


Integrin beta4

MS = Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.

UI = D039663



MS = A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development, HEMOSTASIS, THROMBOSIS, WOUND HEALING, immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms, and oncogenic transformation.

AN = prefer specifics

UI = D016023



MS = DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.

AN = do not confuse with INTEGRINS (membrane glycoproteins)

UI = D032023


Integumentary System

MS = The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.

UI = D034582


Intellectual Property

MS = Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)

AN = refers to PATENTS, trademarks, COPYRIGHT, espec under US Constitution; no qualif; specify geog

UI = D018973



MS = The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.

AN = /genet permitted

UI = D007360


Intelligence Tests

MS = Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.

UI = D007361


Intensive Care

MS = Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.

AN = coord IM with disease /ther or /surg (IM)

UI = D017055


Intensive Care Units

MS = Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.

UI = D007362


Intensive Care Units, Neonatal

MS = Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.


UI = D007363


Intensive Care Units, Pediatric

MS = Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill infants and children. Neonates are excluded since INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, NEONATAL is available.

AN = check also tags HUMAN & CHILD; DF: ICU PEDIATRIC

UI = D015278


Intensive Care, Neonatal

MS = Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.

AN = check also tags HUMAN & INFANT, NEWBORN

UI = D015931



MS = What a person has in mind to do or bring about.

UI = D033182


Intercalating Agents

MS = Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.

AN = agents "capable of inserting themselves ... between the successive bases in DNA"; used in DNA studies; D25-26 qualif

UI = D007364


Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1

MS = A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.

UI = D018799


Intercellular Junctions

MS = Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)

AN = A 11 qualif except /cytol /transpl; /genet permitted

UI = D007365


Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins

MS = Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.

AN = coordinate with PARACRINE COMMUNICATION (NIM) if hormone action is localized

UI = D036341


Intercostal Muscles

MS = Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = /growth: coord with MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT; /embryol: coord with MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT if pertinent

UI = D007366


Intercostal Nerves

MS = The ventral rami of the thoracic nerves from segments T1 through T11. The intercostal nerves supply motor and sensory innervation to the thorax and abdomen. The skin and muscles supplied by a given pair are called, respectively, a dermatome and a myotome.

AN = dis: coord IM with PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES (IM); neopl: coord IM with PERIPHERAL NERVE NEOPLASMS (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D007367


Interdepartmental Relations

MS = The interactions between representatives of institutional departments.

AN = no qualif; DF: INTERDEP RELAT

UI = D015274


Interdisciplinary Communication

MS = Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.

AN = use only for communication across disciplines; for relations between individuals in different disciplines, use instead INTERPROFESSIONAL RELATIONS; coord IM with specific disciplines (IM)

UI = D033183



MS = Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).

AN = NIM; coord with LIGHT (NIM) or SOUND (NIM) if specified

UI = D007368


Interferon Alfa-2a

MS = A recombinant alfa interferon consisting of 165 amino acids with lysine at position 23 and histidine at position 34. It is used extensively as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent.

AN = spelling "alfa" is commonly used for recombinant form

UI = D015380


Interferon Alfa-2b

MS = A recombinant alfa interferon consisting of 165 amino acid residues with arginine in position 23 and histidine in position 34. It is used extensively as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent.

AN = spelling "alfa" is commonly used for for recombinant form; do not confuse X ref INTRON A (INTERFERON) with INTRONS.

UI = D015381


Interferon Alfa-2c

MS = A recombinant alfa interferon consisting of 165 amino acids with arginine at positions 23 and 34. It is used extensively as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent.

UI = D020659


Interferon Inducers

MS = Agents that promote the production and release of interferons. They include mitogens, lipopolysaccharides, and the synthetic polymers Poly A-U and Poly I-C. Viruses, bacteria, and protozoa have been also known to induce interferons.


UI = D007369


Interferon Type I

MS = Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).

UI = D007370


Interferon Type I, Recombinant

MS = A type I interferon with antiviral and antineoplastic activity produced by recombinant DNA technology. It can be a mixture of alpha and beta interferons.

AN = spelling "alfa" is commonly used for recombinant form

UI = D015379


Interferon Type II

MS = The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated lymphocytes. It is structurally different from type I interferon (INTERFERON TYPE I) and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of class II histocompatibility antigens in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to autoimmune disease.

UI = D007371



MS = One of the type I interferons (INTERFERON TYPE I) produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells when exposed to live or inactivated virus, double-stranded RNA, or bacterial products. It is the major interferon produced by virus-induced leukocyte cultures and, in addition to its pronounced antiviral activity, it causes activation of NK cells.

UI = D016898



MS = One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.

UI = D016899


Interferon-gamma, Recombinant

MS = A type II interferon produced by recombinant DNA technology. It is similar to the interferon secreted by lymphocytes and has antiviral and antineoplastic activity.

UI = D015382



MS = Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.

AN = do not confuse with VIRUS INHIBITORS, substances found in normal serum, body fluids or tissue; "stimulators" or "inducers" = INTERFERON INDUCERS;

UI = D007372


Intergenerational Relations

MS = The interactions between individuals of different generations. These interactions include communication, caring, accountability, loyalty, and even conflict between related or non-related individuals.

AN = interactions between persons of different generations; not restricted to family; DF: INTERGENERAT RELAT

UI = D016901


Interinstitutional Relations

MS = The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.

AN = no qualif; coord IM with specific institution, agency or organization (IM); DF: INTERINSTITUTIONAL RELAT

UI = D007373


Interior Design and Furnishings

MS = The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.

AN = for houses, commerc estab, hosp, institutions, etc.; DF: INTERIOR DESIGN

UI = D007374



MS = A soluble factor produced by monocytes, macrophages, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. IL-1 consists of two distinct forms, IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta which perform the same functions but are distinct proteins. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation. The factor is distinct from INTERLEUKIN-2.

AN = DF: IL 1 or IL1

UI = D007375



MS = Factor that is a coregulator of mast cell growth. It is produced by T-cells and B-cells and shows extensive homology with the Epstein-Barr virus BCRFI gene.

AN = DF: IL 10 or IL10

UI = D016753



MS = Lymphohematopoietic cytokine that has the ability to modulate antigen-specific antibody responses, potentiate megakaryocytes, and regulate bone marrow adipogenesis.

AN = DF: IL 11 or IL11

UI = D017370



MS = A heterodimeric cytokine that stimulates the production of interferon gamma from T-cells and natural killer cells, and also induces differentiation of Th1 helper cells. It is an initiator of cell-mediated immunity.

AN = DF: IL 12 or IL12

UI = D018664



MS = T-lymphocyte-derived cytokine that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-lymphocytes. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.

AN = DF: IL 13 or IL13

UI = D018793



MS = Cytokine that induces B-cell proliferation, inhibits immunoglobulin secretion, and selectively expands certain B-cell subpopulations.

