Glossary of Bio-Medical Terms

O

RETURN TO INDEX

O Antigens

MS = The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)

UI = D019081

 

O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase

MS = An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moities of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 2.1.1.63.

UI = D019853

 

O-Acetyl-ADP-Ribose

MS = An acetyl ester of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE formed during NAD-dependent deacetylation of proteins by SIRTUINS. The acetate group resides on the ribose ring where nicotinamide was cleaved from NAD during the reaction. Several isomers of O-acetyl-ADP-ribose have been isolated from the reaction.

UI = D038961

 

o-Aminoazotoluene

MS = An azo dye with carcinogenic properties.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D009762

 

o-Chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile

MS = A riot control agent which causes temporary irritation of the eyes and the mucosal surface of the respiratory tract. It is a more potent irritant than OMEGA-CHLOROACETOPHENONE, but less incapacitating.

UI = D009763

 

o-Phthalaldehyde

MS = A reagent that forms fluorescent conjugation products with primary amines. It is used for the detection of many biogenic amines, peptides, and proteins in nanogram quantities in body fluids.

UI = D009764

 

Obesity

MS = Increase in body weight beyond skeletal and physical standards as the result of an excessive accumulation of fat in the body. More than two times the ideal weight is considered OBESITY, MORBID.

AN = /diet ther: consider also DIET, REDUCING; /drug ther: consider also ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS & APPETITE DEPRESSANTS; /surg permitted but more likely condition in which surg is performed is OBESITY, MORBID: see note there; obese hyperglycemic mice go under MICE, OBESE: do not index under OBESITY or HYPERGLYCEMIA unless particularly discussed as diseases

UI = D009765

 

Obesity in Diabetes

AN = also for "diabetes in obesity"; coord IM with specific diabetes precoord (IM) if pertinent

UI = D009766

 

Obesity, Morbid

MS = The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders.

AN = "2, 3 or more times the ideal weight"; /surg permitted as coord for any see related ref below if both dis & surg are discussed

UI = D009767

 

Obidoxime Chloride

MS = Cholinesterase reactivator occurring in two interchangeable isomeric forms, syn and anti.

UI = D009768

 

Object Attachment

MS = Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.

AN = no qualif

UI = D009769

 

Observation

MS = The act of regarding attentively and studying facts and occurrences, gathering data through analyzing, measuring, and drawing conclusions, with the purpose of applying the observed information to theoretical assumptions. Observation as a scientific method in the acquisition of knowledge began in classical antiquity; in modern science and medicine its greatest application is facilitated by modern technology. Observation is one of the components of the research process.

AN = observation only as a scientific method, as "Langerhans, a genius at observation", "the father of clinical observation"; not for "electron microscopy observations on pleistocene tissues" or "hist observations on dental care" or "observations on difficult children" or "diagnostic observations on hypertension"

UI = D019370

 

Observer Variation

MS = The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).

AN = IM GEN only; coord NIM with disease /epidemiol (IM) or specific non-disease term /statist (IM); no qualif; specify geog if pertinent

UI = D015588

 

Obsessive Behavior

MS = Persistent, unwanted idea or impulse which is considered normal when it does not markedly interfere with mental processes or emotional adjustment.

AN = use Cat F3 qualif

UI = D009770

 

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

MS = An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.

UI = D009771

 

Obstetric Surgical Procedures

MS = Surgery performed on the pregnant woman for conditions associated with pregnancy, labor, or the puerperium. It does not include surgery of the newborn infant.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; consider also PREGNANCY COMPLICATIONS /surg & LABOR COMPLICATIONS /surg or /surg with specific pregn & labor compl; check the tags FEMALE & PREGNANCY; DF: OBSTET SURG PROCEDURES

UI = D013513

 

Obstetrical Forceps

MS = Surgical instrument designed to extract the newborn by the head from the maternal passages without injury to it or the mother.

UI = D009772

 

Obstetrical Nursing

MS = Nursing care given to the pregnant patient before, after, or during childbirth.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif; check also tag PREGNANCY

UI = D009773

 

Obstetrics

MS = A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif; do not use for "obstetric diseases" ( = probably PREGNANCY COMPLICATIONS, etc.)

UI = D009774

 

Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital

MS = Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of services provided for obstetric and gynecologic patients.

AN = check also tag PREGNANCY for obstet aspect; DF: OBSTET GYNECOL DEP or OBSTET DEP

UI = D009775

 

Obturator Nerve

MS = A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to the lower extremity. The obturator nerve provides motor innervation to the adductor muscles of the thigh and cutaneous sensory innervation of the inner thigh.

AN = dis: coord IM with PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES (IM); neopl: coord IM with PERIPHERAL NERVE NEOPLASMS (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D009776

 

Occipital Bone

AN = fractures: coord OCCIPITAL BONE /inj (IM) + SKULL FRACTURES (IM); neopl: coord IM with SKULL NEOPLASMS (IM)

UI = D009777

 

Occipital Lobe

MS = Posterior part of the cerebral hemisphere.

AN = dis: coord IM with BRAIN DISEASES (IM); neopl: coord IM with BRAIN NEOPLASMS (IM)

UI = D009778

 

Occlusal Adjustment

MS = Selective grinding of occlusal surfaces of the teeth in an effort to eliminate premature contacts and occlusal interferences; to establish optimal masticatory effectiveness, stable occlusal relationships, direction of main occlusal forces, and efficient multidirectional patterns, to improve functional relations and to induce physiologic stimulation of the masticatory system; to eliminate occlusal trauma; to eliminate abnormal muscle tension; to aid in the stabilization of orthodontic results; to treat peridontal and temporomandibular joint problems; and in restorative procedures. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)

AN = grinding of occlusal surfaces of teeth to achieve optimal occlusion

UI = D019558

 

Occlusal Splints

MS = Rigid or flexible appliances that overlay the occlusal surfaces of the teeth. They are used to treat clenching and bruxism and their sequelae, and to provide temporary relief from muscle or temporomandibular joint pain.

AN = rigid or flexible splint used in orthodontics & treatment of clenching & bruxism

UI = D017090

 

Occlusive Dressings

MS = Material, usually gauze or absorbent cotton, used to cover and protect wounds, to seal them from contact with air or bacteria. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = to protect wounds from air or bact

UI = D009779

 

Occult Blood

MS = Chemical, spectroscopic, or microscopic detection of extremely small amounts of blood.

AN = IM; no qualif; if fecal occult blood, do not coord with FECES

UI = D009780

 

Occultism

AN = IM

UI = D009781

 

Occupational Dentistry

MS = The branch of dentistry concerned with maintaining oral health of employees in occupational environments.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif; DF: OCCUP DENT

UI = D009782

 

Occupational Diseases

MS = Diseases due to factors involved in one's employment. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = the patient or disease: differentiate from INDUSTRY (the realm of labor, capital & trade) & OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE (the med specialty): Manual 31.14, 31.16; coord IM with specific dis (IM); DF: OCCUP DIS

UI = D009784

 

Occupational Exposure

MS = The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.

AN = coord IM with specific occup dis (IM) or specific occupation (IM); DF: OCCUP EXPOSURE

UI = D016273

 

Occupational Groups

MS = Members of the various professions (e.g., PHYSICIANS) or occupations (e.g., POLICE).

AN = not used for indexing; DF: OCCUP GROUPS

UI = D009274

 

Occupational Health

MS = The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.

AN = "promotion & maintenance of physical & mental health in the work environment": do not confuse with OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE (the specialty) or OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SERVICES; note X ref OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY which is GEN only: do not use as coord for safety in an industrial milieu ( = SAFETY + specific indust or occup heading); DF: OCCUP HEALTH

UI = D016272

 

Occupational Health Nursing

MS = The practice of nursing in the work environment.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif; DF: OCCUP HEALTH NURS

UI = D009785

 

Occupational Health Services

MS = Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.

AN = IM; DF: OCCUP HEALTH SERV

UI = D009786

 

Occupational Medicine

MS = Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif; do not confuse with OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH, the health of the worker; Manual 31.14: relation to INDUSTRY & OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES; DF: OCCUP MED

UI = D009787

 

Occupational Therapy

MS = The field concerned with utilizing craft or work activities in the rehabilitation of patients. Occupational therapy can also refer to the activities themselves.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif; /nurs /psychol permitted; do not use /util except by MeSH definition; coord IM with dis /rehabil (IM), not /ther; DF: OCCUP THER

UI = D009788

 

Occupational Therapy Department, Hospital

MS = Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of any occupational or work activity for remedial purposes.

AN = DF: OCCUP THER DEP

UI = D009789

 

Occupations

MS = Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif; OCCUPATIONS are not necessarily "industrial"; differentiate from OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS: OCCUPATIONS is for the occup itself, OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS is for the collective members of an occup; relation to INDUSTRY; INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE (see OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE) & OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES: Manual 31.13-31.16; BURNOUT, PROFESSIONAL is available; DF: OCCUP

UI = D009790

 

Oceanography

MS = The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif; DF: OCEANOGR

UI = D009791

 

Oceans and Seas

AN = no qualif; for oceans & seas not main headings, index under OCEANS AND SEAS: do not coord with a geog land mass, e.g., Indian Ocean = OCEANS AND SEAS but not also India

UI = D009792

 

Ochratoxins

MS = Toxins produced by Aspergillus ochraceus. Occurring widely, ochratoxins have been found as natural contaminants on storage grains, corn, peanuts, cottonseed, and decaying vegetation. They are produced by several other species of Aspergillus as well as by Penicillium viridicatum.

AN = /antag permitted but consider also ANTITOXINS; /biosyn permitted if by fungi

UI = D009793

 

Ochrobactrum anthropi

MS = A species of gram-negative, obligately aerobic rods. Motility occurs by peritrichous flagella. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)

AN = infection: coord IM with GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIAL INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D020621

 

Ochronosis

MS = A disease in which the metabolic products of phenylalanine and tyrosine accumulate, resulting in the deposition of HOMOGENTISIC ACID (a brown-black pigment) in the connective tissue. It occurs in ALKAPTONURIA, but has also been observed in connection with exposure to certain chemicals (e.g., phenol, trinitrophenol, benzene derivatives).

UI = D009794

 

Ochrosia

MS = A plant genus of the family Apocynaceae. Species of this genus contain 9-methoxyellipticine (ELLIPTICINES) which is the basis of one of the classes of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATION or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D030011

 

Ocimum

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031339

 

Ocimum basilicum

MS = A plant species of the genus OCIMUM, family LAMIACEAE. It is a condiment with carminative properties.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D018649

 

Ocotea

MS = A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The common name of stinkwood is also used for Zieria (RUTACEAE).

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATION or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D027444

 

Octanes

MS = Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.

AN = does not include octenes ( = ALKENES), octadienes ( = ALKADIENES), octatrienes or octatetraenes ( = POLYENES)

UI = D009795

 

Octanoic Acids

UI = D009796

 

Octanols

MS = Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).

AN = 1-OCTANOL is also available

UI = D000442

 

Octopamine

MS = An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.

UI = D009655

 

Octopus

MS = An eight-armed cephalopod mollusk belonging to the order Octopoda. It includes the octopus as food.

AN = as animal & food; IM; as food, coord IM with SHELLFISH (IM); /microbiol /parasitol /virol permitted

UI = D009797

 

Octoxynol

MS = Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D017830

 

Octreotide

MS = A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of growth hormone (SOMATOTROPIN) and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors, DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia, and small bowel fistula.

UI = D015282

 

Ocular Hypertension

MS = A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.

AN = do not equate with GLAUCOMA; do not confuse with OCULAR HYPOTENSION

UI = D009798

 

Ocular Hypotension

MS = Abnormally low intraocular pressure often related to chronic inflammation (uveitis).

AN = "abnormally low intraocular pressure": do not confuse with OCULAR HYPERTENSION

UI = D015814

 

Ocular Motility Disorders

MS = Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)

AN = GEN: prefer specifics

UI = D015835

 

Ocular Physiology

MS = Functions and activities of the eye as a whole or of any of its parts.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; DF: OCULAR PHYSIOL

UI = D009799

 

Oculocerebrorenal Syndrome

MS = A sex-linked recessive disorder of amino acid transport which affects the EYE; NERVOUS SYSTEM; and KIDNEY. Clinical manifestations include CATARACT; GLAUCOMA; developmental delay (which eventually leads to profound cognitive deficits); myopathy; peripheral neuropathy; and hypotonia. There is an associated generalized aminoaciduria of the FANCONI SYNDROME type; renal tubular acidosis (ADIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR); and hypophosphatemic RICKETS. This condition has been associated with deficient activity of the enzyme phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-5-phosphatase. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p60; Am J Hum Genet 1997 Jun;60(6):1384-8)

UI = D009800

 

Oculomotor Muscles

MS = The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.

AN = /innerv = probably OCULOMOTOR NERVE but consider also ABDUCENS NERVE & TROCHLEAR NERVE; paralysis = OCULOMOTOR PARALYSIS see OPHTHALMOPLEGIA; /growth: coord with MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT; /embryol: coord with MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT if pertinent

UI = D009801

 

Oculomotor Nerve

MS = The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.

AN = neopl = OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES (IM) + CRANIAL NERVE NEOPLASMS (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D009802

 

Oculomotor Nerve Diseases

MS = Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)

AN = do not confuse X-ref OCULOMOTOR NERVE PALSY with oculomotor palsies caused by weakened 4th or 5th cranial nerves which are indexed: 4th=TROCHLEAR NERVE DIS and 6th=ABDUCENS NERVE DIS, if not specified use CRANIAL NERVE DIS; neopl: coord IM with CRANIAL NERVE NEOPLASMS (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM); do not confuse with OCULOMOTOR PARALYSIS see OPHTHALMOPLEGIA

UI = D015840

 

Oddi's Sphincter

MS = The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.

AN = diseases: coord IM with COMMON BILE DUCT DISEASES (IM); inflammation: coord IM with CHOLANGITIS (IM); neopl: coord IM with COMMON BILE DUCT NEOPLASMS (IM)

UI = D009803

 

Odds Ratio

MS = The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.

