Glossary of Bio-Medical Terms



K562 Cells

MS = An erythroleukemia cell line derived from a chronic myeloid leukemia patient in blast crisis.

AN = check HUMAN

UI = D020014



MS = A plant genus of the family SCHISANDRACEAE that is used in folk medicine much like SCHISANDRA. Members contain kadsurenone and kadsurin.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D032135


Kainic Acid

MS = (2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.

AN = an antinematodal agent & excitatory amino acid agonist

UI = D007608



MS = A plant genus of the family CRASSULACEAE. Members contain bryophyllins (also called bryotoxins) which are bufadienolides (BUFANOLIDES) that have insecticidal activity.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031962



MS = A decapeptide bradykinin homolog cleaved from kininogen by kallikreins. It is a smooth-muscle stimulant and hypotensive agent that acts by vasodilatation.

AN = /biosyn /drug eff /physiol permitted

UI = D007609


Kallikrein-Kinin System

MS = A system produced in the distal nephron of the kidney. Its components are kallikrein, kinins, kininase I and II, and enkephalinase. It is involved in mediation and modulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, prostaglandins, vasopressins, and in the regulation of sodium-water balance, renal hemodynamics, and particularly blood pressure. The system participates in the control of renal functions and the physiopathology of renal diseases.

AN = note category; DF: KK SYSTEM

UI = D016234



MS = Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC, TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC, and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC

AN = /antag permitted but consider KALLIKREIN-TRYPSIN INACTIVATOR

UI = D007610


Kallmann Syndrome

MS = Congenital and familial disorder characterized by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, eunuchoidal features, and anosmia or hyposmia. It is caused by a defect in the synthesis and/or release of LHRH (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone; GONADORELIN) from the hypothalamus as a result of faulty embryonic neuronal migration. The gene responsible for this is found in the region Xp22.3 on the short arm of the X chromosome. There is a homolog on the Y chromosome. The syndrome is more prevalent in males by a ratio of three to one.

AN = a congen hypogonadism; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D017436



MS = A plant genus of the family ARALIACEAE. Members contain triterpene saponins.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D036882



MS = Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.

UI = D007612


Kanamycin Kinase

MS = A class of enzymes that inactivate aminoglycoside-aminocyclitol antibiotics by regiospecific phosphorylation of the 3' and/or 5' hydroxyl. EC

UI = D019868


Kanamycin Resistance

MS = Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.

UI = D007613



MS = Herbivorous leaping mammals of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands.

AN = do not confuse rat kangaroos with KANGAROO RATS see DIPODOMYS

UI = D007614



UI = D007615



MS = The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

AN = an antidiarrheal

UI = D007616


Kaposi Varicelliform Eruption

MS = A disseminated vesicular-pustular eruption caused by the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS), the VACCINIA VIRUS, or Varicella zoster (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It is usually superimposed on a preexisting, inactive or active, atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC).

UI = D007617


Karaya Gum

MS = Polysaccharide gum from Sterculia urens (STERCULIA). It is used as a suspending or stabilizing agent in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals; a bulk-forming laxative; a surgical lubricant and adhesive; and in the treatment of skin ulcers.

UI = D007618


Karnofsky Performance Status

MS = A performance measure for rating the ability of a person to perform usual activities, evaluating a patient's progress after a therapeutic procedure, and determining a patient's suitability for therapy. It is used most commonly in the prognosis of cancer therapy, usually after chemotherapy and customarily administered before and after therapy. It was named for Dr. David A. Karnofsky, an American specialist in cancer chemotherapy.

UI = D017567


Kartagener Syndrome

MS = An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by BRONCHIECTASIS; SINUSITIS; DEXTROCARDIA; and INFERTILITY. In vitro studies of tissues from these patients, have shown various patterns of abnormal ciliary beating. (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man,, MIM # 244400, April 24, 2001)

UI = D007619



MS = A plant genus of the family RHAMNACEAE that contains tullidinol (toxin T-544) and peroxisomicine (toxin T-514). It is sometimes called buckthorn but should not be confused with other plants called that.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031956




UI = D007620



MS = A family of proteins involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUCCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.

UI = D028884



MS = Mapping of the full chromosome set of the nucleus of a cell. The chromosome characteristics of an individual or a cell line are usually presented as a systematized array of metaphase chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single cell nucleus arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the centromere. (From Stedman, 25th ed)


UI = D007621



MS = Dodecapeptide tachykinin found in the central nervous system of the amphibian Kassina senegalensis. It is similar in structure and action to other tachykinins, but is especially effective in contracting smooth muscle tissue and stimulating the micturition reflex.

AN = a neurotransmitter amphibian tachykinin; /biosyn /physiol permitted

UI = D015286



MS = Dried rhizome and roots of Piper methysticum, a shrub native to Oceania and known for its anti-anxiety and sedative properties. Heavy usage results in some adverse effects. It contains ALKALOIDS; LACTONES; kawain, methysticin, mucilage, STARCH, and yangonin. Kava is also the name of the pungent beverage prepared from the plant's roots.

