Glossary of Bio-Medical Terms





MS = A DNA alkylating agent that has been shown to be a potent carcinogen and is widely used to induce colon tumors in experimental animals.

UI = D019813



MS = Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.

AN = "a major constituent of pulmonary surfactants"; /biosyn /physiol permitted; DF: DPPC

UI = D015060


1,4-alpha-Glucan Branching Enzyme

MS = In glycogen or amylopectin synthesis, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a segment of a 1,4-alpha-glucan chain to a primary hydroxy group in a similar glucan chain. EC


UI = D015061



MS = A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.


UI = D019307


1-Acylglycerophosphocholine O-Acyltransferase

MS = An enzyme localized predominantly within the plasma membrane of lymphocytes. It catalyzes the transfer of long-chain fatty acids, preferentially unsaturated fatty acids, to lysophosphatides with the formation of 1,2-diacylglycero-3-phosphocholine and CoA. EC

UI = D008243



AN = BUTANOLS is also available

UI = D020001


1-Carboxyglutamic Acid

MS = Found in various tissues, particularly in four blood-clotting proteins including prothrombin, in kidney protein, in bone protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications.

AN = /biosyn /physiol permitted

UI = D015055



MS = An alpha-glucosidase inhibitor with antiviral action. Derivatives of deoxynojirimycin may have anti-HIV activity.

UI = D017485



MS = A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES


UI = D015056



MS = A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.

UI = D015632



MS = An active neurotoxic metabolite of 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE. The compound reduces dopamine levels, inhibits the biosynthesis of catecholamines, depletes cardiac norepinephrine and inactivates tyrosine hydroxylase. These and other toxic effects lead to cessation of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP depletion, and cell death. The compound, which is related to PARAQUAT, has also been used as an herbicide.

UI = D015655



MS = A suspected industrial carcinogen (and listed as such by OSHA). Its N-hydroxy metabolite is strongly carcinogenic and mutagenic.

AN = a carcinogen; D25-26 qualif

UI = D015057



MS = A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.

UI = D015058



MS = A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

AN = OCTANOLS is also available

UI = D020003


1-Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. This is the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. This pathway is thought to play a critical role in DNA repair, V(D)J recombination and cell cycle checkpoints. EC

UI = D019869


1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

UI = D019870



MS = A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.

UI = D000433


1-Sarcosine-8-Isoleucine Angiotensin II

MS = An angiotensin II analog which acts as a highly specific inhibitor of angiotensin II.

AN = an ACE inhib; DF: SAR ISO ANG

UI = D015059



MS = A group of corticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 11-position.

AN = /chem syn permitted: do not convert to 11-HYDROXYCORTICOSTEROIDS, SYNTHETIC

UI = D015062


12-Hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid

MS = A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)

AN = DF: note short X ref

UI = D019377


15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid

MS = A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of vasopressin and activation of phospholipase C. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)

AN = DF: U46619

UI = D019796


15-Oxoprostaglandin 13-Reductase

MS = (5Z)-(15S)-11 alpha-Hydroxy-9,15-dioxoprostanoate:NAD(P)+ delta(13)-oxidoreductase. An enzyme active in prostaglandin E and F catabolism. It catalyzes the reduction of the double bond at the 13-14 position of the 15-ketoprostaglandins and uses NADPH as cofactor. EC


UI = D011452


16,16-Dimethylprostaglandin E2

MS = A synthetic prostaglandin E analog that protects the gastric mucosa, prevents ulceration, and promotes the healing of peptic ulcers. The protective effect is independent of acid inhibition. It is also a potent inhibitor of pancreatic function and growth of experimental tumors.


UI = D015064



MS = A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.

AN = /chem syn permitted: do not convert to 17-HYDROXYCORTICOSTEROIDS, SYNTHETIC

UI = D015065



MS = A hydroxyprogesterone with medical uses similar to that of PROGESTERONE.

UI = D019326


17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases

MS = A class of enzymes that catalyzes the oxidation of 17-hydroxysteroids to 17-ketosteroids. EC 1.1.-.