AN = IM GEN only; coord NIM with specific disease or other concept (IM); no qualif

UI = D016017

 

Odontoblasts

AN = A 11 qualif

UI = D009804

 

Odontodysplasia

MS = A localized arrested tooth development which appears to involve most commonly the anterior teeth, usually on one side of the midline, most often the maxillary central and lateral incisors. Roentgenographically, the teeth have a ghostlike appearance. Calcification and bits of prismatic enamel may be found in the pulp and the enamel is thin and absent in part. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)

AN = an abnorm of tooth develop; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D018126

 

Odontogenesis

UI = D009805

 

Odontogenic Cyst, Calcifying

MS = A mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion of the jaws with features of both a cyst and a solid neoplasm. It is characterized microscopically by an epithelial lining showing a palisaded layer of columnar basal cells, presence of ghost cell keratinization, dentinoid, and calcification. (Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = neoplastic; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with probably JAW NEOPLASMS (IM) or precoord jaw/neopl term (IM)

UI = D018333

 

Odontogenic Cysts

MS = Cysts found in the jaws and arising from epithelium involved in tooth formation. They include follicular cysts (e.g., primordial cyst, dentigerous cyst, multilocular cyst), lateral periodontal cysts, and radicular cysts. They may become keratinized (odontogenic keratocysts). Follicular cysts may give rise to ameloblastomas and, in rare cases, undergo malignant transformation.

AN = non-neoplastic but calcifying odontogenic cyst = ODONTOGENIC CYST, CALCIFYING (neoplastic); /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with MANDIBULAR DISEASES or MAXILLARY DISEASES (IM)

UI = D009807

 

Odontogenic Tumors

MS = Neoplasms produced from tooth-forming tissues.

AN = benign or malignant; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM)

UI = D009808

 

Odontoid Process

MS = The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the atlas above.

AN = a part of the AXIS; not a dental term

UI = D009809

 

Odontoma

MS = A mixed tumor of odontogenic origin, in which both the epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibit complete differentiation, resulting in the formation of tooth structures. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)

AN = /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM); French "odontome" (a form of developmental anomaly): index under TOOTH ABNORMALITIES

UI = D009810

 

Odontometry

UI = D009811

 

Odors

MS = The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

AN = mouth odors = HALITOSIS; AROMATHERAPY (use of essential oils to treat dis in alternative med) is also available

UI = D009812

 

Oedipus Complex

MS = Attachment of the child to the parent of the opposite sex, accompanied by envious and aggressive feelings toward the parent of the same sex.

AN = no qualif

UI = D009813

 

Oenanthe

MS = A plant genus of the family APIACEAE that is sometimes called Hemlock Water Dropwort but should not be confused with HEMLOCK. It contains enanthotoxin.

AN = X ref WATER DROPWORT: DROPWORT see FILIPENDULA is also available; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031050

 

Oenothera

MS = A plant genus of the family ONAGRACEAE. Members contain oenotheins.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031664

 

Oenothera biennis

MS = A plant species, of the genus OENOTHERA, family ONAGRACEAE, that is the source of evening primrose oil.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031665

 

Oesophagostomiasis

MS = Infection of the intestinal tract with worms of the genus OESOPHAGOSTOMUM. This condition occurs mainly in animals other than man.

AN = nematode infect of intestines

UI = D009814

 

Oesophagostomum

MS = A genus of nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA, parasitic in the intestines of animals. The adults are usually free in the intestinal lumen; the larvae encyst in the wall.

AN = a genus of nematodes; infection = OESOPHAGOSTOMIASIS; for antigens, coord with ANTIGENS, HELMINTH, for antibodies, coord with ANTIBODIES, HELMINTH

UI = D009815

 

Off-Road Motor Vehicles

MS = Motorized, recreational vehicles used on non-public roads. They include all-terrain vehicles, dirt-bikes, minibikes, motorbikes, trailbikes, and snowmobiles. Excludes MOTORCYCLES, which are considered public road vehicles.

AN = do not confuse with MOTORCYCLES which are public-road vehicles

UI = D015541

 

Office Automation

MS = Use of computers or computer systems for doing routine clerical work, e.g., billing, records pertaining to the administration of the office, etc.

AN = IM

UI = D009816

 

Office Management

MS = Planning, organizing, and administering activities in an office.

AN = med or non-med offices

UI = D009817

 

Office Nursing

MS = Nursing practice limited to an office setting.

UI = D009818

 

Office Visits

MS = Visits made by patients to health service providers' offices for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up.

UI = D009819

 

Ofloxacin

MS = A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA gyrase, halting DNA replication.

UI = D015242

 

Ohio

UI = D009820

 

Oils

MS = Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = GEN or unspecified: prefer specific oil groups & specific oils; D25-26 qualif; coord IM with source of oil (IM or NIM)

UI = D009821

 

Oils, Volatile

MS = Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleopten (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensibility. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = D25-26 qualif; coord IM with source of oil (IM or NIM); AROMATHERAPY (use of essential oils to treat dis in alternative med) is also available

UI = D009822

 

Ointment Bases

MS = Various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons; vehicles for medicinal substances intended for external application; there are four classes: hydrocarbon base, absorption base, water-removable base and water-soluble base; several are also emollients.

AN = IM for general only; NIM when specific drug is IM; when IM, D25-26 qualif; when NIM, no qualif

UI = D009823

 

Ointments

MS = Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.

AN = IM for general only, qualif permitted; NIM (no qualif) with specific drug IM (with qualif)

UI = D009824

 

Okadaic Acid

MS = A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)

UI = D019319

 

Oklahoma

UI = D009825

 

Olacaceae

MS = A small plant family of the order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.

AN = prefer specific plant; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031656

 

Old Age Assistance

MS = Financial assistance for the impoverished elderly through public funding of programs, services, and individual income supplements.

AN = specify geog

UI = D009826

 

Oldenlandia

MS = A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Some species are used as an ingredient in Chinese and African traditional medicines. Members contain kalata B1, a macrocyclic peptide.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D032067

 

Olea

MS = A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. The olive fruit is the source of olive oil.

AN = OLIVE, RUSSIAN see ELAEAGNUS is also available; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031658

 

Oleaceae

MS = A plant family of the order Scrophulariales subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually opposite and the flowers usually have four sepals, four petals, two stamens, and two fused carpels that form a single superior ovary.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D029592

 

Oleandomycin

MS = Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces antibioticus.

AN = a macrolide antibiotic

UI = D009827

 

Oleanolic Acid

MS = Occurs in leaves of Olea europaea, Viscum album L., and other higher plants. It is also the aglycone component of many saponins.

UI = D009828

 

Oleavirus

MS = A genus in the family BROMOVIRIDAE containing one species: Olive latent virus 2.

AN = coord IM with speciic plant /virol

UI = D029161

 

Oleic Acid

MS = An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)

AN = do not confuse with OLEIC ACIDS

UI = D019301

 

Oleic Acids

MS = A group of fatty acids that contain 16 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.

AN = do not confuse with OLEIC ACID; do not confuse X ref OCTADECENOIC ACIDS with OCTADECANOIC ACIDS see STEARIC ACIDS

UI = D009829

 

Olfaction Disorders

MS = Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.

UI = D000857

 

Olfactory Bulb

MS = Ovoid body resting on the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone where the olfactory nerve terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose dendrites the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.

AN = neopl: coord IM with BRAIN NEOPLASMS (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D009830

 

Olfactory Mucosa

MS = That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory endings for olfaction; the organ of smell.

UI = D009831

 

Olfactory Nerve

MS = The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.

AN = neopl = OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES (IM) + CRANIAL NERVE NEOPLASMS (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D009832

 

Olfactory Nerve Diseases

MS = Diseases of the first cranial (olfactory) nerve, which usually feature anosmia or other alterations in the sense of smell and taste. Anosmia may be associated with NEOPLASMS; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; inherited conditions; toxins; METABOLIC DISEASES; tobacco abuse; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp229-31)

AN = neopl: coord IM with CRANIAL NERVE NEOPLASMS (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D020431

 

Olfactory Pathways

MS = Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; olfactory tract, olfactory tubercle, anterior perforated substance, and olfactory cortex. The term rhinencephalon is restricted to structures in the CNS receiving fibers from the olfactory bulb.

UI = D009833

 

Olfactory Receptor Neurons

MS = Neurons in the olfactory epithelium with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. Olfactory receptor neurons are bipolar. They send to the surface of the epithelium apical dendrites with non-motile cilia from which project odorant receptor molecules. Their unmyelinated axons synapse in the olfactory bulb of the brain. Unlike other neurons, they can be generated from precursor cells in adults.

AN = DF: OLFACTORY RECEPT NEURONS

UI = D018034

 

Oligo-1,6-Glucosidase

MS = An enzyme that catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-glucosidic linkages in isomaltose and dextrins produced from starch and glycogen by alpha-amylase. EC 3.2.1.10.

AN = consider also SUCRASE-ISOMALTASE COMPLEX; /defic: consider also SUCROSE /metab (IM) + CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS (IM)

UI = D009834

 

Oligochaeta

MS = A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.

AN = segmented worms; /microbiol /parasitol /virol permitted

UI = D009835

 

Oligodendroglia

MS = A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.

UI = D009836

 

Oligodendroglioma

MS = A relatively slow-growing glioma that is derived from oligodendrocytes and tends to occur in the cerebral hemispheres, thalamus, or lateral ventricle. They may present at any age, but are most frequent in the third to fifth decades, with an earlier incidence peak in the first decade. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, relatively avascular, and tend to form cysts and microcalcifications. Neoplastic cells tend to have small round nuclei surrounded by unstained nuclei. The tumors may vary from well-differentiated to highly anaplastic forms. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2052; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p655)

AN = coord IM with precoord brain/neopl term (IM) + site (IM); for MIXED OLIGODENDROGLIOMA-ASTROCYTOMA or MIXED OLIGODENDROGLIOMA-EPENDYMOMA index here only, do not coord with ASTROCYTOMA or EPENDYMOMA

UI = D009837

 

Oligodeoxyribonucleotides

MS = A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.

AN = 2-12 nucleotides

UI = D009838

 

Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense

MS = Short fragments of DNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.

AN = DF: ANTISENSE OLIGODNA

UI = D020319

 

Oligohydramnios

MS = Presence of less than 300 ml of amniotic fluid at term. Principal causes include malformations of fetal urinary tracts, intra-uterine growth retardation, high maternal blood pressure, nicotine poisoning, and prolonged pregnancy.

AN = reduced levels of amniotic fluid

UI = D016104

 

Oligohymenophorea

MS = A class of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of a well developed oral apparatus and oral cilia being clearly distinct from somatic cilia.

AN = a class of ciliate protozoa

UI = D016802

 

Oligomenorrhea

MS = Abnormally infrequent menstruation.

AN = differentiate from scanty or shortlasting menstruation ( = HYPOMENORRHEA see MENSTRUATION DISORDERS)

UI = D009839

 

Oligomycins

MS = A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).

AN = macrolide antibiotics

UI = D009840

 

Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

MS = Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of oligonucleotide probes, which are attached to a solid support, to determine sequence or to detect variations in a gene sequence or expression or for gene mapping.

AN = coord with GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING if pertinent

UI = D020411

 

Oligonucleotide Probes

MS = Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.

AN = usually no qualif; /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted

UI = D015345

 

Oligonucleotides

MS = Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = 2-12 nucleotides

UI = D009841

 

Oligonucleotides, Antisense

MS = Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.

AN = coord IM with THIONUCLEOTIDES (IM or NIM if pertinent)

UI = D016376

 

Oligopeptides

MS = Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.

AN = 2-12 amino acids (includes DIPEPTIDES, tripeptides, tetrapeptides, pentapeptides, etc.); GEN; prefer specifics; conformation: coord OLIGOPEPTIDES or specific peptide (IM) + PROTEIN CONFORMATION (NIM)

UI = D009842

 

Oligoribonucleotides

MS = A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.

AN = 2-12 nucleotides

UI = D009843

 

Oligoribonucleotides, Antisense

MS = Short fragments of RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.

UI = D020320

 

Oligosaccharides

MS = Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.

AN = GEN; prefer specifics

UI = D009844

 

Oligosaccharides, Branched-Chain

MS = Oligosaccharides containing various types of glycosidic linkages that yield branching or antennae. The number of antennae (such as bi-, tri-, tetra-, or penta-antennary) in the oligosaccharides on the PROTEOGLYCANS, GLYCOPROTEINS, or LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES contribute to their biological activities, such as receptor binding and metabolism.

UI = D025942

 

Oligospermia

MS = Deficiency in the number of spermatozoa in semen. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = defic of no. of sperm in semen

UI = D009845

 

Oliguria

MS = Clinical manifestation of the urinary system consisting of a decrease in the amount of urine secreted.

AN = do not confuse with ANURIA

UI = D009846

 

Olivary Nucleus

UI = D009847

 

Olivomycins

MS = A mixture of several closely related glycosidic antibiotics obtained from Actinomyces (or Streptomyces) olivoreticuli. They are used as fluorescent dyes that bind to DNA and prevent both RNA and protein synthesis and are also used as antineoplastic agents.

UI = D009848

 

Olivopontocerebellar Atrophies

MS = A group of inherited and sporadic disorders which share progressive ataxia in combination with atrophy of the CEREBELLUM; PONS; and inferior olivary nuclei. Additional clinical features may include MUSCLE RIGIDITY; NYSTAGMUS; RETINAL DEGENERATION; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; DEMENTIA; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and OPHTHALMOPLEGIA. The familial form has an earlier onset (second decade) and may feature spinal cord atrophy. The sporadic form tends to present in the fifth or sixth decade, and is considered a clinical subtype of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1085)

AN = DF: OPCA

UI = D009849

 

Oman

MS = A sultanate on the southeast coast of the Arabian peninsula. Its capital is Masqat. Before the 16th century it was ruled by independent emirs but was captured and controlled by the Portuguese 1508-1648. In 1741 it was recovered by a descendent of Yemen's imam. After its decline in the 19th century, it became virtually a political and economic dependency within the British Government of India, retaining close ties with Great Britain by treaty from 1939 to 1970 when it achieved autonomy. The name was recorded by Pliny in the 1st century A.D. as Omana, said to be derived from the founder of the state, Oman ben Ibrahim al-Khalil. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p890; Oman Embassy, Washington; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)

AN = a sultanate on the southeast Arabian peninsula

UI = D009850

 

Omasum

MS = The third stomach of ruminants, situated on the right side of the abdomen at a higher level than the fourth stomach and between this latter and the second stomach, with both of which it communicates. From its inner surface project large numbers of leaves or folia, each of which possesses roughened surfaces. In the center of each folium is a band of muscle fibers which produces a rasping movement of the leaf when it contracts. One leaf rubs against those on either side of it, and large particles of food material are ground down between the rough surfaces, preparatory to further digestion in the succeeeding parts of the alimentary canal. (Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)

AN = a ruminant's 3d stomach; dis: coord IM with STOMACH DISEASES /vet (IM); neopl: coord IM with STOMACH NEOPLASMS /vet + histol type /vet (IM); ulcer: coord IM with STOMACH ULCER /vet (IM)

UI = D009851

 

omega-Agatoxin IVA

MS = A neuropeptide toxin from the venom of the funnel web spider, Agelenopsis aperta. It inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, P-TYPE by altering the voltage-dependent gating so that very large depolarizations are needed for channel opening. It also inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, Q-TYPE.