AN = DF:IL 14 or IL14

UI = D019404



MS = Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-lymphocytes and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce B-lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation.

AN = DF: IL 15 or IL15

UI = D019409



MS = Cytokine produced by activated T-lymphocytes that stimulates the migration of CD4-positive lymphocytes and monocytes. It has been reported to suppress HIV replication.

AN = DF: IL 16 or IL16

UI = D019410



MS = Proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-lymphocytes or their precursors. IL-17 is homologous to an open reading frame found in Herpesvirus saimiri.

AN = DF: IL 17 or IL17

UI = D020381



MS = Cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK cells and CTLs, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.

AN = DF: IL18

UI = D020382



MS = A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.

AN = DF: IL 2 or IL2

UI = D007376



MS = A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by lymphocytes, epithelial cells, and astrocytes which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells. Also called multi-CSF, it is considered one of the hematopoietic colony stimulating factors.

AN = DF: IL 3 or IL3

UI = D007377



MS = Soluble factor produced by activated T-lymphocytes that causes proliferation and differentiation of B-cells. Interleukin-4 induces the expression of class II major histocompatibility complex and Fc receptors on B-cells. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, mast cell lines, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells including granulocyte, megakaryocyte, and erythroid precursors, as well as macrophages.

AN = DF: IL 4 or IL4

UI = D015847



MS = Factor promoting eosinophil differentiation and activation in hematopoiesis. It also triggers activated B-cells for a terminal differentiation into Ig-secreting cells.

AN = DF: IL 5 or IL5

UI = D015848



MS = Factor that stimulates the growth and differentiation of human B-cells and is also a growth factor for hybridomas and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-cells, monocytes, and fibroblasts.

AN = DF: IL 6 or IL6

UI = D015850



MS = Hematopoietic growth factor that promotes growth of B-cell precursors and also is co-mitogenic with Interleukin-2 for mature T-cell activation. It is produced by bone marrow stromal cells.

AN = DF: IL 7 or IL7

UI = D015851



MS = A cytokine that activates neutrophils and attracts neutrophils and T-lymphocytes. It is released by several cell types including monocytes, macrophages, T-lymphocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes by an inflammatory stimulus. IL-8 is a member of the beta-thromboglobulin superfamily and structurally related to platelet factor 4.

AN = DF: IL 8 or IL8

UI = D016209



MS = Factor that is thought to be a regulator of hematopoiesis. It has been shown to enhance the growth of human mast cells and megakaryoblastic leukemic cells as well as murine helper t-cell clones. IL-9 is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 32-39 that is derived from T-cells, and maps to human chromosome 5.

AN = DF: IL 9 or IL9

UI = D016906



MS = Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D007378


Interlibrary Loans

UI = D007379


Intermediate Care Facilities

MS = Institutions which provide health-related care and services to individuals who do not require the degree of care which hospitals or skilled nursing facilities provide, but because of their physical or mental condition require care and services above the level of room and board.

AN = intermediate = not requiring degree of care provided by hosp or skilled nurs facility

UI = D007380


Intermediate Filament Proteins

MS = Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.

AN = /biosyn /drug eff /physiol permitted

UI = D007381


Intermediate Filaments

MS = Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.

AN = A 11 qualif except /cytol; /genet permitted

UI = D007382


Intermittent Claudication

MS = A symptom complex characterized by leg pain and weakness brought on by walking, with the disappearance of the symptoms following a brief rest.

AN = intermittent leg pain caused by walking

UI = D007383


Intermittent Positive-Pressure Breathing

MS = Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase of spontaneous respiration.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; do not confuse with INTERMITTENT POSITIVE-PRESSURE VENTILATION: IPPB is spontaneous, IPPV is on a ventilator; DF: note short X ref

UI = D007384


Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation

MS = Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase when the patient has an artificial airway in place and is connected to a ventilator.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; do not confuse with INTERMITTENT POSITIVE-PRESSURE BREATHING: IPPV is on a ventilator, IPPB is spontaneous; DF: note short X ref

UI = D007385


Internal Capsule

MS = White matter pathway, flanked by nuclear masses, consisting of both afferent and efferent fibers projecting between the cerebral cortex and the brainstem. It consists of three distinct parts: an anterior limb, posterior limb, and genu.

UI = D020772


Internal Fixators

MS = Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.

AN = for fracture fixation

UI = D016268


Internal Mammary-Coronary Artery Anastomosis

MS = Direct myocardial revascularization in which the internal mammary artery is anastomosed to the right coronary artery, circumflex artery, or anterior descending coronary artery. The internal mammary artery is the most frequent choice, especially for a single graft, for coronary artery bypass surgery.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; DF: IMA ANASTOMOSIS

UI = D007387


Internal Medicine

MS = A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif; when permitted for "internal diseases": Manual 28.10; DF: INTERNAL MED

UI = D007388


Internal-External Control

MS = Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).

AN = no qualif

UI = D007389


International Agencies

MS = International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.

AN = specify geog

UI = D007390


International Classification of Diseases

MS = A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.

AN = CATALOG: use NAF entry for specific work

UI = D038801


International Cooperation

MS = The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.

AN = specify geog for cooperating nations; do not index here for "international congresses": CONGRESSES is adequate

UI = D007391


International Council of Nurses

MS = An international professional organization composed of one association per country for the purpose of improving and developing nursing's contribution to the promotion of health and care of the sick.

AN = IM CATALOG: use NAF entry

UI = D007392


International Educational Exchange

MS = The exchange of students or professional personnel between countries done under the auspices of an organization for the purpose of further education.

AN = specify geog if pertinent

UI = D007393


International Normalized Ratio

MS = System established by the World Health Organization and the International Committee on Thrombosis and Hemostasis for monitoring and reporting blood coagulation tests. Under this system, results are standardized using the International Sensitivity Index for the particular test reagent/instrument combination used.

AN = note short X ref

UI = D019934


International System of Units

MS = A system of physical units in which the fundamental quantities are length, time, mass, electric current, temperature, luminous intensity, and amount of substance, and the corresponding units are the meter, second, kilogram, ampere, kelvin, candela, and mole. The system has been given official status and recommended for universal use by the General Conference on Weights and Measures.

AN = in titles use diacritics: Système International d'Unites; DF: note short X ref

UI = D007394



MS = The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)

AN = specify geog if pertinent

UI = D038622



MS = A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.

UI = D020407



MS = Most generally any neurons which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose axons remain within a particular brain region as contrasted with projection neurons which have axons projecting to other brain regions.

AN = A 11 qualif

UI = D007395


Internship and Residency

MS = Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.

AN = med & dent only; "junior physicians" are not interns: index under MEDICAL STAFF, HOSPITAL; DF: INTERNSHIP

UI = D007396


Internship, Nonmedical

MS = Advanced programs of training to meet certain professional requirements in fields other than medicine or dentistry, e.g., pharmacology, nutrition, nursing, etc.