UI = D015067



MS = Steroids that contain a ketone group at position 17.

AN = adrenal cortex hormones

UI = D015068



MS = 11 beta,18,21-Trihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione.

UI = D015069



MS = An analog of desoxycorticosterone which is substituted by a hydroxyl group at the C-18 position.

UI = D015070



MS = 19-Iodocholest-5-en-3 beta-ol. A cholesterol derivative usually substituted with radioactive iodine in the 19 position. The compound is an adrenal cortex scanning agent used in the assessment of patients suspected of having Cushing's syndrome, hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma and adrenal remnants following total adrenalectomy.

UI = D015071


2',3'-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases

MS = Nucleoside-2',3'-cyclic phosphate nucleotidohydrolase. Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the 2'- or 3'- phosphate bonds of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. Also hydrolyzes nucleoside monophosphates. Includes EC and EC EC 3.1.4.-.


UI = D015087


2',5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP into a series of (2'-5') linked oligoadenylates and pyrophosphate in the presence of double-stranded RNA. These oligonucleotides activate an endoribonuclease (RNase L) which cleaves single-stranded RNA. Interferons can act as inducers of these reactions. EC 2.7.7.-.

UI = D015088



MS = A reagent used for the determination of iron.


UI = D015082


2,3-Diketogulonic Acid

MS = Metabolite of ASCORBIC ACID and the oxidized form of the lactone DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.

UI = D015083



MS = A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)

UI = D019794


2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid

MS = An herbicide with strong irritant properties. Use of this compound on rice fields, orchards, sugarcane, rangeland, and other noncrop sites was terminated by the EPA in 1985. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

UI = D015085


2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid

MS = An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.

AN = DF: note short X ref

UI = D015084



MS = A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)

AN = DF: note short X ref

UI = D019297



MS = A psychedelic phenylisopropylamine derivative, commonly called DOM, whose mood-altering effects and mechanism of action may be similar to those of LSD.

AN = DF: 2 5 DOM

UI = D004290



MS = A dye used as a reagent in the determination of vitamin C.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D015086


2-Acetolactate Mutase

MS = An enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of isoleucine and valine. It converts 2-acetolactate into 3-hydroxy-2-oxo-isovalerate. Also acts on 2-hydroxy-2-acetobutyrate to form 2-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-methylvalerate. EC

UI = D015072



MS = A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the arylhydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D015073



MS = The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.

AN = DF: AP5

UI = D015763


2-Aminoadipic Acid

MS = A metabolite in the principal biochemical pathway of lysine. It antagonizes neuroexcitatory activity modulated by the glutamate receptor, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE; (NMDA).

UI = D015074



MS = A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).

UI = D015075



MS = 2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.

AN = an adenosine recept agonist

UI = D015762


2-Dehydro-3-Deoxyphosphoheptonate Aldolase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 7-phospho-2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptonate from phosphoenolpyruvate and D-erythrose-4-phosphate. It is one of the first enzymes in the biosynthesis of tyrosine and phenylalanine. EC

AN = DF: note short X ref

UI = D010723


2-Hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl Bromide

MS = A chemical reagent that reacts with and modifies chemically the tryptophan portion of protein molecules. Used for 'active site' enzyme studies and other protein studies. Sometimes referred to as Koshland's reagent.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D015077



MS = Simple amine found in the brain. It may be modulator of sympathetic functions. Its derivatives are adrenergic agonists and antagonists. It is also used in chemical industry.

UI = D015078


2-Isopropylmalate Synthase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the biosynthetic pathway to leucine, forming isopropyl malate from acetyl-CoA and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid. EC

UI = D015079


2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic Acid

MS = A powerful herbicide used as a selective weed killer.

UI = D008456



MS = A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D015081



MS = An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.

UI = D019840


20-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases

MS = Catalyze the oxidation of 20-hydroxysteroids to 20-ketosteroids. Includes EC and EC


UI = D015089


24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3

MS = A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.