UI = D020867

 

omega-Chloroacetophenone

MS = A potent eye, throat, and skin irritant. One of its uses is as a riot control agent.

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D002721

 

omega-Conotoxin GVIA

MS = A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, Conus geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.

UI = D020866

 

omega-Conotoxins

MS = A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.

UI = D020960

 

omega-Crystallins

MS = A type of crystallin that has been found in the lens (LENS,CRYSTALLINE) of certain species of MOLLUSCA such as SQUID and OCTOPUS. It is an inactivated form of aldehyde dehydrogenase.

UI = D038224

 

omega-N-Methylarginine

MS = A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.

UI = D019323

 

Omentum

MS = A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.

AN = dis: coord IM with PERITONEAL DISEASES (IM); neopl: coord IM with PERITONEAL NEOPLASMS (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D009852

 

Omeprazole

MS = A highly effective inhibitor of gastric acid secretion used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits the H(+)-K(+)-ATPase (H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE) in the proton pump of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.

UI = D009853

 

Onagraceae

MS = The evening primrose plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Flower parts are mostly in fours and the ovary is inferior.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D029594

 

Onchocerca

MS = A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms live and breed in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Onchocercal microfilariae may also be found in the urine, blood, or sputum.

AN = infection = ONCHOCERCIASIS; coord with specific helminth term (ANTIGENS, HELMINTH, etc) if pertinent; /drug eff: consider FILARICIDES

UI = D009854

 

Onchocerca volvulus

MS = A species of parasitic nematodes widely distributed throughout central Africa and also found in northern South America, southern Mexico, and Guatemala. Its intermediate host and vector is the blackfly or buffalo gnat.

AN = infection: coord IM with ONCHOCERCIASIS (IM); coord with specific helminth term (ANTIGENS, HELMINTH, etc) if pertinent; /drug eff: consider FILARICIDES

UI = D017181

 

Onchocerciasis

MS = Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, pruritus, and ocular lesions.

AN = /drug ther: consider FILARICIDES

UI = D009855

 

Onchocerciasis, Ocular

MS = Filarial infection of the eyes transmitted from person to person by bites of Onchocerca volvulus-infected black flies. The microfilariae of Onchocerca are thus deposited beneath the skin. They migrate through various tissues including the eye. Those persons infected have impaired vision and up to 20% are blind. The incidence of eye lesions has been reported to be as high as 30% in Central America and parts of Africa.

AN = /drug ther: consider FILARICIDES

UI = D015827

 

Oncogene Protein gp140(v-fms)

MS = Transforming glycoprotein coded by the fms oncogene from the Susan McDonough strain of feline sarcoma virus (SM-FeSV). The oncogene protein v-fms lacks sequences, which, in the highly homologous proto-oncogene protein c-fms (CSF-1 receptor), normally serve to regulate its tyrosine kinase activity. The missing sequences in v-fms mimic the effect of ligand and lead to constitutive cell growth. The protein gp120(v-fms) is post-translationally modified to generate gp140(v-fms).

AN = IM; coord with specific virus (IM); /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted; DF: note short X refs

UI = D016281

 

Oncogene Protein p21(ras)

MS = Transforming protein encoded by ras oncogenes. Point mutations in the cellular ras gene (c-ras) can also result in a mutant p21 protein that can transform mammalian cells. Oncogene protein p21(ras) has been directly implicated in human neoplasms, perhaps accounting for as much as 15-20% of all human tumors. EC 3.6.1.-.

AN = coord with specific virus

UI = D015689

 

Oncogene Protein p55(v-myc)

MS = Transforming protein coded by myc oncogenes. The v-myc protein has been found in several replication-defective avian retrovirus isolates which induce a broad spectrum of malignancies.

AN = IM; coord with specific virus (IM); /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted; DF: note short X ref

UI = D016274

 

Oncogene Protein p65(gag-jun)

MS = Transforming protein coded by jun oncogenes (GENES, JUN). This is a gag-onc fusion protein of about 65 kD derived from avian sarcoma virus. v-jun lacks a negative regulatory domain that regulates transcription in c-jun.

AN = IM; coord with specific virus (IM); /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted; DF: note short X refs

UI = D016759

 

Oncogene Protein pp60(v-src)

MS = A tyrosine-specific protein kinase encoded by the v-src oncogene of Rous sarcoma virus. The transforming activity of pp60(v-src) depends on both the lack of a critical carboxy-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation site at position 527, and the attachment of pp60(v-src) to the plasma membrane which is accomplished by myristylation of its N-terminal glycine.

UI = D015688

 

Oncogene Proteins

MS = Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted

UI = D015513

 

Oncogene Proteins v-abl

MS = Transforming proteins encoded by the abl oncogenes. Oncogenic transformation of c-abl to v-abl occurs by insertional activation that results in deletions of specific N-terminal amino acids.

AN = IM; coord with specific virus (IM); /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted; DF: note short X ref

UI = D016374

 

Oncogene Proteins v-erbA

MS = Transforming proteins encoded by erbA oncogenes from the avian erythroblastosis virus. They are truncated versions of c-erbA, the thyroid hormone receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE) that have retained both the DNA-binding and hormone-binding domains. Mutations in the hormone-binding domains abolish the transcriptional activation function. v-erbA acts as a dominant repressor of c-erbA, inducing transformation by disinhibiting proliferation.

AN = IM; coord with specific virus (IM); /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted; DF: note short X ref

UI = D018774

 

Oncogene Proteins v-erbB

MS = Transforming proteins encoded by erbB oncogenes from the avian erythroblastosis virus. The protein is a truncated form of the EGF receptor (RECEPTOR, EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR) whose kinase domain is constitutively activated by deletion of the ligand-binding domain.

AN = IM; coord with specific virus (IM); /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted; DF: note short X ref

UI = D018739

 

Oncogene Proteins v-fos

MS = Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55 kD protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75 kD fusion protein.

AN = IM; coord with specific virus (IM); /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted; DF: note short X ref

UI = D016761

 

Oncogene Proteins v-mos

MS = Transforming proteins coded by mos oncogenes. The v-mos proteins were originally isolated from the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV).

AN = IM; coord with specific virus (IM); /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted; DF: note short X ref

UI = D017232

 

Oncogene Proteins v-myb

MS = Transforming proteins coded by myb oncogenes. Transformation of cells by v-myb in conjunction with v-ets is seen in the avian E26 leukemia virus.

UI = D020626

 

Oncogene Proteins v-raf

MS = A family of transforming proteins isolated from retroviruses, and related to the PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-RAF.

UI = D027384

 

Oncogene Proteins v-rel

MS = Transforming proteins coded by rel oncogenes. The v-rel protein competes with rel-related proteins and probably transforms cells by acting as a dominant negative version of c-rel. This results in the induction of a broad range of leukemias and lymphomas.

UI = D020572

 

Oncogene Proteins v-sis

MS = Transforming proteins coded by sis oncogenes. Transformation of cells by v-sis is related to its interaction with the PDGF receptor and also its ability to alter other transcription factors.

UI = D020575

 

Oncogene Proteins, Fusion

MS = The translation products of the fusion between an oncogene and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.

AN = IM; coord with specific virus (IM); /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted

UI = D015514

 

Oncogene Proteins, Viral

MS = Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; coord with specific virus (IM); /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted

UI = D009856

 

Oncogenes

MS = Genes which can potentially induce neoplastic transformation. They include genes for growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. When these genes are constitutively expressed after structural and/or regulatory changes, uncontrolled cell proliferation may result. Viral oncogenes have prefix "v-" before the gene symbol; cellular oncogenes (PROTO-ONCOGENES) have the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol.

AN = ONCOGENES cause neopl transform of cells; "oncogene" used by author may refer to ONCOGENES or PROTO-ONCOGENES: note indentions and see refs under each; do not confuse with ONCOGENS see CARCINOGENS; Manual 24.4.4.3

UI = D009857

 

Oncogenic Viruses

MS = Viruses that produce tumors.

AN = vertebrate viruses producing tumors; infection = TUMOR VIRUS INFECTIONS (IM) + neopl terms if pertinent

UI = D009858

 

Oncologic Nursing

MS = Nursing care provided cancer patients. It includes aspects of family functioning through education of both patient and family. The specialty of oncologic nursing focuses on cancer as a major health care problem.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif; ONCOLOGIC NURSING = the nursing specialty, NEOPLASMS /nurs = the patient; DF: ONCOL NURS

UI = D009859

 

Oncology Service, Hospital

MS = The hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the cancer patient.

AN = DF: ONCOL SERV HOSP

UI = D016522

 

Oncorhynchus

MS = A genus of the family SALMONIDAE (salmons and trouts). They are named for their hooked (onco) nose (rhynchus). They are usually anadromous and occasionally inhabit freshwater. They can be found in North Pacific coastal areas from Japan to California and adjacent parts of the Arctic Ocean. Salmon and trout are popular game and food fish. Various species figure heavily in genetic, metabolism, and hormone research.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; salmon & trout belong to this genus; check specific ONCORHYNCHUS headings, their X refs & text carefully; IM; qualif permitted

UI = D017683

 

Oncorhynchus keta

MS = An anadromous species of SALMON found in the streams of the Pacific coast from Sacramento north, and also common in Japan. It is used frequently in genetic and other medical research.

AN = a salmon; IM; qualif permitted

UI = D017685

 

Oncorhynchus kisutch

MS = An anadromous species of SALMON ranging from the Arctic and Pacific Oceans to Monterey Bay, California and inhabiting ocean and coastal streams. It is familiarly known as the coho or silver salmon. It is relatively small but its light-colored flesh is of good flavor.

AN = a salmon; IM; qualif permitted

UI = D017684

 

Oncorhynchus mykiss

MS = A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.

AN = a trout; IM; qualif permitted; do not confuse X ref SALMO GAIRDNERI with SALMON

UI = D017686

 

Ondansetron

MS = A competitive serotonin type 3 receptor antagonist. It is effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs, including cisplatin, and has reported anxiolytic and neuroleptic properties.

UI = D017294

 

One-Carbon Group Transferases

MS = A subclass of transferases that transfer chemical groups containing a single carbon. These include the METHYLTRANSFERASES, the HYDROXYMETHYL AND FORMYL TRANSFERASES, the CARBOXYL AND CARBAMOYL TRANSFERASES, and the AMIDINOTRANSFERASES. EC 2.1.

UI = D019875

 

Onions

MS = Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.

AN = as plant & food; selected qualif from Cat B6 & J2

UI = D019697

 

Onium Compounds

MS = Ions with the suffix -onium, indicating cations with coordination number 4 of the type RxA+ which are analogous to AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (H4N+). Ions include phosphonium R4P+, oxonium R3O+, sulfonium R3S+, chloronium R2Cl+

AN = DF: ONIUM CPDS

UI = D009861

 

Online Systems

MS = Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)

AN = IM; coord with discipline, site or application where used (IM)

UI = D009862

 

Only Child

MS = Child who has no siblings.

UI = D009863

 

Onopordum

MS = A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain eudesmane and elemane SESQUITERPENES.

AN = other 'thistle' plants are also available; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031183

 

Ontario

MS = A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)

AN = a province of Canada

UI = D009864

 

Onychomycosis

MS = A fungal infection of the nail plate, usually caused by a species of Epidermophyton, Microsporum, or Trichophyton, and producing opaque, white, thickened, friable, and brittle nails. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = ringworm of the nails; do not coord with NAILS; specify FOOT DERMATOSES (NIM) or HAND DERMATOSES (NIM)

UI = D014009

 

Onygenales

MS = An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA containing many medically important species. There are four families and mitosporic (anamorphic) forms are prominent.

UI = D020036

 

Oocysts

MS = Encapsulated zygotes of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.

UI = D033661

 

Oocyte Donation

MS = Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.

UI = D018587

 

Oocytes

MS = Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).

AN = do not confuse with OOCYSTS life cycle stage in protozoa

UI = D009865

 

Oogenesis

MS = The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).

UI = D009866

 

Oogonia

MS = Euploid female germ cells of an early stage of OOGENESIS, derived from primordial germ cells during ovarian differentiation. Oogonia undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to haploid OOCYTES

UI = D009867

 

Oomycetes

MS = A group of algae, formerly considered fungi, whose exact taxonmomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4)

AN = a group of algae formerly classed as fungi

UI = D009868

 

Oophoritis

MS = Inflammation of the OVARY, generally caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix.

UI = D009869

 

Open Bite

MS = A condition in which certain opposing teeth fail to establish occlusal contact when the jaws are closed.

UI = D024343

 

Open Reading Frames

MS = Reading frames where successive nucleotide triplets can be read as codons specifying amino acids and where the sequence of these triplets is not interrupted by a STOP CODON.

AN = "reading frame" is defined at READING FRAMES

UI = D016366

 

Operating Room Information Systems

MS = Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of operating room services and facilities.

UI = D009870

 

Operating Room Nursing

MS = The functions of the professional nurse in the operating room.

AN = a nurs SPEC: a type of PERIOPERATIVE NURSING; DF: OPERATING ROOM NURS

UI = D009871

 

Operating Room Technicians

MS = Specially trained personnel to assist in routine technical procedures in the operating room.

UI = D009872

 

Operating Rooms

MS = Facilities equipped for performing surgery.