UI = D007397


Interpersonal Relations

MS = The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.


UI = D007398



MS = The interval between two successive cell divisions during which the chromosomes are not individually distinguishable and DNA replication occurs.

AN = specific phases are available; NIM specific cell when merely test cell; coord with specific cell /cytol; permitted with micro-organisms

UI = D007399


Interprofessional Relations

MS = The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.

AN = coord IM with med or other spec (IM) if pertinent; INTERDISCIPLINARY COMMUNICATION is also available

UI = D007400


Interrenal Gland

MS = Structures in fishes homologous to the cortical tissue of the mammalian adrenal gland; they are in close proximity to or imbedded in the kidney.

AN = also called interrenal body; in fish

UI = D007401


Interspersed Repetitive Sequences

MS = Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.

AN = GEN: prefer specifics - DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS or its indentions

UI = D020071


Interstitial Collagenase

MS = A member of the metalloproteinase family of enzymes that is principally responsible for cleaving fibrillar collagen. It can degrade interstitial collagens, types I, II and III. EC

AN = /antag is permitted but TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASE-1 is available

UI = D020781



MS = A superficial dermatitis occurring on skin surfaces in contact with each other, such as the axillae, neck creases, intergluteal fold, between the toes, etc. Obesity is a predisposing factor. The condition is caused by moisture and friction and is characterized by erythema, maceration, burning, and exudation.

AN = a dermatitis of skin folds

UI = D007402


Intervention Studies

MS = Epidemiologic investigations designed to test a hypothesized cause-effect relation by modifying the supposed causal factor(s) in the study population.

AN = "intervention" refers to a modification of the research design, not surg or pharmacol intervention: read MeSH definition; IM GEN only; coord NIM with specific study (IM); no qualif

UI = D016033


Intervertebral Disk

AN = coord IM with specific vertebrae (IM); diseases: probably DISCITIS or INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT but if not, index as INTERVERTEBRAL DISK (IM) + SPINAL DISEASES (IM); chemonucleolysis = INTERVERTEBRAL DISK CHEMOLYSIS

UI = D007403


Intervertebral Disk Chemolysis

MS = The dissolving of the nucleus pulposus of a displaced intervertebral disk, usually by the direct injection of a proteolytic enzyme, especially chymopapain, into the diseased disk.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; coord IM with specific substance /ther use (usually CHYMOPAPAIN) if particularly discussed

UI = D007404


Intervertebral Disk Displacement

MS = An intervertebral disk in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.

AN = = herniation or prolapse; coord IM with specific vertebrae (IM); ther by chemonucleolysis = INTERVERTEBRAL DISK CHEMOLYSIS: see note there

UI = D007405


Interview [Publication Type]

MS = Work consisting of a conversation with an individual regarding his or her background and other personal and professional details, opinions on specific subjects posed by the interviewer, etc.

AN = publication type only; for interviews as a subject, index under main heading INTERVIEWS; appears in titles within brackets & in translations within parentheses; Manual

UI = D017203


Interview, Psychological

MS = A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.

UI = D007406



MS = Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.

AN = for articles on how to conduct interviews, their value, behavior of participants, etc.: do not confuse with Publication Type INTERVIEW (Manual 17.64+)

UI = D007407


Intestinal Absorption

UI = D007408


Intestinal Atresia

MS = Congenital obliteration of the lumen of the intestine, with the ileum involved in 50% of the cases and the jejunum and duodenum following in frequency. It is the most frequent cause of intestinal obstruction in the newborn infant. Its etiology may be related to failure of recanalization during early development or to some impairment of blood supply during intrauterine life. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; coord IM with specific intestine /abnorm except for duodenum: index duodenal atresia as DUODENAL OBSTRUCTION /congen (IM) + INTESTINAL ATRESIA (IM)

UI = D007409


Intestinal Diseases

AN = GEN: prefer specifics; inflamm dis: GEN or unspecified inflamm dis is likely to be INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE; for specific, prefer -ITIS terms in Cat C6; gas cysts = PNEUMATOSIS CYSTOIDES INTESTINALIS

UI = D007410


Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic

MS = Infections of the intestines with a parasite. They are caused most commonly by intestinal nematodes (roundworms) and cestodes (tapeworms). (From Merck Manual, 15th ed; Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = coord with specific parasitic dis (IM) + specific intestine or precoord intestinal dis (IM)

UI = D007411


Intestinal Fistula

MS = Abnormal passage communicating with the intestines.

AN = fistula policy: Manual 23.19+; RECTAL FISTULA & RECTOVAGINAL FISTULA are also available

UI = D007412


Intestinal Mucosa

MS = The innermost membrane of the four coats of the intestinal wall, the other three being the submucosa, muscular layers, and serosa. (Berk et al., Gastroenterology, 4th ed, v.3, p1479)

AN = /cytol: consider also PEYER'S PATCHES; /secret = INTESTINAL MUCOSA /secret or INTESTINAL SECRETIONS but not INTESTINES /secret; for X ref INTESTINAL EPITHELIUM, do not coord with EPITHELIUM unless particularly discussed or contrasted with BASEMENT MEMBRANE or other mucosal tissue & then probably NIM

UI = D007413


Intestinal Neoplasms

MS = Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.

AN = GEN: prefer specific precoord; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D007414


Intestinal Obstruction

MS = Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of intestinal contents toward the anus.

AN = coord IM with specific precoord intestinal dis (IM); note X ref ILEUS but consider also PARALYTIC ILEUS see INTESTINAL PSEUDO-OBSTRUCTION

UI = D007415


Intestinal Perforation

AN = caused by dis or inj; coord IM with specific intestine (IM) or specific precoord intestinal dis (IM); intestinal rupture does not go here: index with INTESTINES /inj or specific intestine /inj (IM) + RUPTURE (NIM) or specific intestine (IM) or specific precoord intestinal dis (IM) + RUPTURE, SPONTANEOUS (NIM)

UI = D007416


Intestinal Polyps

MS = Pedunculated or sessile growths arising from the intestinal mucosa and extending into the lumen. The disease includes intestinal polyposis.

AN = neoplastic; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with organ/neopl, not organ/dis (IM); familial: consider also ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI, a colonic neopl dis

UI = D007417


Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction

MS = Obstruction of the intestines that is functional, not mechanical.

AN = coord IM with specific precoord intestinal dis (IM)

UI = D007418


Intestinal Secretions

UI = D007419


Intestine, Large

AN = GEN: prefer specific; inflammation or inflamm dis = COLITIS or other large intestine -ITIS term in Cat C6

UI = D007420


Intestine, Small

AN = GEN; /cytol: consider also PEYER'S PATCHES; inflammation = ENTERITIS but ENTEROCOLITIS; DUODENITIS & ILEITIS are available

UI = D007421



MS = The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANUS. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.