AN = /defic: if not discussed as RICKETS, index as /defic (IM) + VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY (IM)

UI = D015650


25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2

MS = 9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.

AN = /physiol permitted; /defic: if not discussed as RICKETS, index as /defic (IM) + VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY (IM)

UI = D015652


25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase

MS = A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).

UI = D015090


3' Flanking Region

MS = The region of DNA which borders the 3' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences are located.

AN = do not confuse with 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS

UI = D024509


3' Untranslated Regions

MS = The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.

AN = do not confuse with 3' FLANKING REGION

UI = D020413


3',5'-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate. EC


UI = D015106


3',5'-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzyme is widely distributed in animal tissue and controls the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Also acts on 3',5'-cyclic IMP and 3',5'-cyclic GMP. EC

AN = regulation: consider also CALMODULIN; DF: 3 5 CYCL NPD

UI = D015105



UI = D015100



MS = A material used in the manufacture of azo dyes that is toxic to skin and carcinogenic in several species.

UI = D015101


3,4-Dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl)-benzeneacetamide, (trans)-Isomer

MS = A non-peptide, kappa-opioid receptor agonist which has also been found to stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropin (CORTICOTROPIN) via the release of hypothalmic arginine vasopressin (ARGIPRESSIN) and CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997;280(1):416-21)

UI = D019900


3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid

MS = A metabolite of L-DOPA.

AN = DF: note short X ref

UI = D015102



MS = An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally.

UI = D015104



MS = 4-Hydroxy-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyridinone. Analog of uridine lacking a ring-nitrogen in the 3-position. Functions as an antineoplastic agent.

AN = an antineoplastic antimetabolite

UI = D015092


3-Hydroxyacyl CoA Dehydrogenases

MS = Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis. EC

UI = D015094


3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid

MS = An oxidation product of trytophan metabolism. It may be a free radical scavenger and a carcinogen.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D015095


3-Hydroxybutyric Acid

MS = BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver and occurs at high levels in the blood and urine in KETOSIS. (From Dorland's, 28th ed)

UI = D020155


3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases

MS = Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.

UI = D015096



MS = A guanidine analog with specific affinity for tissues of the sympathetic nervous system and related tumors. The radiolabeled forms are used as antineoplastic agents and radioactive imaging agents. (Merck Index, 12th ed) MIBG serves as a neuron-blocking agent which has a strong affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla and also inhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase.

UI = D019797


3-Mercaptopropionic Acid

MS = An inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase. It decreases the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID concentration in the brain, thereby causing convulsions.

UI = D015097



MS = Metabolite of serotonin and norepinephrine.

UI = D015098



MS = A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)

UI = D019325


3-Oxoacyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Synthase

MS = An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC


UI = D015099


3T3 Cells

MS = A cell line derived from fibroblasts of disaggregated Swiss mouse embryos. The line is a valuable in vitro host system for oncogenic virus transformation studies since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to contact inhibition.

AN = fibroblasts from Swiss mouse embryos; used in oncogenic virus transform studies; A 11 qualif; check ANIMAL & MICE but do not add FIBROBLASTS nor EMBRYO

UI = D016475


4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid

MS = An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.


UI = D017878


4-Acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic Acid

MS = A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.

UI = D012856


4-Aminobenzoic Acid

MS = A member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. It used to be a common sunscreening agent until found to also be a sensitizer. The potassium salt is used therapeutically in fibrotic skin disorders.

UI = D010129


4-Aminobutyrate Transaminase

MS = An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC

UI = D000612



MS = One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.

UI = D015761



MS = One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.

UI = D015107



MS = A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.

UI = D009327



MS = A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.

AN = DF: note short X ref

UI = D002731



MS = A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a reduction product of 4-NITROQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE. It binds with nucleic acids and inactivates both bacteria and bacteriophage.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D015108



MS = A flavoprotein that catalyzes the synthesis of protocatechuic acid from 4-hydroxybenzoate in the presence of molecular oxygen. EC

UI = D015109



MS = Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K and the blood clotting mechanism, are tightly protein-bound, inhibit mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes, and are used as oral anticoagulants.

