Glossary of Bio-Medical Terms




MS = An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Kingston. It was discovered in 1494 by Columbus and was a Spanish colony 1509-1655 until captured by the English. Its flourishing slave trade was abolished in the 19th century. It was a British colony 1655-1958 and a territory of the West Indies Federation 1958-62. It achieved full independence in 1962. The name is from the Arawak Xaymaca, rich in springs or land of springs. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p564 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p267)

AN = an island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies

UI = D007563



AN = TOKYO is also available; Japanese are of MONGOLOID RACE; Ainus, an indigenous people of Japan, are of CAUCASOID RACE, not MONGOLOID RACE

UI = D007564


Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines

MS = Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).

AN = vaccines to prevent infections caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE only, not ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE.

UI = D022321



MS = A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides and this is the source of oil of jasmine.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031660



MS = A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain jatrophone and other diterpenes.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031286



MS = A clinical manifestation of hyperbilirubinemia, consisting of deposition of bile pigments in the skin, resulting in a yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics & note jaundice see refs

UI = D007565


Jaundice, Chronic Idiopathic

MS = A benign, autosomally recessive inherited hyperbilirubinemia characterized by the presence of a dark pigment in the centrilobular region of the liver cells. There is a functional defect in biliary excretion of bilirubin, cholephilic dyes, and porphyrins. Affected persons may be asymptomatic or have vague constitutional or gastrointestional symptoms. The liver may be slightly enlarged, and oral and intravenous cholangiography fails to visualize the biliary tract.

UI = D007566


Jaundice, Neonatal

MS = A transient unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia that occurs between the second and fifth days of life because the hepatic enzyme GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE required for BILIRUBIN detoxification is inadquedate.

AN = do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES; check the tag INFANT, NEWBORN

UI = D007567



MS = Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.

AN = /injuries: TN 115; upper jaw = MAXILLA; lower jaw = MANDIBLE; French "maxillaires" usually means jaws not necessarily maxilla

UI = D007568


Jaw Abnormalities

MS = Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the jaw.

AN = GEN only: prefer specifics: MAXILLA /abnorm or MANDIBLE /abnorm; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D007569


Jaw Cysts

MS = Saccular lesions lined with epithelium and contained within pathologically formed cavities in the jaw; also nonepithelial cysts (pseudocysts) as they apply to the jaw, e.g., traumatic or solitary cyst, static bone cavity, and aneurysmal bone cyst. True jaw cysts are classified as odontogenic or nonodontogenic.

AN = non-neoplastic; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/dis term (IM)

UI = D007570


Jaw Diseases


UI = D007571


Jaw Fixation Techniques

MS = The stable placement of surgically induced fractures of the mandible or maxilla through the use of elastics, wire ligatures, arch bars, or other splints. It is used often in the cosmetic surgery of retrognathism and prognathism. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p636)

AN = coord IM with MANDIBLE /surg or MAXILLA /surg (IM); MANDIBULAR ADVANCEMENT is also available

UI = D019248


Jaw Fractures

MS = Fractures of the upper or lower jaw.


UI = D007572


Jaw Neoplasms

MS = Cancers or tumors of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE unspecified. For neoplasms of the maxilla, MAXILLARY NEOPLASMS is available and of the mandible, MANDIBULAR NEOPLASMS is available.

AN = GEN: prefer specific precoord; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D007573


Jaw Relation Record

MS = A registration of any positional relationship of the mandible in reference to the maxillae. These records may be any of the many vertical, horizontal, or orientation relations. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry)


UI = D007574


Jaw, Edentulous

MS = The total absence of teeth from either the mandible or the maxilla, but not both. Total absence of teeth from both is MOUTH, EDENTULOUS. Partial absence of teeth in either is JAW, EDENTULOUS, PARTIALLY.

AN = note category: do not confuse with ANODONTIA (see note there); = total absence of teeth from mandible or maxilla; partial absence of teeth from mandible or maxilla = JAW, EDENTULOUS, PARTIALLY; total absence of teeth from both jaws = MOUTH, EDENTULOUS; coord IM with MANDIBLE (NIM) or MAXILLA (NIM)

UI = D007575


Jaw, Edentulous, Partially

MS = Absence of teeth from a portion of the mandible and/or maxilla.