UI = D007422


Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumping

MS = Counterpulsation in which a pumping unit synchronized with the patient's electrocardiogram rapidly fills a balloon in the aorta with helium or carbon dioxide in early diastole and evacuates the balloon at the onset of systole. As the balloon inflates, it raises aortic diastolic pressure, and as it deflates, it lowers aortic systolic pressure. The result is a decrease in left ventricular work and increased myocardial and peripheral perfusion.


UI = D007423


Intracellular Fluid

AN = do not confuse with interstitial fluid (index under EXTRACELLULAR SPACE)

UI = D007424


Intracellular Membranes

MS = Membranes of subcellular structures.

AN = "membranes of subcellular structures"; A 11 qualif except /cytol

UI = D007425


Intracranial Aneurysm

MS = Congenital or acquired abnormal outpouching of an intracranial blood vessel wall. Saccular (berry) aneurysms are the most common variant, and tend to form at arterial branch points near the base of the brain. Rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE (see also OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)

UI = D002532


Intracranial Arterial Diseases

MS = Conditions which affect the arteries of the brain, meninges, and intracranial portions of the cranial nerves. Relatively common disease processes in this category include: ATHEROSCLEROSIS; emboli; thrombosis (INTRACRANIAL EMBOLISM AND THROMBOSIS); VASCULITIS, CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; CEREBROVASCULAR TRAUMA; vasospasm (VASOSPASM, INTRACRANIAL); INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; and infections.

UI = D020765


Intracranial Arteriosclerosis

MS = Vascular diseases characterized by thickening, hardening, and remodeling of the walls of intracranial arteries. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis, marked by fatty depositions in the innermost layer of the arterial walls, (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis, which features calcium deposition in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis, which refers to sclerosis of small caliber arteries. Clinically, this process may be associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; INTRACRANIAL EMBOLISM AND THROMBOSIS; or INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM.

UI = D002537


Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations

MS = Congenital vascular anomalies of the brain characterized by tangles of thin walled arteries which communicate directly with veins without intervening capillaries. The malformations vary greatly in size and location, and produce symptoms through rupture (see also INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES), mass effect, and vascular steal effect. Clinical presentation is often delayed until the fourth or fifth decade when affected individuals may develop headaches, seizures, and focal neurologic deficits. Large hemorrhages may result in coma or death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p848)

AN = congen cerebral arteriovenous fistula: coord IM with ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA/congen(IM); DF: INTRACRANIAL AVM

UI = D002538


Intracranial Embolism

MS = Migration of foreign material to the intracranial components of the nervous system via arterial pathways. Emboli most frequently are of cardiac origin and are associated with ARRHYTHMIA; mural thrombi; ENDOCARDITIS, SUBACUTE BACTERIAL; HEART VALVE DISEASES; and HEART SEPTAL DEFECTS. Noncardiac sources include lesions of the aorta, carotid arteries, vertebral arteries, and intracranial arteries. Emboli may be composed of thrombosed platelets, atherosclerotic debris, fat, air, tumor cells, or infectious materials, and may cause CEREBRAL INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp824-6)

UI = D020766


Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis

MS = Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.

AN = Not used for indexing or cataloging.

UI = D002542


Intracranial Hemorrhage, Hypertensive

MS = Bleeding within the brain or adjacent structures which results from systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.

UI = D020299


Intracranial Hemorrhage, Traumatic

MS = Bleeding within the cranial vault induced by penetrating and nonpenetrating traumatic injuries, including hemorrhages into the epidural, subdural and subarachnoid spaces, cerebral hemispheres, DIENCEPHALON; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.

AN = BRAIN HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC and specifics are available

UI = D020198


Intracranial Hemorrhages

MS = Bleeding within the intracranial cavity, including hemorrhages in the brain and within the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.

UI = D020300


Intracranial Hypertension

MS = Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.

AN = do not confuse with INTRACRANIAL HYPOTENSION; coord IM with disease /physiopathol (IM) causing or caused by intracranial hypertension

UI = D019586


Intracranial Hypotension

MS = Reduction of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID pressure characterized clinically by HEADACHE which is maximal in an upright posture and occasionally by an abducens nerve palsy (see ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES), neck stiffness, hearing loss (see DEAFNESS), NAUSEA, and other symptoms. This condition may be spontaneous or secondary to SPINAL PUNCTURE; NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; DEHYDRATION; UREMIA; trauma (see also CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA); and other processes. Chronic hypotension may be associated with subdural hematomas (see HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL) or hygromas. (From Semin Neurol 1996 Mar;16(1):5-10; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp637-8)

AN = do not confuse with INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; coord IM with disease /physiopathol (IM) causing or caused by intracranial hypotension

UI = D019585


Intracranial Pressure

MS = Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.


UI = D007427


Intracranial Thrombosis

MS = Formation of a clot composed of platelets and fibrin within the lumen of an intracranial artery or vein, which may result in CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Arterial thrombosis is associated with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, but may also result from hypercoagulability states (see THROMBOPHILIA). Cerebral vein thrombosis is frequently complicated by INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES.

UI = D020767


Intradermal Tests

MS = Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.


UI = D007428


Intralaminar Thalamic Nuclei

MS = Cell groups within the internal medullary lamina of the thalamus. They include a rostral division comprising the paracentral, central lateral, central dorsal, and central medial nuclei, and a caudal division composed of the centromedian and parafascicular nuclei.

UI = D020646


Intramolecular Lyases

MS = Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.

UI = D019753


Intramolecular Oxidoreductases

MS = Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.

UI = D019746


Intramolecular Transferases

MS = Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.

UI = D019751


Intraocular Pressure


UI = D007429


Intraoperative Care

MS = Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.

AN = during surg; use qualif discreetly; DF: INTRAOP CARE

UI = D007430


Intraoperative Complications

MS = Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.

AN = few qualif apply; IM; coord with Cat E4 term (IM) if pertinent with or without /adv eff depending on its relation to the intraop compl: for policy apply principles of POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS, Manual 23.18+; for iatrogenic compl (as X ref SURGICAL INJURIES) or other: TN 179; DF: INTRAOP COMPL

UI = D007431


Intraoperative Period

MS = The period during a surgical operation.

AN = almost never IM; use qualif discreetly; DF: INTRAOP PERIOD

UI = D007432


Intrauterine Device Expulsion

MS = Spontaneous loss of intrauterine devices from the uterus.


UI = D007433


Intrauterine Devices

MS = Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus with a string extending from the device through the cervical as into the vagina. (UMDNS, 1999)

AN = coord IM with material of which device is made (NIM); pregnancy despite use of IUD = IUD with no qualif, not IUD /adv eff; DF: IUD

UI = D007434


Intrauterine Devices, Copper

MS = Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.

AN = pregn despite use: see note under INTRAUTERINE DEVICES; DF: IUD COPPER

UI = D007435


Intrauterine Devices, Medicated

MS = Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.