UI = D020901



AN = use this spelling in translations

UI = D007623


KB Cells

MS = A cell line derived from a human carcinoma of the nasopharynx, used as an assay for antineoplastic agents.

AN = almost never IM; no qualif when NIM, A 11 qualif when IM; check HUMAN but do not add NASOPHARYNGEAL NEOPLASMS

UI = D007624


Kearns Syndrome

MS = A mitochondrial disorder featuring the triad of chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, cardiomyopathy (with conduction block), and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. Disease onset is in the first or second decade. Elevated CSF protein, sensorineural deafness, seizures, and pyramidal signs may also be present. Ragged-red fibers are found on muscle biopsy. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p984)

UI = D007625


Kell Blood-Group System

MS = Multiple erythrocytic antigens that comprise at least three pairs of alternates and amorphs, determined by one complex gene or possibly several genes at closely linked loci. The system is important in transfusion reactions. Its expression involves the X-chromosome.

AN = IM; coord with disease /blood (IM), not /immunol nor /genet; TN 230

UI = D007626



MS = A sharply elevated, irregularly shaped, progressively enlarging scar resulting from formation of excessive amounts of collagen in the dermis during connective tissue repair. It is differentiated from a hypertrophic scar (CICATRIX, HYPERTROPHIC) in that the former does not spread to surrounding tissues.

AN = spreads to surrounding tissue: do not confuse with CICATRIX, HYPERTROPHIC which does not; follow text of author; ACNE KELOID is also available

UI = D007627



UI = D007629



MS = A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA and east of SOMALIA. Its capital is Nairobi. The region was organized as the British East Africa Protectorate in 1895, became a British colony in 1920, became independent in 1963, and became a republic in 1964. It took its name from Mount Kenya which probably meant simply mountain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p601 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p282)

AN = a republic in eastern Africa

UI = D007630


Keratan Sulfate

MS = A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.

AN = /biosyn /physiol permitted

UI = D007632


Keratectomy, Photorefractive, Excimer Laser

MS = A type of refractive surgery of the cornea to correct myopia and astigmatism, using an excimer laser. An excimer laser is a laser containing a noble gas, such as helium or neon, which is based on a transition between an excited state in which a metastable bond exists between two gas atoms and a rapidly dissociating ground state. The extremely precise laser light reshapes the surface of the cornea without making an incision. This procedure can reduce much higher degrees of myopia than radial keratotomy (KERATOTOMY, RADIAL), although it generally takes longer for vision to clear. (From In Focus 1994;1(2):3 and McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p675)

AN = a form of laser surg in myopia & astigmatism; DF: PRK

UI = D018903



MS = A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

AN = /biosyn /physiol permitted

UI = D007633



MS = Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.

AN = epidermal cells synthesizing keratin; A 11 qualif

UI = D015603



MS = Inflammation of the cornea.

AN = inflamm of cornea; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D007634


Keratitis, Dendritic

MS = A form of herpetic keratitis characterized by the formation of small vesicles which break down and coalesce to form recurring dendritic ulcers, characteristically irregular, linear, branching, and ending in knoblike extremities. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)

AN = a form of herpetic keratitis with dendritic (branching) ulcers

UI = D007635


Keratitis, Herpetic

MS = A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)

AN = herpes simplex of the cornea

UI = D016849



MS = A benign, non-neoplastic, usually self-limiting epithelial lesion closely resembling squamous cell carcinoma clinically and histopathologically. It occurs in solitary, multiple, and eruptive forms. The solitary and multiple forms occur on sunlight exposed areas and are identical histologically; they affect primarily white males. The eruptive form usually involves both sexes and appears as a generalized papular eruption.

AN = note category: non-neoplastic; coord IM with precoord organ/dis term (IM); do not confuse with ACANTHAMOEBA KERATITIS

UI = D007636



MS = Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.

AN = inflamm of cornea & conjunctiva

UI = D007637


Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca

MS = Drying and inflammation of the conjunctiva as a result of insufficient lacrimal secretion. When found in association with XEROSTOMIA and polyarthritis, it is called SJOGREN'S SYNDROME.

AN = if with xerostomia or xerostomia & connective tissue dis, index as SJOGREN'S SYNDROME

UI = D007638


Keratoconjunctivitis, Infectious

MS = Infectious diseases of cattle, sheep, and goats, characterized by blepharospasm, lacrimation, conjunctivitis, and varying degrees of corneal opacity and ulceration. In cattle the causative agent is MORAXELLA (MORAXELLA) BOVIS; in sheep, MYCOPLASMA; RICKETTSIA; CHLAMYDIA; or ACHOLEPLASMA; in goats, RICKETTSIA.