AN = see note on JAW, EDENTULOUS for definition; coord IM with MANDIBLE (NIM) or MAXILLA (NIM)

UI = D007576


JC Virus

MS = A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.


UI = D007577



MS = An irrational reaction compounded of grief, loss of self-esteem, enmity against the rival and self criticism.

AN = human & animal; no qualif

UI = D007578


Jehovah's Witnesses

MS = Members of a religious denomination founded in the United States during the late 19th century in which active evangelism is practiced, the imminent approach of the millennium is preached, and war and organized government authority in matters of conscience are strongly opposed (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). Jehovah's Witnesses generally refuse blood transfusions and other blood-based treatments based on religious belief.

AN = specify geog if pertinent

UI = D033221


Jejunal Diseases

AN = inflamm dis or jejunitis: coord IM with ENTERITIS (NIM)

UI = D007579


Jejunal Neoplasms

AN = /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D007580


Jejunoileal Bypass

MS = A surgical procedure consisting of the anastomosis of the proximal part of the jejunum to the distal portion of the ileum, so as to bypass the nutrient-absorptive segment of the small intestine, to treat morbid obesity.

AN = in ther of morbid obesity: note XR ref & do not coord with OBESITY, MORBID unless particularly discussed; do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D007581



MS = Surgical formation of an opening through the abdominal wall into the jejunum, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; JEJUNOILEAL BYPASS & PANCREATICOJEJUNOSTOMY are available

UI = D007582



AN = inflammation or jejunitis = JEJUNAL DISEASES (IM) + ENTERITIS (NIM); jejuno-ileal bypass or shunt or jejuno-ileostomy in obesity: index under JEJUNOILEAL BYPASS & not also under OBESITY (note XR ref)

UI = D007583


Jervell-Lange Nielsen Syndrome

MS = An autosomal recessive syndrome of abnormal cardioelectrophysiology, combining LONG QT SYNDROME with deafness.

UI = D029593


Jet Lag Syndrome

MS = A chronobiologic disorder resulting from rapid travel across a number of time zones, characterized by insomnia or hypersomnolence, fatigue, behavioral symptoms, headaches, and gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Cooper, Sleep, 1994, pp593-8)

UI = D020179



MS = An ethnic group with certain cultural and religious traditions.

AN = IM; specify geog if relevant; as ethnic group: Manual 30.6.1-30.6.4, 34.7

UI = D007585


Job Application

MS = Process of applying for employment. It includes written application for employment or personal appearance.

AN = no qualif

UI = D007586


Job Description

MS = Statement of the position requirements, qualifications for the position, wage range, and any special conditions expected of the employee.

UI = D007587


Job Satisfaction

MS = Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.

AN = no qualif

UI = D007588


Job's Syndrome

MS = A disorder of neutrophils characterized by the presence of abnormal or absent chemotactic responses and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E. It is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and most cases reported have been in girls.

AN = a phagocyte bactericidal syndrome

UI = D007589



MS = Running at a low rate of speed. It can be done as a means of conditioning or for general health and well being.

AN = human & animal; /inj: coord IM with specific inj (IM); /physiol permitted

UI = D007590


Joint Capsule

MS = The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.

AN = coord IM with specific joint (IM) or bone (IM) if no joint term is available

UI = D017746


Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations

MS = A private, voluntary, not-for-profit organization which establishes standards for the operation of health facilities and services, conducts surveys, and awards accreditation.

AN = add UNITED STATES (NIM); DF: note short x ref; CATALOG: use NAF entry

UI = D007591


Joint Deformities, Acquired

MS = Deformities acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease. The joint deformity is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and leprosy.

AN = coord IM with specific joint (IM); HAND DEFORMITIES, ACQUIRED & FOOT DEFORMITIES, ACQUIRED are also available

UI = D016916


Joint Diseases

AN = GEN; prefer specifics; inflamm dis = ARTHRITIS

UI = D007592


Joint Instability

MS = Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.

AN = note category

UI = D007593


Joint Loose Bodies

MS = Fibrous, bony, cartilaginous and osteocartilaginous fragments in a synovial joint. Major causes are osteochondritis dissecans, synovial chondromatosis, osteophytes, fractured articular surfaces and damaged menisci.