AN = "IUDs that release contraceptive agents"; coord IM with specific contraceptive agent (IM); pregn despite use: see note on INTRAUTERINE DEVICES; DF: IUD MEDICATED

UI = D007436


Intrinsic Factor

MS = A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the gastric glands that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12. Deficiency of intrinsic factor results in ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.

UI = D007437



MS = Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.

UI = D007438


Introversion (Psychology)

MS = A state in which attention is largely directed inward upon one's self.

AN = no qualif; DF: INTROVERSION

UI = D007439



MS = Introduction of a tube into a hollow organ to restore or maintain patency if obstructed. It is differentiated from CATHETERIZATION in that the insertion of a catheter is usually performed for the introducing or withdrawing of fluids from the body.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; for intub proced in dis, coord with dis /ther, not /surg; esophageal intub = ESOPHAGUS (IM) + INTUBATION (IM), not INTUBATION, GASTROINTESTINAL; esophageal obturator airway = ESOPHAGUS (IM) + INTUBATION /instrum (IM)

UI = D007440


Intubation, Gastrointestinal

MS = The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; for intub in dis, coord with dis /ther, not /surg; esophageal intub & esophageal obturator airway do not go here: see note on INTUBATION

UI = D007441


Intubation, Intratracheal

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; for intub in dis, coord with dis /ther, not /surg

UI = D007442



MS = Knowing or understanding without conscious use of reasoning. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)

AN = knowing without conscious reasoning

UI = D019545



MS = The prolapse of one part of the intestine into the lumen of an immediately adjoining part. There are four varieties: colic, involving segments of the large intestine; enteric, involving only the small intestine; ileocecal, in which the ileocecal valve prolapses into the cecum, drawing the ileum along with it; and ileocolic, in which the ileum prolapses through the ileocecal valve into the colon. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = a form of intestinal obstruction; coord IM with specific precoord intestinal dis term; ileocolic intussusception = ILEAL DISEASES (IM) + INTUSSUSCEPTION (IM) but not also COLONIC DISEASES; ileocecal intussusception = ILEOCECAL VALVE (IM) + INTUSSUSCEPTION (IM) + ILEAL DISEASES (NIM) but not also CECAL DISEASES; cecocolic intussusception = CECAL DISEASES (IM) + INTUSSUSCEPTION (IM) but not also COLONIC DISEASES

UI = D007443



MS = A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain INULIN, alantol, helenin, alantic acid, and acrid resin.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D038143



MS = A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.

AN = usually /diag use in KIDNEY FUNCTION TESTS; do not confuse with INSULIN

UI = D007444


Inventories, Hospital

MS = Materials and equipment in stock; includes drugs in pharmacies, blood in blood banks, etc.

UI = D007445


Inversion (Genetics)

MS = An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.


UI = D007446


Invertebrate Hormones

MS = Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.

AN = coord IM with specific invertebrate (IM)

UI = D007447



MS = Animals that have no spinal column.

AN = avoid: too general; prefer specific classes, orders, families & genera; IM; qualif permitted but use /embryol & /parasitol with caution

UI = D007448


Investigational New Drug Application

MS = An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)

AN = U.S. or foreign, but if U.S., new drug "must be submitted to the FDA" before study in humans; DF: IND APPLICATION

UI = D017387


Investigative Techniques

MS = Investigative techniques used in pre-clinical and clinical research, epidemiology, chemistry, immunology, genetics, etc. They do not include techniques specifically applied to DIAGNOSIS; THERAPEUTICS; anesthesia and analgesia, SURGERY, OPERATIVE, and DENTISTRY.

AN = not used for indexing CATALOG: do not use

UI = D008919



MS = Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.

UI = D007449



MS = An ionic monomeric contrast medium. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D007451



MS = Inorganic salts of iodic acid (HIO3).

AN = salts of iodic acid

UI = D007452


Iodide Peroxidase

MS = A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC


UI = D007453



MS = Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.

AN = inorganic cpds or iodide ion only

UI = D007454



MS = A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.

AN = I-127

UI = D007455


Iodine Compounds

MS = Inorganic compounds that contain iodine as an integral part of the molecule.

AN = inorganic; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; DF: IODINE CPDS

UI = D017613


Iodine Isotopes

MS = Stable iodine atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iodine, but differ in atomic weight. I-127 is the only naturally occurring stable iodine isotope.

AN = I-127; NIM

UI = D007456


Iodine Radioisotopes

MS = Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.

AN = I-117 through I-139 except I-127; NIM; /blood-csf-urine /metab permitted but not for tracer studies ( = /diag use)

UI = D007457



MS = A water-soluble radiographic contrast media for cholecystography and intravenous cholangiography.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D007458


Iodized Oil

MS = The mixture contains 38-42% organically combined iodine that is used as a diagnostic aid (radiopaque medium). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D007459



MS = An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.

UI = D007460



MS = Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.

UI = D007461


Iodoacetic Acid

MS = Iodoacetic acid and its salts and derivatives. Iodoacetic acid reacts with cysteine (-SH) groups to form a carboxymethylated protein and is used as an enzyme inhibitor in biochemical research.

UI = D019807



UI = D007462



MS = Benzoic acid esters or salts substituted with one or more iodine atoms.

UI = D007463



MS = A highly selective and specific beta antagonist that is used to characterize beta-adrenoceptors.

UI = D020120


Iodohippuric Acid

MS = An iodine-containing compound used in pyelography as a radiopaque medium. If labeled with radioiodine, it can be used for studies of renal funtion.

AN = for radiolabeled cpd coord IM with IODINE RADIOISOTOPES (NIM)

UI = D007465



MS = Complexes of iodine and non-ionic surface-active agent acting as carrier and solubilizing agent for the iodine in water. Iodophors usually enhance bactericidal activity of iodine, reduce vapor pressure and odor, minimize staining, and allow wide dilution with water. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

AN = an iodophor is a complex of iodine & a non-ionic surface-active agent; D25-26 qualif

UI = D007466



UI = D007467



MS = An ionic monomeric contrast medium that was formerly used for a variety of diagnostic procedures. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D007468



MS = Iodinated pyridine derivatives that are often used as contrast media.

AN = contrast media; D25-26 qualif

UI = D007469



MS = One of the halogenated 8-quinolinols widely used as an intestinal antiseptic, especially as an antiamebic agent. It is also used topically in other infections and may cause CNS and eye damage. It is known by very many similar trade names world-wide.

UI = D004103



MS = An amphetamine analog that is rapidly taken up by the lungs and from there redistributed primarily to the brain and liver. It is used in brain radionuclide scanning with I-123.

UI = D020367


Ioglycamic Acid

MS = A radiopaque medium. It is a mixture of its meglumine and sodium salts and is used to visualize the biliary tract.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D007471



MS = An effective non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures. Its low systemic toxicity is the combined result of low chemotoxicity and low osmolality.