AN = animal only; check tag ANIMAL; coord IM with organism/infect heading /vet (IM); DF: KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS INFECT

UI = D007639



MS = A noninflammatory, usually bilateral protrusion of the cornea, the apex being displaced downward and nasally. It occurs most commonly in females at about puberty. The cause is unknown but hereditary factors may play a role. The -conus refers to the cone shape of the corneal protrusion. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = cone-shaped protrusion of cornea

UI = D007640


Keratoderma, Palmoplantar

MS = Group of mostly hereditary disorders characterized by thickening of the palms and soles as a result of excessive keratin formation leading to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis).


UI = D007645


Keratoderma, Palmoplantar, Diffuse

MS = An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a widely distributed, well-demarcated hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles. There is more than one genotypically distinct form, each of which is clinically similar but histologically distinguishable. Diffuse palmoplantar keratoderma is distinct from palmoplantar keratoderma (KERATODERMA, PALMOPLANTAR), as the former exhibits autosomal dominant inheritance and hyperhidrosis is frequently present.

AN = do not confuse with KERATODERMA, PALMOPLANTAR

UI = D015776


Keratolytic Agents

MS = Agents that soften, separate, and cause desquamation of the cornified epithelium or horny layer of skin. They are used to expose mycelia of infecting fungi or to treat corns, warts, and certain other skin diseases.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D007641


Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ

MS = A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA. A microkeratome is used to make an incision of the corneal epithelium (EPITHELIUM, CORNEAL) creating a flap which is displaced. The underlying, exposed inner layer of the CORNEA is then reshaped with an excimer laser and the corneal epithelial flap is returned to its original position.

UI = D020731


Keratoplasty, Penetrating

MS = Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D015948



MS = Any horny growth such as a wart or callus.

AN = a horny skin dis

UI = D007642


Keratosis Follicularis

MS = A slowly progressive autosomal dominant disorder of keratinization characterized by pinkish-to-tan papules that coalesce to form plaques. These lesions become darker over time and commonly fuse, forming papillomatous and warty malodorous growths.

UI = D007644


Keratosis, Seborrheic

MS = Benign eccrine poromas that present as multiple oval, brown-to-black plaques, located mostly on the chest and back. The age of onset is usually in the fourth or fifth decade.

UI = D017492


Keratotomy, Radial

MS = A procedure to treat myopia by cutting radial slits into the cornea to flatten it and thereby change its refractive properties.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D007646



MS = A term used pathologically to describe BILIRUBIN staining of the BASAL GANGLIA; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM and clinically to describe a syndrome associated with HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Clinical features include athetosis, MUSCLE SPASTICITY or hypotonia, impaired vertical gaze, and DEAFNESS. Nonconjugated bilirubin enters the brain and acts as a neurotoxin, often in association with conditions that impair the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER (e.g., SEPSIS). This condition occurs primarily in neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN), but may rarely occur in adults. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p613)

UI = D007647



MS = A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.

UI = D007648



MS = A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.

UI = D007649



MS = A selective serotonin receptor antagonist with weak adrenergic receptor blocking properties. The drug is effective in lowering blood pressure in essential hypertension. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. It is well tolerated and is particularly effective in older patients.

UI = D007650


Keto Acids

UI = D007651



MS = Cholesterol substituted in any position by a keto moiety. The 7-keto isomer inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and inhibits cholesterol uptake in the coronary arteries and aorta in vitro.

AN = /biosyn /physiol permitted

UI = D007653



MS = Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.

UI = D007654


Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex

UI = D007655


Ketoglutaric Acids

MS = A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)

UI = D007656


Ketone Bodies

MS = The substances beta-hydroxybutyric acid, acetoacetic acid, and acetone, which are produced by fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism in the liver in approximately a 78:20:2 ratio. Acetoacetate is produced from acetyl-CoA. Most is enzymatically converted to beta-ketobutyrate, but a small amount is spontaneously decarboxylated to acetone. The ketone bodies can be used as fuels by muscle and brain tissue. In starvation and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, large quantities are produced, causing metabolic acidosis and elevated blood and urine levels of all three ketone bodies. (Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = acetonemia, acetonuria, ketonemia & ketonuria go here; ketogenesis is probably KETONE BODIES /biosyn

UI = D007657


Ketone Oxidoreductases

UI = D007658



AN = KETO ACIDS & KETOSES are also available; ketonemia & ketonuria go under KETONE BODIES; ketogenesis is probably KETONE BODIES /biosyn

UI = D007659



MS = An IBUPROFEN-type anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic. It is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

UI = D007660



MS = A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)


UI = D020910


Ketorolac Tromethamine

MS = A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent used for analgesia for postoperative pain and inhibits cyclooxygenase activity.