UI = D009873

 

Operations Research

MS = A group of techniques developed to apply scientific methods and tools to solve the problems of decision making in complex organizations and systems. Operations research searches for optimal solutions in situations of conflicting goals and makes use of mathematical models from which solutions for actual problems may be derived. (From Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)

AN = no qualif

UI = D009874

 

Operator Regions (Genetics)

MS = Regulatory elements of an operon to which activators or repressors bind to effect the transcription of genes in the operon.

AN = DF: OPERATOR REGIONS

UI = D009875

 

Operon

MS = The unit of BACTERIAL GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION consisting of a feedback system under the control of an operator gene, in which a structural gene transcribes its message in the form of mRNA upon blockade of a repressor produced by a regulator gene.

AN = LAC OPERON & RRNA OPERON are also available

UI = D009876

 

Ophiopogon

MS = A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides and provide an ingredient of shengmaisan (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL).

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031441

 

Ophthalmia Neonatorum

MS = Acute conjunctival inflammation in the newborn, usually caused by maternal gonococcal infection. The causative agent is NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE. The baby's eyes are contaminated during passage through the birth canal.

AN = bact conjunctivitis; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D009878

 

Ophthalmia, Sympathetic

MS = Granulomatous uveitis which follows in one eye after a penetrating injury to the other eye; the secondarily affected eye is called the sympathizing eye, and the injured eye is called the exciting or activating eye.

AN = a type of uveitis: note X ref

UI = D009879

 

Ophthalmic Artery

MS = Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.

UI = D009880

 

Ophthalmic Assistants

MS = Persons academically trained to care for patients with eye diseases or structural defects of the eye, under the supervision of an ophthalmologist.

UI = D009881

 

Ophthalmic Nerve

MS = A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.

AN = a branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve; dis: coord IM with CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES (IM); neopl: coord IM with CRANIAL NERVE NEOPLASMS (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D009882

 

Ophthalmic Solutions

MS = Sterile solutions, essentially free from foreign particles and suitably compounded and dispensed, for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = sterile solutions for instillation into the eyes: not for solutions for cleaning eyeglass lenses ( = SOLUTIONS + specific type of lens); not for cleaning contact lenses ( = CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS); D25-26 qualif if IM & GEN; NIM coord with no qualif + specific drug IM; DF: OPHTHALMIC SOL

UI = D009883

 

Ophthalmodynamometry

MS = Measurement of the blood pressure of the retinal vessels. It is used also for the determination of the near point of convergence (CONVERGENCE, OCULAR). (From Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)

AN = to measure retinal arterial pressure; do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D009884

 

Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures

MS = Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; consider also /surg with specific parts of the eye; also EYE DISEASES /surg or /surg with specific eye dis; DF: OPHTHALMOL SURG PROCEDURES

UI = D013508

 

Ophthalmology

MS = A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif; DF: OPHTHALMOL

UI = D009885

 

Ophthalmoplegia

MS = Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.

AN = do not confuse X ref OCULOMOTOR PARALYSIS with OCULOMOTOR NERVE PARALYSIS

UI = D009886

 

Ophthalmoplegia, Chronic Progressive External

MS = A mitochondrial myopathy characterized by slowly progressive paralysis of the levator palpebrae, orbicularis oculi, and extraocular muscles. Ragged-red fibers and atrophy are found on muscle biopsy. Familial and sporadic forms may occur. Disease onset is usually in the first or second decade of life, and the illness slowly progresses until usually all ocular motility is lost. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1422)

AN = this opthalmoplegia with cardiomyopathy & retinitis pigmentosa = KEARNS SYNDROME; DF: note short X ref

UI = D017246

 

Ophthalmoscopes

MS = Devices for examining the interior of the eye, permitting the clear visualization of the structures of the eye at any depth. (UMDNS, 1999)

UI = D019721

 

Ophthalmoscopy

MS = Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.

UI = D009887

 

Opioid Peptides

MS = The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and pro-opiomelanocortin, respectively. There are also at least three classes of opioid receptors, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.

UI = D018847

 

Opioid-Related Disorders

MS = Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.

AN = GEN or unspecified; restrict to only addictive narcotics; coord IM with specific narcotic (IM) but MORPHINE DEPENDENCE & HEROIN DEPENDENCE are also available; X refs OPIATE ADDICTION & OPIATE DEPENDENCE do not mean "opium": they refer to syn or nat opium deriv & other substances with similar eff

UI = D009293

 

Opipramol

MS = A tricyclic antidepressant with actions similar to AMITRIPTYLINE.

UI = D009888

 

Opisthorchiasis

MS = Infection with flukes of the genus Opisthorchis.

AN = trematode infect caused by genus OPISTHORCHIS but not OPISTHORCHIS SINENSIS ( = CLONORCHIS SINENSIS, causing CLONORCHIASIS)

UI = D009889

 

Opisthorchidae

MS = A family of lanceolate liver flukes of the class Trematoda which occurs in animals and man. There are several genera including Amphimerus, Cyclorchis, Delphinicola, Metorchis, Parametorchis, Phocitrema, Clonorchis, and Opisthorchis.

AN = a family of trematodes; infection: coord IM with TREMATODE INFECTIONS (IM); for antigens, coord with ANTIGENS, HELMINTH, for antibodies, coord with ANTIBODIES, HELMINTH

UI = D009890

 

Opisthorchis

MS = A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. It consists of the following species: O. felineus, O. noverca (Amphimerus noverca), and O. viverrini. The intermediate hosts are snails, fish, and amphibia.

AN = infection = OPISTHORCHIASIS but note OPISTHORCHIS SINENSIS see CLONORCHIS SINENSIS: O. sinensis infection = CLONORCHIASIS; for antigens, coord with ANTIGENS, HELMINTH, for antibodies, coord with ANTIBODIES, HELMINTH

UI = D009891

 

Opium

MS = The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.

AN = a narcotic analgesic from the poppy, Papaver; opium addiction: coord IM with OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS (IM)

UI = D009892

 

Oplopanax

MS = A plant genus in the family ARALIACEAE, order Apiales, subclass Rosidae. It is the source of cirensenosides (triterpenoid saponins).

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATION or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D028002

 

Opossums

MS = Marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are common, omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal mammals, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, have coarse grayish fur mingled with whitish hairs, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth. (Webster, 3d ed)

AN = IM; qualif permitted

UI = D009893

 

Opportunistic Infections

MS = An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.

AN = "an infect caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression"; coord IM with specific name of opportunistic infect (IM) + specific infect to which it is opportunistic (IM), using /compl for all 3

UI = D009894

 

Opsin

MS = A visual pigment protein found in the retinal rods. It combines with retinaldehyde to form RHODOPSIN.

AN = a retinal pigment; do not confuse X ref ROD-OPSIN with RHODOPSIN

UI = D017299

 

Opsonins

AN = antibodies

UI = D009895

 

Optic Atrophies, Hereditary

MS = Hereditary conditions that feature progressive visual loss in association with optic atrophy. Relatively common forms include autosomal dominant optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT) and Leber hereditary optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, HEREDITARY, LEBER).

UI = D015418

 

Optic Atrophy

MS = Atrophy of the optic disk which may be congenital or acquired. This condition indicates a deficiency in the number of nerve fibers which arise in the RETINA and converge to form the OPTIC DISK, OPTIC NERVE, OPTIC CHIASM, and optic tracts. GLAUCOMA, ISCHEMIA, inflammation, a chronic elevation of intracranial pressure, toxins, optic nerve compression, and inherited conditions (see OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY) are relatively common causes of this condition.

AN = /genet permitted but do not confuse with OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY

UI = D009896

 

Optic Atrophy, Autosomal Dominant

MS = Dominant optic atrophy is a hereditary optic neuropathy causing decreased visual acuity, color vision deficits, a centrocecal scotoma, and optic nerve pallor (Hum. Genet. 1998; 102: 79-86). Mutations leading to this condition have been mapped to the OPA1 gene at chromosome 3q28-q29. OPA1 codes for a dynamin-related GTPase that localizes to mitochondria.

UI = D029241

 

Optic Atrophy, Hereditary, Leber

MS = A maternally linked genetic disorder that presents in mid-life as acute or subacute central vision loss leading to central scotoma and blindness. The disease has been associated with missense mutations in the mtDNA, in genes for Complex I, III, and IV polypeptides, that can act autonomously or in association with each other to cause the disease. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim/, MIM#535000 (April 17, 2001))

UI = D029242

 

Optic Chiasm

MS = The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.

AN = neopl: coord IM with OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D009897

 

Optic Disk

MS = The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.

AN = neopl: coord IM with OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM); do not confuse "optic cup" ( = EYE /embryol) with "optic disk cupping" ( = OPTIC DISK + GLAUCOMA); inflammation = RETINITIS + OPTIC NEURITIS

UI = D009898

 

Optic Disk Drusen

MS = Optic disk bodies composed primarily of acid mucopolysaccharides that may produce pseudopapilledema (elevation of the optic disk without associated INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION) and visual field deficits. Drusen may also occur in the retina (see RETINAL DRUSEN). (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p355)

AN = do not confuse with RETINAL DRUSEN

UI = D015594

 

Optic Lobe

MS = In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the forebrain in certain arthropods. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of lower vertebrates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)

AN = in lower animals only: do not confuse with optic lobe in vertebrates ( = CORPORA QUADRIGEMINA)

UI = D009899

 

Optic Nerve

MS = The 2nd cranial nerve. The optic nerve conveys visual information from the retina to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the retinal ganglion cells which sort at the optic chiasm and continue via the optic tracts to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other important targets include the superior colliculi and the suprachiasmatic nuclei. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the central nervous system.

AN = 2d cranial nerve; neopl = OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS (IM) + histol type of neopl (IM); atrophy = OPTIC ATROPHY; neuritis = OPTIC NEURITIS; optic nerve head = OPTIC DISK

UI = D009900

 

Optic Nerve Diseases

MS = Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.

AN = SMON: see note on OPTIC NEURITIS; inflamm dis = OPTIC NEURITIS

UI = D009901

 

Optic Nerve Glioma

MS = Glial cell derived tumors arising from the optic nerve, usually presenting in childhood. Roughly 50% are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1. Clinical manifestations include decreased visual acuity; EXOPHTHALMOS; NYSTAGMUS; STRABISMUS; pallor or swelling of the optic disc; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. The tumor may extend into the optic chiasm and hypothalamus. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p681)

UI = D020339

 

Optic Nerve Injuries

MS = Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.

UI = D020221

 

Optic Nerve Neoplasms

MS = Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from the optic nerve or its sheath. OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA is the most common histologic type. Optic nerve neoplasms tend to cause unilateral visual loss and an afferent pupillary defect and may spread via neural pathways to the brain.

AN = coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D019574

 

Optic Neuritis

MS = Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).

AN = SMON (Subacute Myelo-Optico-Neuropathy) is indexed here + MYELITIS + SYNDROME

UI = D009902

 

Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic

MS = Ischemic injury to the optic nerve which usually affects the optic disk (optic neuropathy, anterior ischemic) and less frequently the retrobulbar portion of the nerve (optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic). The injury results from occlusion of arterial blood supply which may result from TEMPORAL ARTERITIS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; COLLAGEN DISEASES; EMBOLI; DIABETES MELLITUS; and other conditions. The disease primarily occurs in the sixth decade or later and presents with the sudden onset of painless and usually severe monocular visual loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy also features optic disk edema with microhemorrhages. The optic disk appears normal in posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (Glaser, Neuro-Ophthalmology, 2nd ed, p135)

UI = D018917

 

Optical Illusions

MS = An illusion of vision usually affecting spatial relations.

UI = D009903

 

Optical Rotation

AN = NIM; no qualif

UI = D009904

 

Optical Rotatory Dispersion

MS = The method of measuring the dispersion of an optically active molecule to determine the relative magnitude of right- or left-handed components and sometimes structural features of the molecule.

AN = a type of spectrum anal; NIM

UI = D009905

 

Optical Storage Devices

MS = A computer disk read by a laser beam, containing data prerecorded by a vendor. The buyer cannot enter or modify data in any way but the advantages lie in the speed of accessibility, relative immunity to damage, and relatively low cost of purchase.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D016249

 

Optics

UI = D009906

 

Optometry

MS = The professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif

UI = D009907

 

Opuntia

MS = A plant genus of the family CACTACEAE. Species with cylindrical joints are called Cholla; flat jointed ones are Prickly-pear.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D029747

 

Oral Fistula

MS = An abnormal passage within the mouth communicating between two or more anatomical structures.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; fistula policy: Manual 23.19+

UI = D016155

 

Oral Health

MS = The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.

AN = differentiate from ORAL HYGIENE; oral health is the state of health of the mouth

UI = D009909

 

Oral Hemorrhage

MS = Bleeding from the blood vessels of the mouth, which may occur as a result of injuries to the mouth, accidents in oral surgery, or diseases of the gums.

AN = not hemorrh from the mouth but hemorrh of oral tissue; do not confuse with BLEEDING ON PROBING, GINGIVAL see PERIODONTAL INDEX

UI = D006472

 

Oral Hygiene

MS = The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.

AN = differentiate from ORAL HEALTH; oral hyg is care toward maintaining good oral health performed by the person himself or a caregiver in the case of invalid or disabled persons; differentiate also from DENTAL CARE, care by professionals; for oral hyg using dental floss, water picks, etc. use DENTAL DEVICES, HOME CARE or TOOTHBRUSHING

UI = D009910

 

Oral Hygiene Index

MS = A combination of the debris index and the dental calculus index to determine the status of oral hygiene.

AN = no qualif

UI = D009911

 

Oral Manifestations

MS = Disorders of the mouth attendant upon non-oral disease or injury.

AN = not used for indexing since 1989; prior to 1989 used for oral manifest of non-oral diseases

UI = D009912

 

Oral Medicine

MS = A branch of dentistry dealing with diseases of the oral and paraoral structures and the oral management of systemic diseases. (Hall, What is Oral Medicine, Anyway? Clinical Update: National Naval Dental Center, March 1991, p7-8)

AN = "a branch of dentistry dealing with dis of the oral & paraoral struct & the oral management of system dis"; SPEC: SPEC qualif; X ref STOMATOLOGY: seen most often in foreign lit: translate as "oral medicine"; "stomatol dis" = MOUTH DISEASES

UI = D019242

 

Oral Stage

MS = The earliest of the stages of infantile psychosexual development, lasting from birth to 12 months or longer.