UI = D007472


Ion Channel Gating

MS = The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.

AN = "opening & closing of ion channels" after various types of stimulation; DF: GATING

UI = D015640


Ion Channels

MS = Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for channel gating can be a membrane potential, drug, transmitter, cytoplasmic messenger, or a mechanical deformation. Ion channels which are integral parts of ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors are not included.

AN = IM; GEN: prefer specifics; coord IM with specific ion /metab (IM); for disorders caused by dysfunction (channelopathy) use /physiopathology

UI = D007473


Ion Exchange

MS = Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often an ION EXCHANGE RESIN, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.

AN = a physicochem process: do not confuse with ION TRANSPORT, which takes place in biol systems; NIM; no qualif

UI = D007474


Ion Exchange Resins

MS = High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D007475


Ion Pumps

MS = A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.

AN = GEN: prefer specifics

UI = D016623


Ion Transport

MS = The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.

AN = in biol systems: do not confuse with ION EXCHANGE, a physicochem process; coord NIM with endogenous substance /metab (IM) or with exogenous substance /pharmacokin (IM); if active transport, coord with BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE

UI = D017136


Ion-Selective Electrodes

MS = Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.

AN = designed to measure specific ion concentrations in cells, tissue or solutions

UI = D017736



MS = A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.

UI = D015759



MS = Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.

UI = D007476



MS = An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.

AN = avoid: too general; GEN; ionization chamber: index under RADIOMETRY /instrum

UI = D007477



MS = Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.

UI = D007478



MS = A non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiological procedures.

UI = D007479


Iopanoic Acid

MS = Radiopaque medium used as diagnostic aid.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D007480



MS = A mixture of isomers used as contrast medium, mainly for brain and spinal cord visualization.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D007481


Iothalamate Meglumine

MS = A radiopaque medium used for urography, angiography, venography, and myelography. It is highly viscous and binds to plasma proteins.

UI = D007482


Iothalamic Acid

MS = A contrast medium in diagnostic radiology with properties similar to those of diatrizoic acid. It is used primarily as its sodium and meglumine (IOTHALAMATE MEGLUMINE) salts.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D007483



UI = D007484


Ioxaglic Acid

MS = A low-osmolar, ionic contrast medium used in various radiographic procedures.

UI = D007485



MS = A syrup made from the dried rhizomes of two different species, CEPHAELIS ipecacuanha and C. acuminata. They contain EMETINE, cephaeline, psychotrine and other ISOQUINOLINES. Ipecac syrup is used widely as an emetic acting both locally on the gastric mucosa and centrally on the chemoreceptor trigger zone.

UI = D007486



MS = Ionic monomeric contrast media. Usually the sodium or calcium salts are used for examination of the gall bladder and biliary tract. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p704)

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D007487



MS = A plant genus in the family CONVOLVULACEAE best known for morning glories (a common name also used with CONVOLVULUS) and sweet potato.

AN = for morning glory check whether it is IPOMOEA or CONVOLVULUS; specify Plant Components; for /Chem crd with D tree compound and/or Preparation; for therap. coordinate with Food or Toxicity or Diseases and PHYTOTHERAPY

UI = D027741


Ipomoea batatas

MS = A plant species of the genus IPOMOEA, family CONVOLVULACEAE. Some cultivars are sweet and edible whereas bitter varieties are a source of SAPONINS. This sweet potato is sometimes referred to as a yam (DIOSCOREA).

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D027723



MS = A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.

UI = D009241



MS = A tricyclic antidepressant that has actions and uses similar to those of AMITRIPTYLINE, but has only weak antimuscarinic and sedative effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p257)

UI = D007488



MS = An irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase types A and B that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has also been used as an antitubercular agent, but its use is limited by its toxicity.

UI = D007490



MS = An antihistomonal agent with low toxicity. It also promotes growth and feed utilization in poultry.

UI = D007491



UI = D007492



UI = D007493



AN = capital, Dublin; differentiate from NORTHERN IRELAND

UI = D007494



MS = A monocot plant family of the Liliopsida class. It is classified by some in the Liliales order and some in the Asparagales order.

AN = prefer specific plant; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATION or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D027621



MS = Surgical removal of a section of the iris.

UI = D032801



MS = A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.

AN = Ir-193; Ir-191 = IRIDIUM (IM) + ISOTOPES (NIM); Ir-182-190, 192, 194-198 = IRIDIUM RADIOISOTOPES (IM)

UI = D007495


Iridium Radioisotopes

MS = Unstable isotopes of iridium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ir atoms with atomic weights 182-190, 192, and 194-198 are radioactive iridium isotopes.

AN = Ir-182-190, 192, 194-198; /blood-csf-urine /metab permitted but not for tracer studies ( = /diag use)

UI = D007496



MS = Acute or chronic inflammation of the iris and ciliary body characterized by exudates into the anterior chamber, discoloration of the iris, and constricted, sluggish pupil. Symptoms include radiating pain, photophobia, lacrimation, and interference with vision.

AN = a type of anterior uveitis

UI = D015863



MS = A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).

AN = do not confuse with iridal see TRITERPENES

UI = D039823



MS = A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus, and Lymphocystivirus.

AN = infection in insects: coord IM with specific insect /virol (IM); infection in vertebrates: coord IM with DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D007497



MS = A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE comprising small iridescent insect viruses. The infected larvae and purified virus pellets exhibit a blue to purple iridescence.

AN = a genus of iridescent (irido-) insect viruses of the family Iridoviridae; coord IM with specific insect /virol (IM)

UI = D017994



MS = The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.

AN = inflammation = IRITIS but note IRIDOCYCLITIS is also available; color = EYE COLOR; /blood supply consider also CILIARY ARTERIES; pigmented epithelium of iris: coord IRIS with PIGMENT EPITHELIUM OF EYE

UI = D007498


Iris Diseases

MS = Diseases, dysfunctions, or disorders of or located in the iris.

UI = D007499


Iris Neoplasms

MS = Tumors of the iris characterized by increased pigmentation of melanocytes. Iris nevi are composed of proliferated melanocytes and are associated with neurofibromatosis and malignant melanoma of the choroid and ciliary body. Malignant melanoma of the iris often originates from preexisting nevi.

AN = /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D015811


Iris Plant

MS = A plant genus of the family IRIDACEAE that contains IRIP, a type-1 ribosome-inactivating protein, and iridals (TRITERPENES).

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031323



MS = Inflammation of the iris characterized by circumcorneal injection, aqueous flare, keratotic precipitates, and constricted and sluggish pupil along with discoloration of the iris.