AN = /biosyn permitted if by plant

UI = D015110


4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate plus oxygen to homogentisic acid and carbon dioxide. EC

AN = /defic: consider also TYROSINE /blood (IM) + AMINO ACID METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS (IM)

UI = D015111



MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl phosphates to nitrophenols. At acid pH it is probably ACID PHOSPHATASE (EC; at alkaline pH it is probably ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (EC EC

UI = D009597



MS = A potent mutagen and carcinogen. This compound and its metabolite 4-HYDROXYAMINOQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE bind to nucleic acids. It inactivates bacteria but not bacteriophage.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D015112


5' Flanking Region

MS = The region of DNA which borders the 5' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences are located.

AN = do not confuse with 5' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS

UI = D024506


5' Untranslated Regions

MS = The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.

AN = do not confuse with RNA, SPLICED LEADER; do not confuse with 5' FLANKING REGION

UI = D020121


5'-Guanylic Acid

MS = Guanosine 5'-monophosphate. A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.

AN = /biosyn /physiol permitted

UI = D006157



MS = A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC

UI = D015720



MS = Tryptamine substituted with two hydroxyl groups in positions 5 and 6. It is a neurotoxic serotonin analog that destroys serotonergic neurons preferentially and is used in neuropharmacologic research.

UI = D015115



MS = Tryptamine substituted with two hydroxyl groups in positions 5 and 7. It is a neurotoxic serotonin analog that destroys serotonergic neurons preferentially and is used in neuropharmacology as a tool.

UI = D015116


5,8,11,14,17-Eicosapentaenoic Acid

MS = Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.


UI = D015118


5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraynoic Acid

MS = A 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid containing 4 alkyne bonds. It inhibits the enzymatic conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins E(2) and F(2a).

UI = D015117


5-Aminolevulinate Synthetase

MS = An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes condensation of the succinyl group from succinyl coenzyme A with glycine to form delta-aminolevulinate. It is a pyridoxyl phosphate protein and the reaction occurs in mitochondria as the first step of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme is a key regulatory enzyme in heme biosynthesis and, in liver at least, is feedback inhibited by heme. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC

UI = D000624



MS = Precursor of serotonin used as antiepileptic and antidepressant.

AN = a serotonin precursor

UI = D006916



MS = Serotonin derivative proposed as potentiator for hypnotics and sedatives.

UI = D008735


5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of methionine by transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. The enzyme can act on mono- or triglutamate derivatives. EC

AN = /defic: consider also HOMOCYSTINURIA; DF: note short X ref

UI = D013766


6-Aminocaproic Acid

MS = An antifibrinolytic agent that acts by inhibiting plasminogen activators which have fibrinolytic properties.

UI = D015119



MS = A vitamin antagonist which has teratogenic effects.

AN = a teratogenic vitamin antag

UI = D015120



MS = A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA ionotropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.

AN = DF: note short X ref

UI = D018750


6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha

MS = The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.

AN = a prostaglandin F; /biosyn /physiol permitted; DF: note short X ref

UI = D015121



MS = An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.

UI = D015122



MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and water to 1L-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate and orthophosphate. EC

UI = D010832


7,8-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9,10-oxide

MS = 7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.

AN = a carcinogen & mutagen; D25-26 qualif; DF: 7 8 DDBP

UI = D015123


7-Alkoxycoumarin O-Dealkylase

MS = A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.

UI = D015660


8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic Acid

MS = A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, only at position 5.

UI = D015126


8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate

MS = A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.


UI = D015124



MS = A serotonin 1A-receptor agonist that is used experimentally to test the effects of serotonin.

UI = D017371



MS = 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.

AN = a carcinogen; D25-26 qualif; DF: note short X ref

UI = D015127