AN = KETOROLAC is also available

UI = D020911



AN = monosaccharides; do not confuse with KETOSIS, a disease

UI = D007661



MS = A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of ketone bodies in the body tissues and fluids. It is a complication of diabetes mellitus and starvation. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = high levels of ketone bodies; do not confuse with KETOSES (monosaccharides)

UI = D007662



MS = Steroid derivatives formed by oxidation of a methyl group on the side chain or a methylene group in the ring skeleton to form a ketone.

AN = /physiol permitted

UI = D007664



MS = A cycloheptathiophene blocker of histamine H1 receptors and release of inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed for the treatment of asthma, rhinitis, skin allergies, and anaphylaxis.

UI = D007665



MS = A vasodilator that also has bronchodilatory action. It has been employed in the treatment of angina pectoris, in the treatment of asthma, and in conjunction with ultraviolet light A, has been tried in the treatment of vitiligo. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1024)

UI = D007666


Ki-67 Antigen

MS = A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.

AN = X ref MIB-1 ANTIGEN: MIB-1 antibody is available in the SCR

UI = D019394


Kidd Blood-Group System

MS = A group of antigens consisting principally of Jk(a) and Jk(b), determined by allelic genes. Amorphs are encountered. Antibodies of these substances are usually weak and quite labile, stimulated by erythrocytes.

AN = IM; coord with disease /blood (IM), not /immunol nor /genet; TN 230

UI = D007667



AN = kidney tissue or cells in cultures: Manual 18.6.15, 18.7.2, 26.23+; fetal or embryonic kidney tissue or cells in culture: do not use /embryol with KIDNEY; /blood supply: consider also RENAL CIRCULATION; /radionuclide: consider RADIOISOTOPE RENOGRAPHY, a specific kidney function test (see note there); /surg: consider NEPHRECTOMY; /transpl = KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION: do not coord with TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS unless particularly discussed; cyst = KIDNEY, CYSTIC but KIDNEY, POLYCYSTIC is also available; inflammation = NEPHRITIS; Goldblatt kidney = HYPERTENSION, GOLDBLATT see HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR; nephrostomy: consider NEPHROSTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS (see MeSH definition)

UI = D007668


Kidney Calculi

MS = Calculi occurring in the kidney. Calculi too large to pass spontaneously range in size from 1 cm to the staghorn stones that occupy the renal pelvis and calyces.

AN = chem composition of calculi: use /chem; /ultrastruct permitted

UI = D007669


Kidney Calices

MS = Recesses of the kidney pelvis which divides into two wide, cup-shaped major renal calices, with each major calix subdivided into 7 to 14 minor calices. Urine empties into a minor calix from collecting tubules, then passes through the major calix, renal pelvis, and ureter to enter the urinary bladder. (From Moore, Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 3d ed, p211)

AN = a part of the kidney pelvis

UI = D007670


Kidney Concentrating Ability

MS = The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.

UI = D007671


Kidney Cortex

MS = The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.

UI = D007672


Kidney Cortex Necrosis

MS = The death of all the functioning renal cells of the kidney cortex with continued viability of the majority of the medullary units. It is due usually to the arterial distribution peculiar to the kidney which makes the renal cortex more susceptible to diminished blood flow.

UI = D007673


Kidney Diseases

AN = GEN or unspecified: prefer specifics; inflamm dis = NEPHRITIS; consider diseases under NEPHR- & RENAL; cyst = KIDNEY, CYSTIC but KIDNEY, POLYCYSTIC is also available; "renal failure" not specified as "acute" or "chronic": check text for clues in notes under KIDNEY FAILURE, ACUTE & KIDNEY FAILURE, CHRONIC & if not able to determine, index as KIDNEY DISEASES

UI = D007674


Kidney Failure

MS = The inability of a kidney to excrete metabolites at normal plasma levels under conditions of normal loading, or the inability to retain electrolytes under conditions of normal intake. In the acute form (KIDNEY FAILURE, ACUTE), it is marked by uremia and usually by oliguria or anuria, with hyperkalemia and pulmonary edema. The chronic form (KIDNEY FAILURE, CHRONIC) is irreversible and requires hemodialysis.

AN = for renal failure unspecified as "acute" (KIDNEY FAILURE, ACUTE) or "chronic" (KIDNEY FAILURE, CHRONIC) but check text for clues at those annotations

UI = D017095


Kidney Failure, Acute

MS = A clinical syndrome characterized by a sudden decrease in glomerular filtration rate, often to values of less than 1 to 2 ml per minute. It is usually associated with oliguria (urine volumes of less than 400 ml per day) and is always associated with biochemical consequences of the reduction in glomerular filtration rate such as a rise in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine concentrations.

AN = clues for indexing: check text for see related refs shown here or pois or trauma or "reversible"

UI = D007675


Kidney Failure, Chronic

MS = An irreversible and usually progressive reduction in renal function in which both kidneys have been damaged by a variety of diseases to the extent that they are unable to adequately remove the metabolic products from the blood and regulate the body's electrolyte composition and acid-base balance. Chronic kidney failure requires HEMODIALYSIS or surgery, usually KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.