AN = no qualif

UI = D009913

 

Oral Submucous Fibrosis

UI = D009914

 

Oral Surgical Procedures

MS = Procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.

UI = D019647

 

Oral Surgical Procedures, Preprosthetic

MS = Surgery necessary for a denture to rest on a firm base, free from marked osseous protuberances or undercuts, and devoid of interfering muscle attachments, excess mucoperiosteum, hyperplasias, and fibrous or papillary growths.

UI = D013516

 

Oral Ulcer

MS = A loss of mucous substance of the mouth showing local excavation of the surface, resulting from the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue. It is the result of a variety of causes, e.g., denture irritation, aphthous stomatitis (STOMATITIS, APHTHOUS); NOMA; necrotizing gingivitis (GINGIVITIS, NECROTIZING, ULCERATIVE); TOOTHBRUSHING; and various irritants. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p842)

AN = coord IM with cause (IM) if pertinent; not a synonym for STOMATITIS, APHTHOUS

UI = D019226

 

Orbit

AN = bony cavity & its contents as a unit; not a synonym for EYE

UI = D009915

 

Orbit Evisceration

MS = The surgical removal of the contents of the orbit. This includes the eyeball, blood vessels, muscles, fat, nerve supply, and periosteum. It should be differentiated from EYE EVISCERATION which removes the inner contents of the eye, leaving the sclera intact.

AN = "removal of the contents of the orbit" (see MeSH definition): do not confuse with EYE EVISCERATION, "removal of the inner contents of the eye, leaving the sclera intact"; do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D017233

 

Orbital Diseases

MS = Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.

AN = dis of bony cavity & its contents except eyeball ( = EYE DISEASES or specifics)

UI = D009916

 

Orbital Fractures

MS = Fractures of the bones in the orbit, which include parts of the frontal, ethmoidal, lacrimal, and sphenoid bones and the maxilla and zygoma.

AN = ZYGOMATIC FRACTURES & MAXILLARY FRACTURES are also available

UI = D009917

 

Orbital Implants

MS = Rounded objects made of coral, teflon, or alloplastic polymer and covered with sclera, and which are implanted in the orbit following enucleation. An artificial eye (EYE, ARTIFICIAL) is usually attached to the anterior of the orbital implant for cosmetic purposes.

UI = D020273

 

Orbital Neoplasms

MS = Neoplasms of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.

AN = neopl of bony cavity & its contents except eyeball ( = EYE NEOPLASMS or specifics); /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D009918

 

Orbivirus

MS = A genus of REOVIRIDAE infecting a wide range of arthropods and vertebrates including humans. It comprises at least twelve serological subgroups. Transmission is by vectors such as midges, mosquitoes, sandflies, and ticks.

AN = infection: coord IM with REOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D018163

 

Orchidaceae

MS = A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D029595

 

Orchiectomy

MS = The surgical removal of one or both testicles.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition; check tags MALE & ANIMAL or HUMAN

UI = D009919

 

Orchitis

MS = Inflammation of a testis. The disease is marked by pain, swelling, and a feeling of weight. It may occur idiopathically, or it may be associated with conditions such as mumps, gonorrhea, filarial disease, syphilis, or tuberculosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = inflamm of testis

UI = D009920

 

Orciprenaline

MS = A beta-adrenergic agonist used in the treatment of asthma and bronchospasms.

UI = D009921

 

Oregon

UI = D009922

 

Orf virus

MS = The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.

AN = infection = ECTHYMA, CONTAGIOUS but see note there

UI = D009923

 

Organ Culture

MS = A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)

AN = NIM; TISSUE CULTURE & CELL CULTURE are also available

UI = D009924

 

Organ of Corti

MS = The organ that contains the special sensory receptors for hearing. It is composed of a series of epithelial structures placed upon the inner part of the basilar membrane.

UI = D009925

 

Organ Preservation

MS = The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).

AN = cryopreservation of organ: coord IM with organ (no qualif) + CRYOPRESERVATION

UI = D009926

 

Organ Preservation Solutions

MS = Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particulary while awaiting implantation.

AN = coord with specific chem components of solution (IM) + specific organ or tissue (IM with no qualif)

UI = D019188

 

Organ Procurement

MS = The administrative procedures involved with acquiring organs for transplantation through various programs, systems, or organizations. It includes obtaining consent and arranging for transportation of donor organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to the hospital for processing and transplant.

UI = D009927

 

Organ Specificity

MS = Restriction of a characteristic or response to a particular organ of the body; it usually refers to that property of the immune response which differentiates one organ from another on the basis of antigen recognition, but the concept is not limited to immunology.

AN = IM GEN only; coord NIM with specific organ (IM); "tissue specificity" goes here if reasonable (i.e., liver tissue specificity = LIVER + ORGAN SPECIFICITY but connective tissue specificity is not CONNECTIVE TISSUE + ORGAN SPECIFICITY)

UI = D009928

 

Organ Transplantation

MS = Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.

AN = GEN & unspecified only: prefer /transpl with organs (Manual 19.7+, 19.8.75) but many specific precoord organ/transpl terms are available; available also are several types of technical transpl terms (e.g., TRANSPLANTATION, HETEROLOGOUS); immunol of organ transpl = TRANSPLANTATION IMMUNOLOGY; DF: ORGAN TRANSPL

UI = D016377

 

Organ Weight

AN = almost never IM; use Cat G qualif; coord NIM with organ /anat (IM) (or /growth if pertinent) or disease /pathol (IM)

UI = D009929

 

Organelles

MS = Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOMOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.

AN = do not confuse with ORGANOIDS: read MeSH definitions & follow text

UI = D015388

 

Organic Anion Transport Polypeptide C

MS = An organic anion transporter found in human liver. It is capable of transporting a variety organic anions and mediates sodium-independent uptake of bile in the liver.

UI = D027381

 

Organic Anion Transport Protein 1

MS = A polyspecific transporter for organic cations found primarily in the kidney. It mediates the coupled exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate with organic ions such as P-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID.

UI = D027362

 

Organic Anion Transporters

MS = Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.

AN = ANION TRANSPORT PROTEINS is also available

UI = D027361

 

Organic Anion Transporters, ATP-Dependent

MS = A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is linked directly to the hydrolysis of ATP. The subclass includes those ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that transport organic ions.

UI = D029365

 

Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent

MS = A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.

UI = D029363

 

Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Independent

MS = A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.

UI = D029362

 

Organic Cation Transport Proteins

MS = A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.

UI = D027701

 

Organic Cation Transporter 1

MS = An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.

UI = D027702

 

Organic Chemicals

MS = A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specific groups or specific chemicals

UI = D009930

 

Organisms, Genetically Modified

MS = Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer ANIMALS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED or PLANTS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED or their specifics

UI = D030781

 

Organization and Administration

MS = The planning and managing of programs, services, and resources.

AN = GEN only: prefer /organ: Manual 19.7+, 19.8.49; almost never IM; DF: ORGAN ADMIN but do not confuse with ORGAN for ORGANIZATIONS

UI = D009934

 

Organizational Affiliation

MS = Formal relationships established between otherwise independent organizations. These include affiliation agreements, interlocking boards, common controls, hospital medical school affiliations, etc.

AN = med or non-med affiliation; DF: ORGAN AFFILIATION

UI = D009935

 

Organizational Case Studies

MS = Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.

AN = excludes clinical studies

UI = D019982

 

Organizational Culture

MS = Beliefs and values shared by all members of the organization. These shared values are reflected in the day to day operations of the organization.

AN = "beliefs & values shared by all members of the organization"; NIM; coord with specific organization (IM); no qualif

UI = D015279

 

Organizational Innovation

MS = Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.

AN = NIM; coord with specific organiz (IM); DF: ORGAN INNOVATION

UI = D009936

 

Organizational Objectives

MS = The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.

AN = NIM; coord with specific organiz (IM); DF: ORGAN OBJECTIVES

UI = D009937

 

Organizational Policy

MS = A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.

AN = no qualif; specify corporate body if pertinent

UI = D016134

 

Organizations

MS = Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.

AN = has a limited use since there are other more specific terms available; read notes under SOCIETIES; SOCIETIES, MEDICAL & SOCIETIES, SCIENTIFIC for likely exclusions: ORGANIZATIONS tends to be for groups with a common goal based on interest, SOCIETIES tends to be for groups with common educ or professional status: TN 174; policy: Manual 35.9; specify geog: Manual 36.15; DF: ORGAN but do not confuse with ORGAN ADMIN for ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION

UI = D009938

 

Organizations, Nonprofit

MS = Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.

AN = DF: ORGAN NONPROFIT

UI = D009939

 

Organizers, Embryonic

MS = The regions within an embryo that control development and differentiation. In AMPHIBIA, the organizer forms at the dorsal-most lip of the blastopore during gastrulation and is named after its discoverer, Hans Spemann.

UI = D020897

 

Organogenesis

MS = Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.

AN = mammalian and non-mammalian; coord with specific organ/embryol

UI = D038081

 

Organoids

MS = An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.

AN = do not confuse with ORGANELLES: read MeSH definitions & follow text

UI = D009940

 

Organomercury Compounds

MS = Organic compounds which contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.

AN = DF: ORGANOMERCURY CPDS

UI = D009941

 

Organometallic Compounds

MS = A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specific groups or specific cpd; DF: ORGANOMETALLIC CPDS

UI = D009942

 

Organophosphorus Compounds

MS = Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule.

AN = includes organopyrophosphorus cpds; organophosphates & organopyrophosphates go under Phosphoric Acid Esters; /antag permitted but consider also CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS; DF: ORGANOPHOSPHORUS CPDS

UI = D009943

 

Organoplatinum Compounds

MS = Organic compounds which contain platinum as an integral part of the molecule.

AN = DF: ORGANOPLATINUM CPDS

UI = D009944

 

Organoselenium Compounds

MS = Organic compounds which contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.

AN = DF: ORGANOSELENIUM CPDS

UI = D016566

 

Organosilicon Compounds

MS = Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.

AN = DF: ORGANOSILICON CPDS

UI = D017646

 

Organotechnetium Compounds

MS = Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.

AN = DF: ORGANOTECHNETIUM CPDS

UI = D015609

 

Organotherapy

MS = Historically, the treatment of disease by the administration of animal organs or their extracts (after Brown-Sequard). At present synthetic preparations substitute for the extracts of a gland. (From Stedman, 26th ed)

AN = ther using animal organs or their extracts; TISSUE THERAPY is also available; do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D009945

 

Organothiophosphorus Compounds

MS = Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as pesticides (e.g., INSECTICIDES, ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATE).

AN = includes organothiophosphates; /antag permitted but consider also CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS; DF: ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHORUS CPDS

UI = D009946

 

Organotin Compounds

MS = Organic compounds which contain tin in the molecule. Used widely in industry and agriculture.

AN = DF: ORGANOTIN CPDS

UI = D009947

 

Orgasm

MS = The crisis of sexual excitement in either humans or animals.

UI = D009948

 

Orientation

MS = Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.

AN = human & animal

UI = D009949

 

Orientia tsutsugamushi

MS = A gram-negative, rod-shaped to coccoid bacterium. It is the etiologic agent of SCRUB TYPHUS in humans and is transmitted by mites from rodent reservoirs.

AN = infection = SCRUB TYPHUS

UI = D012285

 

Origanum

MS = A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that is the source of a familiar food seasoning.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031341

 

Ornidazole

MS = A nitroimidazole antiprotozoal agent used in ameba and trichomonas infections. It is partially plasma-bound and also has radiation-sensitizing action.

UI = D009950

 

Ornipressin

MS = A synthetic analog of vasopressin with ornithine in position 8 of the cyclic nonapeptide. It is used as a local vasoconstrictor and hemostatic.

UI = D009951

 

Ornithine

MS = An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.

AN = /biosyn /physiol permitted

UI = D009952

 

Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase

MS = A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-CITRULLINE from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ORNITHINE. Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.

AN = /defic: consider also ORNITHINE CARBAMOYLTRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE

UI = D009954

 

Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase Deficiency Disease

MS = An inherited urea cycle disorder associated with deficiency of the enzyme ORNITHINE CARBAMOYLTRANSFERASE, transmitted as a sex-linked trait and featuring elevations of amino acids and ammonia in the serum. Clinical features, which are more prominent in males, include seizures, behavioral alterations, episodic vomiting, lethargy, and coma. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp49-50)

AN = consider also ORNITHINE CARBAMOYLTRANSFERASE /defic

UI = D020163

 

Ornithine Decarboxylase

MS = A pyridoxal-phosphate protein, believed to be the rate-limiting compound in the biosynthesis of polyamines. It catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is then linked to a propylamine moiety of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to form spermidine. EC 4.1.1.17.

UI = D009955

 

Ornithine-Oxo-Acid Transaminase

MS = A pyridoxal phosphate enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glutamate gamma-semialdehyde and an L-amino acid from L-ornithine and a 2-keto-acid. EC 2.6.1.13.

UI = D009953

 

Ornithodoros

MS = A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.

AN = infestation: coord IM with TICK INFESTATIONS (IM)

UI = D026861

 

Ornithogalum

MS = A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE that contains cholestane glycosides (CHOLESTANES).

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031442

 

Ornithosis

MS = Infection with CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI (formerly Chlamydia psittaci), transmitted to man by inhalation of dust-borne contaminated nasal secretions or excreta of infected birds. This infection results in a febrile illness characterized by pneumonitis and systemic manifestations.

UI = D009956

 

Oroantral Fistula

MS = A fistula between the maxillary sinus and the oral cavity.

AN = fistula policy: Manual 23.19+

UI = D009957

 

Orobanchaceae

MS = The broom-rape plant family of the order Scrophulariales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida.

AN = prefer specific plant; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031670

 

Orobanche

MS = A plant genus of the family OROBANCHACEAE. Lacking chlorophyll, they are nonphotosynthetic parasitic plants. The common name is similar to Broom or Scotch Broom (CYTISUS) or Butcher's Broom (RUSCUS) or Desert Broom (BACCHARIS) or Spanish Broom (SPARTIUM) or Brome (BROMUS).