AN = a type of anterior uveitis

UI = D007500



MS = A metallic element found in certain minerals, in nearly all soils, and in mineral waters. It has the atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of hemoglobin, cytochrome, and other components of respiratory enzyme systems. Its chief functions are in the transport of oxygen to tissue (hemoglobin) and in cellular oxidation mechanisms. Depletion of iron stores may result in iron-deficiency anemia. Iron is used to build up the blood in anemia. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = Fe-56; Fe(II) = FERROUS COMPOUNDS, Fe(III) = FERRIC COMPOUNDS; /physiol permitted; /defic: permitted but consider ANEMIA, IRON DEFICIENCY; pneumoconiosis caused by iron particles = SIDEROSIS; /metab: consider also IRON OVERLOAD; metab disord = IRON METABOLISM DISORDERS

UI = D007501


Iron Chelating Agents

MS = Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D007502


Iron Compounds

MS = Inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.

AN = inorganic; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; DF: IRON CPDS

UI = D017614


Iron Isotopes

MS = Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.

AN = Fe-54, 57, 58; NIM

UI = D007503


Iron Metabolism Disorders

MS = Disorders in the processing of iron in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization. (From Mosby's Medical, Nursing, & Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; DF: IRON METAB DIS

UI = D019189


Iron Overload

MS = An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)

AN = disord of iron metab

UI = D019190


Iron Radioisotopes

MS = Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.

AN = Fe-52, 53, 55, 59-61; NIM; /blood-csf-urine /metab permitted but not for tracer studies ( = /diag use)

UI = D007504


Iron Regulatory Protein 1

MS = A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.

UI = D035941


Iron Regulatory Protein 2

MS = A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its rate of degradation is increased in the presence of IRON.

UI = D035942


Iron, Dietary

MS = Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.

AN = /adv eff: coord with disease /etiol, not /chem ind; /ther use: coord with disease /diet ther

UI = D019266


Iron-Binding Proteins

MS = Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.

UI = D033862


Iron-Dextran Complex

MS = A complex of ferric oxyhydroxide with dextrans of 5000 to 7000 daltons in a viscous solution containing 50 mg/ml of iron. It is supplied as a parenteral preparation and is used as a hematinic. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1292)

UI = D007505


Iron-Regulatory Proteins

MS = Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity theshold.

UI = D035925


Iron-Sulfur Proteins

MS = A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.

AN = /biosyn /physiol permitted

UI = D007506



MS = The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing solution which is inserted and then removed. Any drug in the irrigation solution may be absorbed.

AN = IM only as general procedure; NIM for irrigation of specific organ or site; includes LAVAGE but GASTRIC LAVAGE & PERITONEAL LAVAGE are available as is BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID

UI = D007507


Irritable Mood

MS = Abnormal or excessive excitability with easily triggered anger, annoyance, or impatience.

UI = D007508



MS = Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.

AN = note X ref COUNTERIRRITANTS but use no qualif with it (i.e., adv eff of a counterirritant is COUNTERIRRITANTS, not COUNTERIRRITANTS /adv eff since this would print as a misleading IRRITANTS /adv eff)

UI = D007509


Isaacs Syndrome

MS = A rare neuromuscular disorder with onset usually in late childhood or early adulthood, characterized by intermittent or continuous widespread involuntary muscle contractions; FASCICULATION; hyporeflexia; MUSCLE CRAMP; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; HYPERHIDROSIS; TACHYCARDIA; and MYOKYMIA. Involvement of pharyngeal or laryngeal muscles may interfere with speech and breathing. The continuous motor activity persists during sleep and general anesthesia (distinguishing this condition from STIFF-PERSON SYNDROME). Familial and acquired (primarily autoimmune) forms have been reported. (From Ann NY Acad Sci 1998 May 13;841:482-496; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1491)

UI = D020386



UI = D007510



MS = A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that is an ingredient of the preparation PC-SPES that is used to treat PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031219



MS = Blood deficiency in an organ or tissue caused by a constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics of which MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA & BRAIN ISCHEMIA & their specifics are most common; IM; coord with specific organ /blood supply (IM)

UI = D007511


Ischemic Attack, Transient

MS = Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)


UI = D002546


Ischemic Preconditioning

MS = A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ischemia and reperfusion by prior exposure to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion. (Am J Physiol 1995 May;268(5 Pt 2):H2063-7, Abstract)

AN = IM; coord with tissue /blood supply (IM); ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING, MYOCARDIAL is also available

UI = D019194


Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial

MS = Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.

AN = do not coordinate with MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA or MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION unless particularly discussed

UI = D019157



UI = D007512



MS = A formulation for presenting an antigen to induce specific immunologic responses. It consists of an assembly of antigens in multimeric form. The assembly is attached to a matrix with a built-in adjuvant, saponin. ISCOMs induce strong serum antibody responses, and are used as highly immunogenic forms of subunit vaccines.

AN = coord IM with specific type of vaccine (IM or NIM); DF: ISCOM

UI = D016882


Isethionic Acid

MS = A colorless, syrupy, strongly acidic liquid that can form detergents with oleic acid.

UI = D007513



MS = A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.

AN = IM; specify geog if pertinent

UI = D007514


Islands of Calleja

MS = Discrete clusters of pyramidal and polymorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior perforated substance. The morphology, connections, and neurotransmitters associated with these cells suggest they are part of the striatopallidal system.

UI = D020670


Islets of Langerhans

MS = Irregular microscopic structures, varying from a few to hundreds of cells, scattered throughout the PANCREAS and comprising its endocrine portion. There are three cell types: alpha, secreting glucagon; beta, secreting insulin; and delta (D CELLS), secreting somatostatin.

AN = do not confuse with LANGERHANS CELLS (skin); neopl = ADENOMA, ISLET CELL or CARCINOMA, ISLET CELL or their specifics

UI = D007515


Islets of Langerhans Transplantation

MS = The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; do not coord with TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS unless particularly discussed; in ther of diabetes mellitus, coord IM with dis /surg (IM), not /ther; DF: ISLETS TRANSPL

UI = D016381



MS = An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC by its action on glycogen. With EC, it produces the activity called "debranching enzyme". EC

AN = do not confuse with amylase isoenzymes (index under AMYLASES (IM) + ISOENZYMES (IM) )

UI = D007517



MS = Antibodies produced by one individual that react with antigens (ISOANTIGENS) of another individual of the same species. (Dorland, 28th ed)

UI = D007518



MS = Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the blood group antigens.

UI = D007519


Isoaspartic Acid

MS = An ASPARTIC ACID residue in polypeptide chains that is linked at the beta-carboxyl group instead of at the normal, alpha-carboxyl group, polypeptide linkage. It is a result of the spontaneous decomposition of aspartic acid or ASPARAGINE residues.

UI = D026581



MS = An MAO inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in the treatment of panic disorder and the phobic disorders. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)

UI = D007520



MS = Large regions of the GENOME that contain local similarities in BASE COMPOSITION.