AN = clues for indexing: check text for see related refs shown here & proteinuria or possible transpl or "irreversible"; DF: note short X ref

UI = D007676


Kidney Function Tests

UI = D007677


Kidney Glomerulus

MS = A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.

AN = "minimal change glomerular disease" = NEPHROSIS, LIPOID

UI = D007678


Kidney Medulla

MS = The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.

UI = D007679


Kidney Neoplasms

MS = Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.

AN = GEN: prefer specifics; coord IM with histol type neopl (IM)

UI = D007680


Kidney Papillary Necrosis

MS = A form of acute kidney disease characterized by necrosis of the renal papillae. It is most frequently associated with diabetes mellitus because of the severe vascular disease present in the arteries and capillaries, particularly in the kidney. There is usually a large component of infection present, and in non-diabetics pyelonephritis and obstructive uropathy are the usual etiologic agents.

UI = D007681


Kidney Pelvis

MS = The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.

AN = do not confuse with pelvic kidney ( = KIDNEY /abnorm); inflammation = PYELITIS; nephrostomy: consider NEPHROSTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS

UI = D007682


Kidney Transplantation

MS = The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; do not coord with TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS unless particularly discussed

UI = D016030


Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute

MS = Acute kidney failure resulting from destruction of tubular epithelial cells. It is commonly attributed to exposure to toxic agents or renal ischemia following severe trauma.

AN = a type of acute renal failure

UI = D007683


Kidney Tubules

UI = D007684


Kidney Tubules, Collecting

MS = Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.

UI = D007685


Kidney Tubules, Distal

AN = "ascending tubules"

UI = D007686


Kidney Tubules, Proximal

AN = "descending tubules"

UI = D007687


Kidney, Artificial

MS = Device(s) which can substitute for normally functioning kidneys in cleansing the blood.

AN = /psychol permitted

UI = D007688


Kidney, Cystic

MS = A kidney containing one or more cysts, including polycystic disease (KIDNEY, POLYCYSTIC), solitary cyst, multiple simple cysts, and retention cysts (associated with parenchymal scarring). (Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = non-neoplastic; differentiate from KIDNEY, POLYCYSTIC; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted

UI = D007689


Kidney, Sponge

MS = Cystic disease of the medullary portion of the renal pyramids; asymptomatic unless complicated by infection, calculi, or obstruction; should be distinguished from congenital polycystic disease of the kidneys.

AN = a type of cystic kidney; non-neoplastic

UI = D007691


Killer Cells

MS = Lymphocyte-like effector cells which mediate antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity. They kill antibody-coated target cells which they bind with their Fc receptors.

AN = lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages or polynuclear leukocytes mediating ANTIBODY-DEPENDENT CELL CYTOTOXICITY; A 11 qualif; subpopulations: coord IM with LYMPHOCYTE SUBSETS (IM)

UI = D007693


Killer Cells, Lymphokine-Activated

MS = Cytolytic lymphocytes with the unique capacity of killing natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh tumor cells. They are interleukin-2-activated NK cells that have no MHC (major histocompatibility complex) restriction or need for antigen stimulation. LAK cells are used for adoptive immunotherapy in cancer patients.

AN = A 11 qualif; subpopulations: coord IM with LYMPHOCYTE SUBSETS (IM); DF: note short X ref

UI = D015979


Killer Cells, Natural

MS = Cells responsible for spontaneous cytotoxicity of a variety of tumor cells without prior immunization. These natural killer cells are found in non-immune humans and experimental animals and are thought by some to be the same as KILLER CELLS (killing by antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity), but they can also kill in the absence of antibody.

AN = cells spontaneously cytotoxic to tumor cells; A 11 qualif; subpopulations: coord IM with LYMPHOCYTE SUBSETS (IM)

UI = D007694



MS = Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.


UI = D007695


Kindling (Neurology)

MS = A phenomenon in which there is a relatively profound alteration in brain function resulting from repeated electrical or chemical stimulation and culminating in the appearance of electrographic and behavioral convulsions whenever the stimulus is re-applied. It is used as an experimental model for epilepsy.


UI = D007696



MS = Systematic study of the body and the use of its static and dynamic position as a means of communication.

AN = no qualif; do not confuse with KINETICS or KINESIS: kinesics = "use of posture or gesture for communication"

UI = D007697



MS = A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.

AN = a microtubule-associated protein

UI = D016547


Kinesiology, Applied

MS = The study of muscles and the movement of the human body. In holistic medicine it is the balance of movement and the interaction of a person's energy systems. Applied kinesiology is the name given by its inventor, Dr. George Goodheart, to the system of applying muscle testing diagnostically and therapeutically to different aspects of health care. (Thorsons Introductory Guide to Kinesiology, 1992, p13)

AN = a type of alternative med; do not confuse with KINESIS; KINETICS or KINESTHESIS; DF: KINESIOL APPLIED

UI = D018953



MS = Locomotor behavior not involving a steering reaction, but in which there may be a turning random in direction. It includes orthokinesis, the rate of movement and klinokinesis, the amount of turning, which are related to the intensity of stimulation.