AN = X ref BROOM RAPE: several other Broom terms are also available; check text and MeSH; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031672

 

Orofaciodigital Syndromes

MS = Two syndromes of oral, facial, and digital malformations. Type I (Papillon-Leage and Psaume syndrome, Gorlin-Psaume syndrome) is inherited as an X-linked dominant trait and is found only in females and XXY males. Type II (Mohr syndrome) is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.

AN = do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D009958

 

Oropharyngeal Neoplasms

MS = Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.

AN = coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D009959

 

Oropharynx

MS = Oral part of the pharynx.

AN = inflammation: index under PHARYNGITIS & do not bother to coord with OROPHARYNX (NIM) unless particularly discussed

UI = D009960

 

Orosomucoid

AN = an alpha-globulin

UI = D009961

 

Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase

MS = The enzyme catalyzing the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphoric acid (orotidylic acid) from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate in the course of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. EC 2.4.2.10.

AN = /defic: consider also OROTIC ACID /urine (IM) + PURINE-PYRIMIDINE METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS (IM)

UI = D009962

 

Orotic Acid

UI = D009963

 

Orotidine-5'-Phosphate Decarboxylase

MS = Orotidine-5'-phosphate carboxy-lyase. Catalyzes the decarboxylation of orotidylic acid to yield uridylic acid in the final step of the pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis pathway. EC 4.1.1.23.

AN = /defic: consider also OROTIC ACID /urine (IM) + PURINE-PYRIMIDINE METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS (IM); DF: OMP DECARBOXYLASE

UI = D009964

 

Orphan Drug Production

MS = Production of drugs or biologicals which are unlikely to be manufactured by private industry unless special incentives are provided by others.

UI = D009965

 

Orphanages

MS = Institutions for the housing and care of orphans, foundlings, and abandoned children. They have existed as such since the medieval period but the heading is applicable to such usage also in modern parlance.

AN = hist or modern usage

UI = D019372

 

Orphenadrine

MS = A muscarinic antagonist used to treat drug-induced parkinsonism and to relieve pain from muscle spasm.

UI = D009966

 

Orthodontic Appliance Design

MS = The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.

AN = coord IM with specific appliance (IM or NIM) or orthodontic tech /instrum (IM or NIM)

UI = D016382

 

Orthodontic Appliances

MS = Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)

UI = D009967

 

Orthodontic Appliances, Functional

MS = Loose, usually removable intra-oral devices which alter the muscle forces against the teeth and craniofacial skeleton. These are dynamic appliances which depend on altered neuromuscular action to effect bony growth and occlusal development. They are usually used in mixed dentition to treat pediatric malocclusions. (ADA, 1992)

UI = D017289

 

Orthodontic Appliances, Removable

UI = D009968

 

Orthodontic Brackets

MS = Small metal or ceramic attachments used to fasten an arch wire. These attachments are soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or cemented directly onto the teeth. Bowles brackets, edgewise brackets, multiphase brackets, ribbon arch brackets, twin-wire brackets, and universal brackets are all types of orthodontic brackets.

UI = D016910

 

Orthodontic Retainers

MS = Orthodontic appliances, fixed or removable, used to maintain teeth in corrected positions during the period of functional adaptation following corrective treatment. These appliances are also used to maintain the positions of the teeth and jaws gained by orthodontic procedures. (From Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p263)

UI = D018704

 

Orthodontic Space Closure

MS = Therapeutic closure of spaces caused by the extraction of teeth, the congenital absence of teeth, or the excessive space between teeth.

UI = D019516

 

Orthodontic Wires

MS = Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.

UI = D009969

 

Orthodontics

MS = A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif; orthop├ędie dento-faciale in French titles is translated "orthodontics" & indexed here

UI = D009970

 

Orthodontics, Corrective

MS = The phase of orthodontics concerned with the correction of malocclusion with proper appliances and prevention of its sequelae (Jablonski's Illus. Dictionary of Dentistry).

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D009971

 

Orthodontics, Interceptive

MS = Recognition and elimination of potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex.

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D009972

 

Orthodontics, Preventive

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D009973

 

Orthohepadnavirus

MS = A genus of HEPADNAVIRIDAE causing hepatitis in humans, woodchucks (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK) and ground squirrels. HEPATITIS B VIRUS is the type species.

AN = infection: coord IM with HEPATITIS, VIRAL, HUMAN (IM) or HEPATITIS, VIRAL, ANIMAL (IM) + HEPADNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D017918

 

Orthomolecular Therapy

MS = The use of very large doses of vitamins or other naturally occurring substances normally present in the body, frequently for the treatment of mental disorders.

AN = a psychother technique; note X ref: /adv eff permitted; DF: ORTHOMOL THER

UI = D009974

 

Orthomyxoviridae

MS = A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are four recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; and THOGOTOVIRUS.

AN = infection = ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS

UI = D009975

 

Orthomyxoviridae Infections

MS = Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics

UI = D009976

 

Orthopedic Equipment

MS = Nonexpendable items used in the performance of orthopedic surgery and related therapy. They are differentiated from ORTHOTIC DEVICES, apparatus used to prevent or correct deformities in patients.

AN = nonexpendable & used by the orthopedic surgeon; do not confuse with ORTHOTIC DEVICES used on the patient

UI = D009983

 

Orthopedic Fixation Devices

MS = Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.

AN = TN 124: /adv eff

UI = D009984

 

Orthopedic Nursing

MS = The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of the orthopedic patient.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif

UI = D016530

 

Orthopedic Procedures

MS = Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.

UI = D019637

 

Orthopedics

MS = A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif; Manual 26.19+; orthopedie dento-faciale in French titles is translated "orthodontics" & is indexed under ORTHODONTICS

UI = D009985

 

Orthopoxvirus

MS = A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRNINAE, comprising many species infecting mammals. Viruses of this genus cause generalized infections and a rash in some hosts. The type species is VACCINIA VIRUS.

AN = a genus of the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae; infection: coord IM with POXVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D018155

 

Orthopsychiatry

MS = The study and treatment of human behavior problems utilizing principles derived from the behavioral, medical, and social science with emphasis on promotion of mental health.

AN = SPEC; SPEC qualif; MDs, psychologists, social workers, etc.

UI = D009986

 

Orthoptera

MS = An order of insects comprising two suborders: Caelifera and Ensifera. They consist of GRASSHOPPERS, locusts, and crickets (GRYLLIDAE).

AN = do not use /drug eff for insecticides: TN 111

UI = D009987

 

Orthoptics

MS = The study and treatment of defects in binocular vision resulting from defects in the optic musculature or of faulty visual habits. It involves a technique of eye exercises designed to correct the visual axes of eyes not properly coordinated for binocular vision.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif; X ref PLEOPTICS is seen in foreign lit

UI = D009988

 

Orthoreovirus

MS = A genus of the family REOVIRIDAE infecting vertebrates only. Transmission is horizontal and infected species include humans, birds, cattle, monkeys, sheep, swine, baboons, and bats. MAMMALIAN ORTHOREOVIRUS is the type species.

AN = infection: coord IM with REOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D018165

 

Orthoreovirus, Avian

MS = A species of ORTHOREOVIRUS infecting birds, with outcomes ranging from inapparent to lethal depending on the virus strain and age of the host bird. This species does not infect mammals.

AN = infection: coord IM with REOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D030101

 

Orthoreovirus, Mammalian

MS = A species of ORTHOREOVIRUS infecting mammals (other than baboons). There are three serotypes. In humans they are generally benign but may sometimes cause upper respiratory tract illness or enteritis in infants and children. REOVIRUS 3 is a very pathogenic virus in laboratory rodents.

AN = infection: coord IM with REOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D030102

 

Orthosiphon

MS = A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains pimarane-type diterpenes.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031342

 

Orthotic Devices

MS = Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.

AN = includes slings, BRACES, etc.

UI = D009989

 

Oryza sativa

MS = Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29; "yusho pois": index under ORYZA SATIVA /pois (IM) + PLANT OILS /pois (IM) + POLYCHLOROBIPHENYL COMPOUNDS /pois (IM) + FOOD CONTAMINATION (IM)

UI = D012275

 

Oryzias

MS = The only genus in the family Oryziinae, order BELONIFORMES. Oryzias are egg-layers; other fish of the same order are livebearers. Oryzias are used extensively in testing carcinogens.

AN = note X refs JAPANESE KILLIFISH and MEDAKA KILLIFISH; KILLIFISHES is also available

UI = D009990

 

Oscillometry

MS = Measurement of oscillations of any kind. In medicine it is used in studying cardiovascular and respiratory physiology. (Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = NIM

UI = D009991

 

Osmeriformes

MS = An order of fish including smelts, galaxiids, and salamanderfish.

UI = D036441

 

Osmium

MS = Osmium. A very hard, gray, toxic, and nearly infusible metal element, atomic number 76, atomic weight 190.2, symbol Os. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = Os-192; Os-184, 186-190, = OSMIUM (IM) + ISOTOPES (NIM); Os-181-183, 185, 191, 193-195 = OSMIUM (IM) + RADIOISOTOPES (IM)

UI = D009992

 

Osmium Compounds

MS = Inorganic compounds that contain osmium as an integral part of the molecule.

AN = inorganic; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; DF: OSMIUM CPDS

UI = D017892

 

Osmium Tetroxide

MS = (T-4)-Osmium oxide (OsO4). A highly toxic and volatile oxide of osmium used in industry as an oxidizing agent. It is also used as a histological fixative and stain and as a synovectomy agent in arthritic joints. Its vapor can cause eye, skin, and lung damage.

AN = indust & histol uses

UI = D009993

 

Osmolar Concentration

MS = The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.

AN = NIM; no qualif

UI = D009994

 

Osmosis

MS = Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.

AN = NIM; coord NIM with substance /pharmacokin (IM) or tissue /metab (IM); osmotic shock: index under OSMOTIC PRESSURE

UI = D009995

 

Osmotic Fragility

MS = Red blood cell sensitivity to change in osmotic pressure. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.

AN = a blood test: do not coord with ERYTHROCYTES since this is defined in terms of erythrocytes; NIM

UI = D009996

 

Osmotic Pressure

MS = The pressure required to stop osmosis through a semipermeable membrane between a solution and pure solvent. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution. Osmotic shock is a sudden change in the osmotic pressure to which a cell is subjected, usually in order to cause it to lyse and lose its contents. (Dorland, 28th ed; Stedman, 26th ed)

AN = NIM

UI = D009997

 

Osseointegration

MS = The growth action of bone tissue, as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).

AN = note category & MeSH definition: must involve bone growth in relation to surg implanted material; do not confuse with OSSIFICATION, HETEROTOPIC, a Cat C term

UI = D016348

 

Ossicular Prosthesis

MS = An implant used to replace one or more of the ear ossicles. They are usually made of plastic, Gelfoam, ceramic, or stainless steel.

AN = note short X refs TORP & PORP standing for Total Ossic Replace Prosth ( = drum-to-foot plate) & Partial Ossic Replace Prosth ( = drum-to-stapes)

UI = D009998

 

Ossicular Replacement

MS = Surgical insertion of an implant to replace one or more of the ear ossicles.

UI = D019933

 

Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament

MS = A calcification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spinal column, usually at the level of the cervical spine. It is often associated with anterior ankylosing hyperostosis.

AN = DF: OPLL

UI = D017887

 

Ossification, Heterotopic

MS = The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.

UI = D009999

 

Osteitis

AN = coord IM with specific bone (IM)

UI = D010000

 

Osteitis Deformans

MS = A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.

UI = D010001

 

Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica

MS = A fibrous degeneration, cyst formation, and the presence of fibrous nodules in bone, usually due to HYPERPARATHYROIDISM.

UI = D010002

 

Osteoarthritis

MS = A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.

AN = most common form of arthritis

UI = D010003

 

Osteoarthritis, Hip

MS = Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the hip joint which usually appears in late middle or old age. It is characterized by growth or maturational disturbances in the femoral neck and head, as well as acetabular dysplasia. A dominant symptom is pain on weight-bearing or motion.

UI = D015207

 

Osteoarthritis, Knee

MS = Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)

UI = D020370

 

Osteoarthropathy, Primary Hypertrophic

MS = A conditioned chiefly characterized by thickening of the skin of the head and distal extremities, deep folds and furrows of the skin of the forehead, cheeks, and scalp, seborrhea, hyperhidrosis, periostosis of the long bones, digital clubbing, and spadelike enlargement of the hands and feet. It is more prevalent in the male, and is usually first evident during adolescence. It is believed to be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = OSTEOARTHROPATHY, SECONDARY HYPERTROPHIC is also available

UI = D010004

 

Osteoarthropathy, Secondary Hypertrophic

MS = Symmetrical osteitis of the four limbs, chiefly localized to the phalanges and the terminal epiphyses of the long bones of the forearm and leg, sometimes extending to the proximal ends of the limbs and the flat bones, and accompanied by dorsal kyphosis and joint involvement. It is often secondary to chronic conditions of the lungs and heart. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = OSTEOARTHROPATHY, PRIMARY HYPERTROPHIC is also available

UI = D010005

 

Osteoblastoma

MS = A benign, painful, tumor of bone characterized by the formation of osteoid tissue, primitive bone and calcified tissue. It occurs frequently in the spine of young persons. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with BONE NEOPLASMS (IM) or specific precoord bone/neopl term (IM) or specific bone (IM) + BONE NEOPLASMS (IM); osteoblastoclastoma = OSTEOBLASTOMA (IM) + GIANT CELL TUMOR OF BONE (IM) + precoord organ/neopl term (IM)

UI = D018215

 

Osteoblasts

MS = Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.

UI = D010006

 

Osteocalcin

MS = Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by osteoblasts and found primarily in bone. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of calcium, promotes binding to hydroxyapatite and subsequent accumulation in bone matrix.

AN = a calcium-binding protein; /biosyn /drug eff /physiol /ultrastruct permitted

UI = D015675

 

Osteochondritis

MS = Inflammation of bone and cartilage.

UI = D010007

 

Osteochondritis Dissecans

MS = A type of osteochondritis in which articular cartilage and associated bone becomes partially or totally detached to form joint loose bodies. Affects mainly the knee, ankle, and elbow joints.

UI = D010008

 

Osteochondrodysplasias

MS = Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.