UI = D032085



MS = Metacentric chromosomes produced during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS when the CENTROMERE splits transversely instead of longitudinally. The chromosomes produced by this abnormal division are one chromosome having the two long arms of the original chromosome, but no short arms, and the other chromosome consisting of the two short arms and no long arms. Each of these isochromosomes constitutes a simultaneous duplication and deletion.

AN = note category

UI = D018404


Isocitrate Dehydrogenase

MS = An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC EC

UI = D007521


Isocitrate Lyase

MS = A key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. EC

UI = D007522



UI = D007523



MS = Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.

UI = D017953



MS = 2-(4-Amino-4-carboxybutyl)-1-(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl)-3,5-bis(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)pyridinium. A rare amino acid found in elastin, formed by condensation of four molecules of lysine into a pyridinium ring.

UI = D007524



MS = A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE. Members contain ent-kaurene type DITERPENES.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D037602


Isoelectric Focusing

MS = Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.

AN = a type of electrophoresis; NIM

UI = D007525


Isoelectric Point

MS = The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.

AN = NIM; no qualif

UI = D007526



MS = One of various structurally related forms of an enzyme, each having the same mechanism but with differing chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.

AN = IM general only; coord NIM with specific enzyme (IM)

UI = D007527



MS = Adrenergic beta-2 agonist used as bronchodilator for emphysema, bronchitis and asthma.

UI = D007528



MS = 3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of flavones in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.

UI = D007529



MS = A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.

UI = D007530



MS = An irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor with actions similar to those of echothiophate. It is a powerful miotic used mainly in the treatment of glaucoma. Its vapor is highly toxic and it is recommended that only solutions in arachis oil be used therapeutically. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p1330)

UI = D007531



MS = An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.

AN = /biosyn /defic /physiol permitted

UI = D007532


Isoleucine-tRNA Ligase

MS = An enzyme that activates isoleucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC

UI = D007533



MS = A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.

UI = D007534



MS = A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.

AN = GEN only; see Tree D8 under ISOMERASES & choose the most specific

UI = D007535



MS = The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

AN = NIM; no qualif

UI = D007536


Isometric Contraction

MS = Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.

AN = do not confuse with ISOTONIC CONTRACTION

UI = D007537



MS = Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.

UI = D007538


Isonicotinic Acids

MS = Heterocyclic acids that are derivatives of 4-pyridinecarboxylic acid (isonicotinic acid).

AN = hydrazide = ISONIAZID

UI = D007539


Isonipecotic Acids

UI = D007540



MS = N(6)-[delta(3)-isopentenyl]adenosine. Isopentenyl derivative of adenosine which is a member of the cytokinin family of plant growth regulators.

AN = a cytokinin plant growth regulator

UI = D007541



MS = One of the largest orders of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 10,000 species. Like AMPHIPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Amphipoda, they possess abdominal pleopods (modified as gills) and their bodies are dorsoventrally flattened.

UI = D033321


Isopropyl Thiogalactoside

MS = A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.

UI = D007544



MS = A series of prostaglandin-like compounds that are produced by the attack of free-radical species on unsaturated fatty acids, especially ARACHIDONIC ACID, of cellular MEMBRANES. Once cleaved from the lipid membrane by the action of phospholipases they can circulate into various bodily fluids and eventually be excreted. Although these compounds resemble enzymatically synthesized prostaglandins their stereoisometric arrangement is usually different than the "naturally occurring" compounds.

UI = D028421



MS = Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.

UI = D007545



MS = An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.

AN = do not use /drug eff for insecticides: TN 111

UI = D020049



MS = A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

UI = D007546



MS = 1,4:3,6-Dianhydro D-glucitol. Chemically inert osmotic diuretic used mainly to treat hydrocephalus; also used in glaucoma.

AN = a diuretic

UI = D007547


Isosorbide Dinitrate

MS = A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.

UI = D007548



MS = A genus of protozoan parasites found in the intestines of birds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, including man. The oocysts produce two sporocysts, each with four sporozoites. Many species are parasitic in wild and domestic animals.

AN = infection = ISOSPORIASIS; coord with specific protozoan terms (ANTIGENS, PROTOZOAN, etc) if pertinent

UI = D007549



MS = Infection with parasitic protozoa of the genus ISOSPORA, producing intestinal disease. It is caused by ingestion of oocysts and can produce tissue cysts.

AN = /drug ther: consider also COCCIDIOSTATS

UI = D021865



MS = Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.

UI = D017879



MS = Proposed topical anti-inflammatory agent that may release histamine if given intradermally.

UI = D007550


Isotonic Contraction

MS = Muscle contraction with negligible change in the force of contraction but shortening of the distance between the origin and insertion.

AN = do not confuse with ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION

UI = D007551


Isotonic Solutions

MS = Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = GEN; NIM; no qualif when NIM coord; qualif is usually attached to specific drug in solution; when IM, only D25-26 qualif; DF: ISOTONIC SOL

UI = D007552


Isotope Labeling

MS = Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.

AN = restrict to techniques of labeling with isotopes (stable or radioactive): do not use for radioisotope tracer studies of "labeled" cells, microorganisms or chemicals ( = probably chemical /diag use (NIM) ), as Cr51-labeled erythrocytes = ERYTHROCYTES + CHROMIUM RADIOISOTOPES /diag use but not ISOTOPE LABELING

UI = D007553



MS = Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

AN = for stable isotopes only; GEN: avoid as IM; NIM as coord; Manual 25.20+; m for metastable = RADIOISOTOPES or specific pre-coord radioisotope

UI = D007554



MS = A topical dermatologic agent that is used in the treatment of acne vulgaris and several other skin diseases. The drug has teratogenic and other adverse effects.

UI = D015474



UI = D007555



MS = A beta-adrenergic agonist that causes direct relaxation of uterine and vascular smooth muscle. Its vasodilating actions are greater on the arteries supplying skeletal muscle than on those supplying skin. It is used in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease and in premature labor.

UI = D007556



MS = A potent antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS that is highly selective for vascular smooth muscle. It is effective in the treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris, hypertension, and congestive cardiac failure.

UI = D017275



UI = D007557



AN = ROME & VATICAN CITY are also available

UI = D007558



MS = One of the triazole ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes resulting in impairment of ERGOSTEROL synthesis. It has been used against histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, cryptococcal meningitis & aspergillosis.

UI = D017964



MS = A mixture of ivermectin component B1a (RN 71827-03-7) and B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which is a semisynthetic product from Streptomyces avermitilis. A potent macrocyclic lactone disaccharide antiparasitic agent used to prevent and treat parasite infestations in animals. The compound has activity against internal and external parasites and has been found effective against arthropods, insects, nematodes, filarioidea, platyhelminths, and protozoa.

UI = D007559



MS = The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.

AN = infestation: coord IM with TICK INFESTATIONS (IM)

UI = D018884



MS = A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.

AN = infestation: coord IM with TICK INFESTATIONS (IM)

UI = D026863