AN = do not confuse with KINETICS or KINESICS

UI = D007698



MS = The sense by which muscular motion, weight, position, etc., are perceived.

AN = TN 129: definition & relation to MOTION PERCEPTION

UI = D007699



MS = The study of rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

AN = almost never IM; do not confuse with KINESICS ("use of posture or gesture for communication") or KINESIS (a form of movement); pharmacokinetics of chemicals and drugs is PHARMACOKINETICS or better, specific drug term /pharmacokin

UI = D007700



MS = Cell division factors found in various plant parts and in yeast and used as plant growth regulators.

AN = a plant growth regulator

UI = D007701



MS = The graphic recording of chest wall movement due to cardiac impulses.


UI = D007702



MS = Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.

AN = A 11 qualif except /cytol

UI = D018386



MS = A class of ciliate protozoa. Prominent cytopharyngeal apparatus is characteristic of this class as is only a slight distinction between oral and somatic cilia.

AN = a class of CILIOPHORA (formerly CILIATA)

UI = D016799



MS = An order of flagellate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of one or two flagella arising from a depression in the cell body and a single mitochondrion that extends the length of the body.

AN = an order of protozoa

UI = D016830


King's Evil

MS = The historic designation for scrofula (TUBERCULOSIS, LYMPH NODE). The disease is so called from the belief that it could be healed by the touch of a king. This term is used only for historical articles using the name "king's evil", and is to be differentiated from scrofula as lymph node tuberculosis in modern clinical medicine. (From Webster, 3d ed)

AN = = scrofula in hist articles only: differentiate from SCROFULA see TUBERCULOSIS, LYMPH NODE which is restricted to scrofula in modern clin med

UI = D018601



MS = A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. Some species are pathogenic for man.

AN = bacterium of upper resp mucous membranes; infection: coord IM with NEISSERIACEAE INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D017881


Kingella kingae

MS = A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria which is distinguished from other members of the genus KINGELLA by its beta hemolysis. It occurs normally in human mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, but can cause septic arthritis and endocarditis. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)

AN = formerly called Moraxella kingae; infection: coord IM with NEISSERIACEAE INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D017882


Kininogen, High-Molecular-Weight

MS = A plasma protein, molecular weight of 110 kD, that normally exists in plasma in a 1:1 complex with PREKALLIKREIN. HMWK is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. The complex is a cofactor in the activation of coagulation factor XII. The product of this reaction, XIIa, in turn activates prekallikrein to KALLIKREINS. (From Stedman, 26th ed)


UI = D019679


Kininogen, Low-Molecular-Weight

MS = A protein, molecular weight 50 kD, located in various normal tissues. Upon cleavage by KALLIKREINS, it forms KALLIDIN. Kallidin, in turn, is converted into BRADYKININ. (From Stedman, 25th ed)


UI = D019728



MS = Endogenous peptides present in most body fluids. Certain enzymes convert them to active KININS which are involved in inflammation, blood clotting, complement reactions, etc. Kininogens belong to the cystatin superfamily. They are cysteine proteinase inhibitors. HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (HMWK); is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (LMWK); is split by tissue kallikrein to produce KALLIDIN.

AN = cysteine proteinase inhib; /drug eff /physiol permitted

UI = D007704



MS = A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)

AN = a group of polypeptide autacoids

UI = D007705


Kirsten murine sarcoma virus

MS = A replication-defective murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) capable of transforming mouse lymphoid cells and producing erythroid leukemia after superinfection with murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE). It has also been found to transform cultured human fibroblasts, rat liver epithelial cells, and rat adrenocortical cells.


UI = D007708



MS = A macrolide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. The drug has antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of pathogens.

AN = do not use /biosyn unless by living matter; do not confuse X ref LEUCOMYCIN see KITASAMYCIN with LEUCOMYCINS

UI = D015939


Klatskin's Tumor

MS = Adenocarcinoma of the common hepatic duct bifurcation. These tumors are generally small, sharply localized, and seldom metastasizing. G. Klatskin's original review of 13 cases was published in 1965. Once thought to be relatively uncommon, tumors of the bifurcation of the bile duct now appear to comprise more than one-half of all bile duct cancers. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1457)

AN = blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON (IM) + BILE DUCT NEOPLASMS (IM)

UI = D018285



MS = A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.


UI = D007709


Klebsiella Infections

MS = Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.

AN = gram-neg bact infect; coord IM with various species (IM)

UI = D007710


Klebsiella oxytoca

MS = A species of gram-negative bacteria causing URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS and SEPTICEMIA.