AN = note category: "fragments in a synovial joint"

UI = D007594


Joint Prosthesis

MS = Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)


UI = D007595



AN = GEN; joints of animals: TN 117; differentiation of sites & joints: TN 238; inflammation = ARTHRITIS; /surg: consider also ARTHROPLASTY; joint revision: index as ARTHROPLASTY (IM) + REOPERATION (NIM)

UI = D007596



UI = D007597



MS = A macrolide antibiotic from Streptomyces narbonensis. The drug has antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of pathogens.

AN = do not use /biosyn unless by living matter

UI = D015570


Journal Article [Publication Type]

MS = The predominant publication type for articles and other items indexed for NLM databases.

AN = publication type only, supplied by computer for all journal articles indexed for MEDLINE; if article requires an additional or replacement publication type, the indexer will supply it

UI = D016428



MS = The collection, preparation, and distribution of news and related commentary and feature materials through such media as pamphlets, newsletters, newspapers, magazines, radio, motion pictures, television, and books. While originally applied to the reportage of current events in printed form, specifically newspapers, with the advent of radio and television the use of the term has broadened to include all printed and electronic communication dealing with current affairs.

UI = D020452


Journalism, Dental

MS = Content, management, editing, policies, and printing of dental periodicals such as journals, newsletters, tabloids, and bulletins.

AN = writing for or in dent publ or on dent subjects; dental journals go under PERIODICALS & required coord, not here; DF: JOURNALISM DENT

UI = D007598


Journalism, Medical

MS = The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.

AN = IM; JOURNALISM, DENTAL is also available

UI = D018156



MS = The religion of the Jews characterized by belief in one God and in the mission of the Jews to teach the Fatherhood of God as revealed in the Hebrew Scriptures. (Webster, 3d ed)

AN = the religion: JEWS are the ethnic group; specify geog if pertinent

UI = D007599



MS = The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.

UI = D007600


Judicial Role

MS = The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.

AN = use only for discussions of the role of judges or courts in decision making, not routinely for individual court cases

UI = D033222



MS = The walnut plant family of the order Juglandales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mainly temperate zone trees.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D029525



MS = A plant genus of the family JUGLANDACEAE that provides the familiar walnut.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031324


Jugular Veins

MS = Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.

UI = D007601


Jungian Theory

MS = A theoretical psychoanalytical system centered around symbols of the unconscious with the unconscious material derived from two sources - the personal unconscious (repressed or forgotten experiences, thoughts and feelings) and the collective or objective unconscious (the universal inherited qualities which dispose individuals to behave in ways similar to their anscestors).

UI = D007602


Junin virus

MS = A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing Argentinian hemorrhagic fever. The disease is characterized by congestion, edema, generalized lymphadenopathy and hemorrhagic necrosis and is sometimes fatal.

AN = infection: coord IM with ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D018051



MS = A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. The species are slow growing coniferous evergreen trees or shrubs.

AN = note X refs WESTERN CEDAR and EASTERN RED CEDAR: check text to distinguish from other cedar terms in MeSH; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D018653



MS = The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.

AN = 5th planet from sun with 16 moons; no qualif

UI = D018538



MS = The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.

AN = GEN only: prefer /legis (for /legislation & jurisprudence): Manual 19.7+, 19.8.42; specify geog; do not coord with MEDICINE; for civil suits: differentiate from FORENSIC MEDICINE which is for crime & identification

UI = D007603


Jurkat Cells

MS = A cell line derived from human T-cell leukemia and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.

AN = cell line from human T-cell leukemia; check HUMAN but do not add LEUKEMIA, T-CELL

UI = D019169


Juvenile Delinquency

MS = The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.


UI = D007604


Juvenile Hormones

MS = Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.

AN = insects only; coord IM with specific insect (IM)

UI = D007605


Juvenile Literature [Publication Type]

MS = Works produced for children through age 15 or through the ninth grade.

UI = D020482


Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

MS = A complex of cells consisting of juxtaglomerular cells, extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells, the macula densa of the distal convoluted tubule, and granular epithelial peripolar cells. Juxtaglomerular cells are modified smooth muscle cells found in the walls of afferent glomerular arterioles and sometimes the efferent arterioles. Extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells are located in the angle between the afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles. Granular epithelial peripolar cells are located at the angle of reflection of the parietal to visceral angle of the renal corpuscle.

UI = D007606