AN = abnorm develop of cartilage & bone

UI = D010009

 

Osteochondroma

MS = A cartilage-capped benign tumor that often appears as a stalk on the surface of bone. It is probably a developmental malformation rather than a true neoplasm and is usually found in the metaphysis of the distal femur, proximal tibia, or proximal humerus. Osteochondroma is the most common of benign bone tumors.

AN = solitary; note OSTEOCHONDROMAS, MULTIPLE see EXOSTOSES, MULTIPLE HEREDITARY; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with BONE NEOPLASMS (IM) or specific precoord bone/neopl term (IM) or specific bone (IM) + BONE NEOPLASMS (IM)

UI = D015831

 

Osteochondromatosis

MS = A condition marked by the presence of multiple osteochondromas. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = multiple; solitary = OSTEOCHONDROMA; do not use /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct; coord IM with precoord organ/neopl term (IM)

UI = D018216

 

Osteoclasts

MS = A large multinuclear cell associated with the absorption and removal of bone. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in cementum resorption.

AN = A 11 qualif

UI = D010010

 

Osteocytes

MS = Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.

UI = D010011

 

Osteogenesis

MS = The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.

AN = BONE DEVELOPMENT is also available

UI = D010012

 

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

MS = Autosomal dominant COLLAGEN DISEASES resulting from defective biosynthesis of COLLAGEN TYPE I and characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones. It may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation. There are four major types, I-IV.

UI = D010013

 

Osteogenesis, Distraction

MS = Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.

AN = bone lengthening by gradual distraction; not restricted to long bones

UI = D019857

 

Osteolysis

MS = Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.

AN = only Cat C qualif

UI = D010014

 

Osteolysis, Essential

MS = Syndromes of bone destruction where the cause is not obvious such as neoplasia, infection, or trauma. The destruction follows various patterns: massive (Gorham disease), multicentric (HAJDU-CHENEY SYNDROME), or carpal/tarsal.

UI = D010015

 

Osteoma

MS = A benign tumor composed of bone tissue or a hard tumor of bonelike structure developing on a bone (homoplastic osteoma) or on other structures (heteroplastic osteoma). (From Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with BONE NEOPLASMS (IM) or specific precoord bone/neopl term (IM) or specific bone (IM) + BONE NEOPLASMS (IM)

UI = D010016

 

Osteoma, Osteoid

MS = Benign circumscribed tumor of spongy bone occurring especially in the bones of the extremities and vertebrae, most often in young persons. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with BONE NEOPLASMS (IM) or specific precoord bone/neopl term (IM) or specific bone (IM) + BONE NEOPLASMS (IM); do not confuse with OSTEOMA, GIANT OSTEOID see OSTEOBLASTOMA

UI = D010017

 

Osteomalacia

MS = A condition marked by softening of the bones (due to impaired mineralization, with excess accumulation of osteoid), with pain, tenderness, muscular weakness, anorexia, and loss of weight, resulting from deficiency of vitamin D and calcium. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = softening of bones; manifest of calcium & vitamin D defic

UI = D010018

 

Osteomyelitis

UI = D010019

 

Osteonecrosis

MS = Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.

AN = OSTEORADIONECROSIS & FEMUR HEAD NECROSIS are available

UI = D010020

 

Osteonectin

MS = Non-collagenous, calcium-binding glycoprotein of developing bone. It links collagen to mineral in the bone matrix. In the synonym SPARC glycoprotein, the acronym stands for Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine.

UI = D015676

 

Osteopathic Medicine

MS = A system of therapy and medicine based on the theory that the normal body is a vital mechanical organism whose structural and functional states are of equal importance and is capable of making its own remedies against infections and toxic conditions when there are favorable environmental circumstances and adequate nutrition.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif; OSTEOPATHY is not a substitute for BONE AND BONES /pathol; TN 143: do not confuse with BONE DISEASES; DF: OSTEOPATHIC MED

UI = D010021

 

Osteopetrosis

MS = Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures, OSTEITIS, SPLENOMEGALY with infarct, ANEMIA, and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).

AN = do not confuse with OSTEOPOROSIS

UI = D010022

 

Osteopoikilosis

MS = An asymptomatic, autosomal dominant trait in which pea-sized sclerotic spots, prominent in the metaphyseal area, are accompanied by unique cutaneous lesions. These are yellowish papules or plaques with increased elastin content. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, pp1434-35)

AN = a form of osteosclerosis

UI = D010023

 

Osteoporosis

MS = Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.

AN = related to aging: note X refs; age-related osteoporosis in men goes here; age-related osteoporosis in women is probably OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL

UI = D010024

 

Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal

MS = Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.

AN = in females; don't forget also check tags HUMAN + FEMALE; corresponding age-related osteoporosis in men goes under OSTEOPOROSIS

UI = D015663

 

Osteoradionecrosis

MS = Necrosis of bone following radiation injury.

AN = bone necrosis after radiation inj; coord IM with bone/dis (IM), not organ /inj

UI = D010025

 

Osteosarcoma

MS = A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with BONE NEOPLASMS (IM) or specific precoord bone/neopl term (IM) or specific bone (IM) + BONE NEOPLASMS (IM)

UI = D012516

 

Osteosarcoma, Juxtacortical

MS = A form of osteogenic sarcoma of relatively low malignancy, probably arising from the periosteum and initially involving cortical bone and adjacent connective tissue. It occurs in middle-aged as well as young adults and most commonly affects the lower part of the femoral shaft. (Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with BONE NEOPLASMS (IM) or specific precoord bone/neopl term (IM) or specific bone (IM) + BONE NEOPLASMS (IM)

UI = D018217

 

Osteosclerosis

MS = An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.

UI = D010026

 

Osteotomy

MS = The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D010027

 

Osteotomy, Le Fort

MS = Transverse sectioning and repositioning of the maxilla. There are three types: Le Fort I osteotomy for maxillary advancement or the treatment of maxillary fractures; Le Fort II osteotomy for the treatment of maxillary fractures; Le Fort III osteotomy for the treatment of maxillary fractures with fracture of one or more facial bones. Le Fort III is often used also to correct craniofacial dysostosis and related facial abnormalities. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1203 & p662)

AN = in maxillary surg; Le Fort I: coord IM with MAXILLA /surg (IM) for maxillary advancement; Le Fort II: coord IM with MAXILLARY FRACTURES /surg (IM); Le Fort III: coord IM with MAXILLARY FRACTURES /surg (IM) or CRANIOFACIAL DYSTOSIS /surg (IM) or other related facial abnorm /surg (IM); do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D019340

 

Ostertagia

MS = A genus of parasitic nematodes occurring in the stomach of ruminants.

AN = a genus of nematodes; infection = OSTERTAGIASIS; for antigens, coord with ANTIGENS, HELMINTH, for antibodies, coord with ANTIBODIES, HELMINTH

UI = D010028

 

Ostertagiasis

MS = A disease of herbivorous mammals, particularly cattle and sheep, caused by stomach worms of the genus OSTERTAGIA.

AN = roundworm infect

UI = D010029

 

Ostomy

MS = Surgical construction of an artificial opening (stoma) for external fistulization of a duct or vessel by insertion of a tube with or without a supportive stent.

AN = surg creation of an artif opening (stoma) "for external fistulization"; GEN only: prefer specific

UI = D010030

 

Ostriches

MS = Flightless birds of the order Struthioniformes which naturally inhabit open, low rainfall areas of Africa.

AN = OSTRICHES, AMERICAN = RHEAS

UI = D020310

 

Otitis

MS = Inflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain, fever, abnormalities of hearing, hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Inflammation of the external ear is OTITIS EXTERNA; of the middle ear, OTITIS MEDIA; of the inner ear, LABYRINTHITIS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = inflamm of the ear unspecified as to external, middle or internal; prefer specifics

UI = D010031

 

Otitis Externa

MS = Inflammation of the external auditory canal. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = inflamm of external ear

UI = D010032

 

Otitis Media

MS = Inflammation of the middle ear.

AN = inflamm of middle ear; GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; nonsuppurative otitis media: index under OTITIS MEDIA WITH EFFUSION

UI = D010033

 

Otitis Media with Effusion

MS = Inflammation of the middle ear with a clear pale yellow-colored transudate.

AN = nonsuppurative otitis media

UI = D010034

 

Otitis Media, Suppurative

MS = Inflammation of the middle ear with purulent discharge.

AN = suppurative refers to purulent discharge

UI = D010035

 

Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous

MS = Sinusoidal tones originating in the cochlea. These faint sounds, with levels between 10-30 decibels, are usually not recognized by the persons having them. However, the emissions can be recorded using sensitive microphones placed in the ear canals. The clinical significance of having or not having spontaneous otoacoustic emissions is unclear; however, some association between tinnitus and the spontaneous emissions has been reported.

AN = note category; faint microphone-recordable sounds emitted by the cochlea

UI = D017084

 

Otolaryngology

MS = A surgical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.

AN = SPEC: SPEC qualif; DF: OTOLARYNGOL

UI = D010036

 

Otolithic Membrane

MS = A gelatinous membrane surmounting the acoustic maculae of the saccule and utricle and containing minute calciferous granules, known as otoconia, otoliths, or statoconia.

UI = D010037

 

Otologic Surgical Procedures

MS = Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; consider also EAR /surg or /surg with specific ear terms; also EAR DISEASES /surg or /surg with specific ear dis; DF: OTOL SURG PROCEDURES

UI = D013506

 

Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases

MS = General or unspecified diseases of the ear, nose, and throat.

AN = GEN: prefer specific precoord; DF: ORL DIS

UI = D010038

 

Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms

MS = The general concept of ORL neoplasms or those for which no specific heading exists.

AN = GEN: prefer specific precoord; /blood supply /chem /second /secret /ultrastruct permitted; coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM); DF: ORL NEOPL

UI = D010039

 

Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures

MS = Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer specifics; consider also EAR /surg, NOSE /surg, LARYNX /surg & /surg with specific parts of these organs; also OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGIC DISEASES /surg & /surg with specific ORL dis; DF: ORL SURG PROCEDURES

UI = D013517

 

Otosclerosis

MS = The formation of spongy bone in the labyrinth capsule. The ossicles can become fixed and unable to transmit sound vibrations, thereby causing deafness.

UI = D010040

 

Otoscopes

MS = Instruments designed to inspect or auscultate the ear. They are designed primarily to examine the outer ear canal and tympanic membrane by means of light and air under moderate pressure, as with a pneumatic otoscope. (UMDNS, 1999)

UI = D019720

 

Otoscopy

MS = Examination of the EAR CANAL and eardrum with an OTOSCOPE.

UI = D038781

 

Otters

MS = Fish-eating carnivores of the family Mustelidae, found on both hemispheres.

AN = IM; qualif permitted

UI = D010041

 

Ouabain

MS = A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.

UI = D010042

 

Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care)

MS = Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOME ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (PROCESS ASSESSMENT) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.

AN = note category; must discuss both outcome & process: OUTCOME ASSESSMENT (HEALTH CARE) is available for only outcome, PROCESS ASSESSMENT (HEALTH CARE) is available for only process; DF: OUTCOME PROCESS ASSESS

UI = D010043

 

Outcome Assessment (Health Care)

MS = Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).

AN = note category: for admin aspects of patient assessment; outcome only: for outcome assessment with process assessment, OUTCOME AND PROCESS ASSESSMENT (HEALTH CARE) and TREATMENT OUTCOME are available; DF: OUTCOME ASSESS

UI = D017063

 

Outliers, DRG

MS = In health care reimbursement, especially in the prospective payment system, those patients who require an unusually long hospital stay or whose stay generates unusually high costs.

AN = a concept in health care reimbursement; outliers as a statist concept, index under STATISTICS or specific statist term

UI = D016311

 

Outlines [Publication Type]

MS = Works consisting of brief statements of the principal elements of a subject, usually arranged by heads and subheads.

UI = D020489

 

Outpatient Clinics, Hospital

MS = Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.

AN = IM

UI = D010044

 

Outpatients

MS = Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.

AN = outpatients as people or as a social, sociol, psychol, etc., group; do not confuse the outpatient with the care given him ( = AMBULATORY CARE)

UI = D010045

 

Outsourced Services

MS = Organizational activities previously performed internally that are provided by external agents.

UI = D020416

 

Oval Window

MS = Fenestra of the vestibule; an oval opening in the medial wall of the middle ear leading into the vestibule. Normally it is covered by the base of the stapes.

AN = do not confuse with ROUND WINDOW in cochlea

UI = D010046

 

Ovalbumin

MS = An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.

AN = a serpin; /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted; differentiate OVALBUMIN (the chemical albumin in egg white) from EGG WHITE (the food)

UI = D010047

 

Ovarian Cysts

MS = General term for cysts and cystic diseases of the ovary.

AN = non-neoplastic; /blood supply /chem /secret /ultrastruct permitted; polycystic ovarian disease, sclerocystic ovaries, sclerocystic ovarian degeneration & sclerocystic ovary syndrome = POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

UI = D010048

 

Ovarian Diseases

MS = Disorders of ovarian function. They have varied pathology depending on the phase of the reproductive life from fetal stage to adulthood.

AN = inflamm dis = OOPHORITIS

UI = D010049

 

Ovarian Failure, Premature

MS = Premature loss of ovarian function that occurs after menarche but before the age of 40. The etiology is unclear. When there are primordial follicles present in the OVARY, premature ovarian failure may be intermittent and reversible. At times, in response to GONADOTROPIN these ovaries produce estrogen and ovulate even resulting in pregnancies.

UI = D016649

 

Ovarian Follicle

MS = An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.

AN = /cytol: consider also THECA CELLS; GRANULOSA CELLS; for follicular development use /physiol, not /growth

UI = D006080

 

Ovarian Function Tests

MS = Methods used for assessment of ovarian function.

AN = NIM

UI = D010050

 

Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

MS = Syndrome composed of a combination of ovarian enlargement and an acute fluid shift out of the intravascular space. The enlargement is caused by ovarian cyst formation and the fluid shift may result in ascites, hydrothorax, or generalized edema. The syndrome is most usually seen as a complication of ovulation induction, a treatment for infertility.

AN = an enlarged ovary syndrome

UI = D016471

 

Ovarian Neoplasms

MS = Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface epithelium, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent germ cells.

AN = coord IM with histol type of neopl (IM)

UI = D010051

 

Ovariectomy

MS = The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.