AN = infection: coord IM with KLEBSIELLA INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D041121


Klebsiella pneumoniae

MS = Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in man.

AN = infection: coord IM with KLEBSIELLA INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D007711


Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis

MS = A gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium found consistently and exclusively in patients with RHINOSCLEROMA and their contacts.

AN = infection = probably RHINOSCLEROMA but if not, coord IM with KLEBSIELLA INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D007712


Kleine-Levin Syndrome

MS = A rare condition characterized by recurrent hypersomnias associated with hyperphagia, occurring primarily in males in the second to third decade of life. Clinical features include mental confusion, excessive sleep requirements (approximately 18 hours per day), restlessness, and in some cases hallucinations. Episodes have a duration of days to weeks, and may recur several times per year. This condition may resolve spontaneously over several years. (From Adams, et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p569)

UI = D017593


Klinefelter Syndrome

MS = A SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDER characterized by small testes, underdevelopment of secondary sexual characteristics, infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE), hyalinization and fibrosis of the seminiferous tubules, and elevated levels of gonadotropin. Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several variants include those with the karyotpes 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and several mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.).

AN = = classic karyotype XXY; index here karyotypes XXXY, XXXXY, XXYY, XXXYY, XX/XXY, XX/YY, XY/XXY, XXY/XXXY, XXY/XXYY, XY/XXY/XXXY if called KLINEFELTER SYNDROME by author but if not so named by author, index under SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS

UI = D007713


Klippel-Feil Syndrome

MS = A condition characterized by shortness of the neck resulting from reduction in the number of vertebrae or the fusion of multiple hemivertebrae into one osseous mass. The hairline is low and the motion of the neck is limited. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = short neck as result of vertebral abnorm; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D007714


Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome

MS = A rare condition usually affecting one extremity, characterized by hypertrophy of the bone and related soft tissues, large cutaneous hemangiomas, persistent nevus flammeus, and skin varices. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = a form of angiomatosis

UI = D007715


Kluver-Bucy Syndrome

MS = A neurobehavioral syndrome associated with bilateral medial temporal lobe dysfunction. Clinical manifestations include oral exploratory behavior; tactile exploratory behavior; hypersexuality; BULIMIA; MEMORY DISORDERS; placidity; and an inability to recognize objects or faces. This disorder may result from a variety of conditions, including CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; infections; ALZHEIMER DISEASE; PICK DISEASE OF THE BRAIN; and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS.

UI = D020232



MS = An ascomycetous yeast of the fungal family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.

UI = D007716



AN = primates only; /inj = KNEE INJURIES but PATELLA /inj is also available; TN 238: differentiation from KNEE JOINT & indexing instructions

UI = D007717


Knee Dislocation

MS = Slippage of the FEMUR off the TIBIA.

AN = do not confuse with PATELLAR DISLOCATION, which is displacement of the patella (knee cap) from the femoral groove

UI = D031221


Knee Injuries

MS = Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.

AN = consider also PATELLA /inj

UI = D007718


Knee Joint

AN = primates only; TN 238: differentiation from KNEE & indexing instructions

UI = D007719


Knee Prosthesis

MS = Replacement for a knee joint.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D007720



MS = The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.

AN = restrict to knowledge as an abstract or philosophical concept, as "transmission of knowledge"; do not use as coord for knowledge of specific subjects as "fuller use of our knowledge about children"; will figure largely in hist articles & hist contexts; "medical knowledge" is probably MEDICINE & not here

UI = D019359


Knowledge of Results (Psychology)

MS = A principle that learning is facilitated when the learner receives immediate evaluation of learning performance. The concept also hypothesizes that learning is facilitated when the learner is promptly informed whether a response is correct, and, if incorrect, of the direction of error.


UI = D007721


Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice

MS = Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related events such as procedures, diseases, or family planning.

AN = no qualif; not restricted to family planning: for concepts which "pertain to health-related events such as procedures, diseases or family planning"; knowledge of physicians is probably CLINICAL COMPETENCE; do not use for knowledge or attitude or practice in psychol literature ( = possibly KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS or ATTITUDE or PRACTICE (PSYCHOLOGY) ); DF: KAP

UI = D007722



MS = A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA, comprising thermophilic organisms from the hot spring Obsidian Pool (Yellowstone National Park) that are among the most primitive of all life forms. They have undergone comparatively little evolutionary change since the last common ancestor of all extant life. (From ASM News, 1996; 62(9):468-9)

AN = a kingdom of Archaea

UI = D019708



UI = D007723



MS = A culture-specific acute delusional syndrome occurring mostly in the Malay people and Southern Chinese. The syndrome is characterized by the individual's sudden experience of depersonalization depicted by the belief that his penis is shrinking into his abdomen and that he will die when this occurs. Although generally classified as a culture-specific syndrome, koro may be no more than a variant of castration anxiety (ANXIETY, CASTRATION) as it has been described in non-Asian patients.

AN = a depersonalization disord; do not confuse with KURU, a neurol dis; specify ethnic group (IM) if pertinent; check tag MALE

UI = D016911


Korsakoff Syndrome

MS = An acquired cognitive disorder characterized by inattentiveness and the inability to form short term memories. This disorder is frequently associated with chronic ALCOHOLISM; but it may also result from dietary deficiencies; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NEOPLASMS; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; ENCEPHALITIS; EPILEPSY; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)

UI = D020915



MS = A plant family of the order Polygalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031326


Kraurosis Vulvae

MS = An atrophic disease affecting the female external genitalia, most often of older women, resulting in drying and shriveling of the parts, and marked by leukoplakic patches on the mucosa, itching, dyspareunia, dysuria, and soreness. It occurs most commonly as a result of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus of the vulva, but may be associated with other types of genital atrophy. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = atrophy of vulva & vagina

UI = D007724



MS = Triple-looped protein domains linked by disulfide bonds. These common structural domains, so-named for their resemblance to Danish pastries known as kringlers, play a role in binding membranes, proteins, and phospholipids as well as in regulating proteolysis. Kringles are also present in coagulation-related and fibrinolytic proteins and other plasma proteinases.

UI = D018082


Krukenberg Tumor

MS = Mucocellular carcinoma of the ovary, usually metastatic from the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by areas of mucoid degeneration and the presence of signet-ring-like cells. It accounts for 30%-40% of metastatic cancers to the ovaries and possibly 1%-2% of all malignant ovarian tumors. The lesions may not be discovered until the primary disease is advanced, and most patients die of their disease within a year. In some cases, a primary tumor is not found. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1685

AN = /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with OVARIAN NEOPLASMS (IM)

UI = D007725



MS = A noble gas that is found in the atmosphere. It has the atomic symbol Kr, atomic number 36, atomic weight 83.80, and has been used in electric bulbs.

AN = a rare gas; Kr-84; Kr-78, 80, 82, 83, 86 = KRYPTON (IM) + ISOTOPES (NIM); Kr-74-77, 79, 81, 85, 87-94 = KRYPTON RADIOISOTOPES (IM)

UI = D007726


Krypton Radioisotopes

MS = Unstable isotopes of krypton that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Kr atoms with atomic weights 74-77, 79, 81, 85, and 87-94 are radioactive krypton isotopes.

AN = Kr-74-77, 79, 81, 85, 87-94; /blood-csf-urine /metab permitted but not for tracer studies ( = /diag use)

UI = D007727



MS = A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE. The common name of tea tree more often refers to MELALEUCA or LEPTOSPERMUM.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031648


Kupffer Cells

MS = Specialized phagocytic cells of the RETICULOENDOTHELIAL SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.

AN = also called reticuloendothelial cells of liver

UI = D007728



MS = A prion disease found exclusively among the Fore liguistic group natives of the highlands of NEW GUINEA. The illness is primarily restricted to adult females and children of both sexes. It is marked by the subacute onset of tremor and ataxia followed by motor weakness and incontinence. Death occurs within 3-6 months of disease onset. The condition is associated with ritual cannibalism, and has become rare since this practice has been discontinued. Pathologic features include a noninflammatory loss of neurons that is most prominent in the cerebellum, glial proliferation, and amyloid plaques. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p773)

AN = do not confuse with KORO, a depersonalization disord

UI = D007729



UI = D007730


Kveim Test

MS = Intradermal injection of a heated (pasteurized) saline suspension of sarcoid tissue obtained from a sarcoid spleen or lymph node. In patients with active sarcoidosis a dusky red nodule develops slowly over the next few weeks at the injection site. Histologic examination, an essential part of the complete test, reveals sarcoid tissue.

AN = for diag of sarcoidosis

UI = D007731



MS = A syndrome produced by severe protein deficiency, characterized by retarded growth, changes in skin and hair pigment, edema, and pathologic changes in the liver, including fatty infiltration, necrosis, and fibrosis. The word is a local name in Gold Coast, Africa, meaning "displaced child". Although first reported from Africa, kwashiorkor is now known throughout the world, but mainly in the tropics and subtropics. It is considered to be related to marasmus. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = severe form of protein malnutrition

UI = D007732


Kyasanur Forest Disease

MS = Tick-borne flavivirus infection occurring in the Kyasanur Forest in India.

AN = note spelling: not Kyanasur; the forest is in India; a hemorrhagic fever caused by a flavivirus

UI = D007733



MS = The recording of wavelike motions or undulations. It is usually used on arteries to detect variations in blood pressure.


UI = D007734



UI = D007735


Kynurenic Acid

MS = A broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist used as a research tool.

UI = D007736



AN = an amino acid

UI = D007737



MS = Abnormally increased convexity in the curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = a type of spinal curvature

UI = D007738



AN = use this spelling in translations

UI = D007707