UI = D010052

 

Ovary

MS = The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS, THECA CELLS, and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.

AN = OVARY, PLANT is also available; /surg permitted but is probably OVARIECTOMY; /abnorm: agenesis or dysgenesis: coord OVARY /abnorm (IM) with GONADAL DYSGENESIS (IM); /cytol: consider also THECA CELLS; inflammation = OOPHORITIS; polycystic ovary, sclerocystic ovary = POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

UI = D010053

 

Overall [Publication Type]

MS = A single citation covering several articles of various degrees of specificity or a single citation covering papers presented at a meeting. A subject overall refers to a series of articles on a single subject; a congress overall refers to papers presented at a formal local, regional, national, or international gathering; a society overall refers to papers presented at an annual, semi-annual, monthly, weekly, or other meeting of a society, academy, institute, hospital, etc. The publication type may be used for a single citation with or without the additional indexing or cataloging of individual papers. The individual papers, however, are not labeled OVERALL.

AN = publication type only; for a sole or additional citation to identify a collection of papers presented at a meeting or on a single subject; see also publication type CONGRESSES

UI = D016424

 

Overdose

MS = An accidental or deliberate dose of a medication or street drug that is in excess of what is normally used.

AN = note category: accidental or deliberate overdose; almost never IM & seldom with qualif; coord NIM with specific substance /adv eff-pois-tox (IM)

UI = D015537

 

Overlearning

MS = Learning in which practice proceeds beyond the point where the act can just be performed with the required degree of excellence.

UI = D010056

 

Oviducts

MS = Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.

AN = non-mammals only; mammals, use FALLOPIAN TUBES; disease probably GENITAL DISEASES, FEMALE + OVIDUCTS

UI = D010057

 

Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma virus

MS = A BETARETROVIRUS that causes pulmonary adenomatosis in sheep (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE).

AN = infection = PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE

UI = D022141

 

Oviposition

AN = = "laying" or "depositing" eggs or ova; includes insects, birds & other oviparous animals; index ovipositor under specific insect only with /anat (IM) + OVIPOSITION (IM)

UI = D010058

 

Ovomucin

MS = A heterogeneous mixture of glycoproteins responsible for the gel structure of egg white. It has trypsin-inhibiting activity.

AN = a trypsin inhib; /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted

UI = D010059

 

Ovulation

MS = The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing Graafian follicle. Ovulation is regulated by a surge release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE.

UI = D010060

 

Ovulation Detection

MS = Methods for recognition of the occurrence of ovulation.

AN = NIM

UI = D010061

 

Ovulation Induction

MS = Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.

UI = D010062

 

Ovulation Inhibition

MS = Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.

UI = D034445

 

Ovum

MS = A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.

AN = differentiate from EGGS (Cat J2); /transpl is not implantation ( = OVUM IMPLANTATION)

UI = D010063

 

Ovum Transport

MS = Transport of the ovum or zygote from the site of ovulation to the site of implantation.

AN = movement from "site of ovulation to site of implantation"

UI = D010066

 

Owls

MS = Members of the Strigiformes order of birds, with strongly hooked beaks, sharp talons, large heads, forward facing eyes, and facial disks. While considered nocturnal raptors, some owls do hunt by day.

UI = D020305

 

Ownership

MS = The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.

AN = med or non-med contexts

UI = D010067

 

Oxacillin

MS = An antibiotic similar to flucloxacillin used in resistant staphylococci infections.

UI = D010068

 

Oxadiazoles

UI = D010069

 

Oxalates

MS = Salts and esters of OXALIC ACID.

AN = /urine: HYPEROXALURIA & HYPEROXALURIA, PRIMARY are also available; CALCIUM OXALATE is also available

UI = D010070

 

Oxalic Acid

MS = A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.

UI = D019815

 

Oxalic Acids

MS = Acids, salts, and derivatives of OXALIC ACID.

AN = OXALIC ACID is also available.

UI = D019816

 

Oxaloacetate

MS = An anionic form of oxaloacetic acid.

AN = OXALOACETATES is also available

UI = D020352

 

Oxaloacetates

MS = Salts and esters of oxaloacetic acid.

AN = OXALOACETATE is available.

UI = D010071

 

Oxaloacetic Acids

MS = A class of ketodicarboxylic acids derived from oxalic acid. Oxaloacetic acid is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle and is converted to ASPARTIC ACID by a transamination reaction.

UI = D020351

 

Oxalobacter formigenes

MS = A species of the genus Oxalobacter consisting of straight or curved gram-negative rods with rounded ends. Cells are nonmotile, nonsporing, and use oxalate as the only source of carbon and energy, with formate and carbon dioxide as end products. They are isolated from lake sediments and from the rumen or large bowel of humans and animals. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)

UI = D020624

 

Oxamic Acid

MS = Amino-substituted glyoxylic acid derivative.

UI = D010072

 

Oxamniquine

MS = An anthelmintic with schistosomicidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, but not against other Schistosoma spp. Oxamniquine causes worms to shift from the mesenteric veins to the liver where the male worms are retained; the female worms return to the mesentery, but can no longer release eggs. (From Martidale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p121)

UI = D010073

 

Oxandrolone

MS = A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties.

UI = D010074

 

Oxathiins

UI = D010075

 

Oxazepam

MS = A benzodiazepine used in the treatment of anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and insomnia.

UI = D010076

 

Oxazepines

UI = D010077

 

Oxazines

UI = D010078

 

Oxazocines

MS = One ring heterocyclic compounds defined by C6H7NO. Permitted are any degree of hydrogenation, any substituents and any ortho-fused or ortho-peri-fused ring systems.

UI = D010079

 

Oxazoles

MS = Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position.

AN = includes oxazolines, oxazolidines

UI = D010080

 

Oxazolidinones

MS = Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.

UI = D023303

 

Oxazolone

MS = Immunologic adjuvant and sensitizing agent.

UI = D010081

 

Oxepins

MS = Compounds based on a 7-membered heterocyclic ring including an oxygen. They can be considered a medium ring ether. A natural source is the MONTANOA plant genus. Some dibenzo-dioxepins, called depsidones, are found in GARCINIA plants.

UI = D010082

 

Oxidants

MS = Oxidizing agents or electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION). In vivo, it appears that phagocyte-generated oxidants function as tumor promoters or cocarcinogens rather than as complete carcinogens perhaps because of the high levels of endogenous antioxidant defenses. It is also thought that oxidative damage in joints may trigger the autoimmune response that characterizes the persistence of the rheumatoid disease process.

AN = /biosyn /physiol permitted

UI = D016877

 

Oxidants, Photochemical

MS = Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.

UI = D010083

 

Oxidation-Reduction

MS = A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).

AN = IM for general only; NIM with no qualif with specific drug IM

UI = D010084

 

Oxidative Phosphorylation

MS = Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.

AN = DF: OX PHOS

UI = D010085

 

Oxidative Phosphorylation Coupling Factors

AN = DF: OX PHOS COUPLING FACTORS

UI = D010086

 

Oxidative Stress

MS = A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).

AN = "disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former"

UI = D018384

 

Oxides

MS = Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.

UI = D010087

 

Oxidopamine

MS = A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.

UI = D016627

 

Oxidoreductases

MS = The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)

AN = X refs OXIDASES; REDUCTASES & DEHYDROGENASES are GEN only: see Tree D8 under OXIDOREDUCTASES for all indentions & choose the most specific

UI = D010088

 

Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating

UI = D010089

 

Oxidoreductases, O-Demethylating

MS = Drug metabolizing enzymes which oxidize methyl ethers. Usually found in liver microsomes.

UI = D010090

 

Oximes

MS = Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.

UI = D010091

 

Oximetry

MS = The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.

AN = for measuremt of blood oxygen using an oximeter: not a synonym for "oxygen measuremt" ( = OXYGEN /anal)

UI = D010092

 

Oxo-Acid-Lyases

MS = Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.

UI = D007652

 

Oxocins

MS = Compounds based on an 8-membered heterocyclic ring including an oxygen. They can be considered medium ring ethers.

UI = D035964

 

Oxolinic Acid

MS = Synthetic antimicrobial related to NALIDIXIC ACID and used in urinary tract infections.

UI = D010093

 

Oxonic Acid

MS = Antagonist of urate oxidase.

UI = D010094

 

Oxotremorine

MS = A non-hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist used as a research tool.

AN = a muscarinic agonist used in exper

UI = D010095

 

Oxprenolol

MS = A beta-adrenergic antagonist used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmias, and anxiety.

UI = D010096

 

Oxyclozanide

MS = Anthelmintic used in grazing animals for fasciola and cestode infestations.

UI = D010097

 

Oxycodone

MS = Semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE that acts as a narcotic analgesic more potent and addicting than codeine.

AN = do not confuse OXYCODONE X refs with HYDROCODONE X refs

UI = D010098

 

Oxyfedrine

MS = A drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris, heart failure, conduction defects, and myocardial infarction. It is a partial agonist at beta adrenergic receptors and has acts as a coronary vasodilator and cardiotonic agent.

UI = D010099

 

Oxygen

MS = An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight 16. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.

AN = O-16; /metab; consider also OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; /physiol for O2 in pulm resp process but tissue resp = OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; /ther use; consider also OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or HYPERBARIC OXYGENATION; /tox & /pois; consider also HYPEROXIA

UI = D010100

 

Oxygen Compounds

MS = Inorganic compounds that contain oxygen as an integral part of the molecule.

AN = GEN; prefer specifics; used for mapping supplementary chemicals

UI = D017601

 

Oxygen Consumption

MS = The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)

AN = TN 145: oxygen metab

UI = D010101

 

Oxygen Inhalation Therapy

MS = Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = coord with dis /ther, not dis /drug ther; do not use /util except by MeSH definition

UI = D010102

 

Oxygen Isotopes

MS = Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.

AN = O-17,18; NIM

UI = D010103

 

Oxygen Radioisotopes

MS = Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.

AN = O-13-15, 19, 20; NIM; /blood-csf-urine /metab permitted but not for tracer studies ( = /diag use)

UI = D010104

 

Oxygenases

UI = D010105

 

Oxygenators

MS = Devices which mechanically oxygenate venous blood extracorporeally. They are used in combination with one or more pumps for maintaining circulation during open heart surgery and for assisting the circulation in patients seriously ill with some cardiac and pulmonary disorders. (UMDNS, 1999)

UI = D010106

 

Oxygenators, Membrane

MS = Devices in which blood and oxygen are separated by a semipermeable membrane, generally of Teflon or polypropylene, across which gas exchange occurs. The membrane may be arranged as a series of parallel plates or as a number of hollow fibers; in the latter arrangement, the blood may flow inside the fibers, which are surrounded by gas, or the blood may flow outside the fibers and the gas inside the fibers. (Dorland, 28th ed)

UI = D010107

 

Oxyhemoglobins

MS = A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.

AN = Bohr effect is indexed OXYHEMOGLOBINS /metab (IM) + PH (NIM)

UI = D010108

 

Oxymetazoline

MS = A direct acting sympathomimetic used as a vasoconstrictor to relieve nasal congestion. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1251)

UI = D010109

 

Oxymetholone

MS = A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties. It is used mainly in the treatment of anemias. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002), this compound may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

UI = D010110

 

Oxymorphone

MS = An opioid analgesic with actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE, apart from an absence of cough suppressant activity. It is used in the treatment of moderate to severe pain, including pain in obstetrics. It may also be used as an adjunct to anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1092)

UI = D010111

 

Oxyphenbutazone

MS = A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Oxyphenbutazone eyedrops have been used abroad in the management of postoperative ocular inflamation, superficial eye injuries, and episcleritis. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2000) It had been used by mouth in rheumatic disorders such as ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis but such use is no longer considered justified owing to the risk of severe hematological adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p27)

AN = a non-steroidal anti-inflamm agent

UI = D010113

 

Oxyphenisatin Acetate

MS = A laxative that undergoes enterohepatic circulation. It may cause jaundice.

UI = D010114

 

Oxyphenonium

MS = A quaternary ammonium anticholinergic agent with peripheral side effects similar to those of ATROPINE. It is used as an adjunct in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcer, and to relieve visceral spasms. The drug has also been used in the form of eye drops for mydriatic effect.

UI = D010115

 

Oxyphil Cells

MS = Large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askenazy cells.

UI = D024862

 

Oxypurinol

MS = A xanthine oxidase inhibitor.

AN = a xanthine oxidase inhib

UI = D010117

 

Oxyquinoline

MS = An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.

AN = DF: note short X ref

UI = D015125

 

Oxytetracycline

MS = An antibiotic substance isolated from the actinomycete Streptomyces rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions.

AN = /biosyn permitted

UI = D010118

 

Oxythiamine

MS = Thiamine antagonist, antimetabolite.

AN = a thiamine antag

UI = D010119

 

Oxytocics

MS = Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)

AN = no qualif for oxytocics when used to induce labor

UI = D010120

 

Oxytocin

MS = A nonapeptide posterior pituitary hormone that causes uterine contractions and stimulates lactation.

AN = /biosyn /physiol permitted

UI = D010121

 

Oxytricha

MS = A genus of ciliate protozoa having a unique cursorial type of locomotion.

AN = a genus of ciliate protozoa

UI = D016813

 

Oxytropis

MS = A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain SWAINSONINE.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D033021

 

Oxyuriasis

MS = Infection with nematodes of the superfamily OXYUROIDEA.

AN = nematode infect caused by genera of the superfamily OXYUROIDEA; infect by Oxyuris species goes here but note X ref OXYURIS VERMICULARIS INFECTION see ENTEROBIASIS

UI = D010123

 

Oxyurida

MS = An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Its organisms are characterized by a single, ventral excretory gland and a relatively stout, short body.

AN = an order of nematodes; infection = OXYURIDA INFECTIONS

UI = D017167

 

Oxyurida Infections

MS = Infections with nematodes of the order OXYURIDA.

AN = nematode infect

UI = D017194

 

Oxyuroidea

MS = A superfamily of parasitic nematodes consisting of several genera. ENTEROBIUS, which occurs in humans, and Oxyuris, which occurs in horses, are two of the most common. Other genera are: Skrjabinema, Passalurus, Dermatoxys, and Probstmayria.

AN = a superfamily of nematodes; infection: coord IM with OXYURIASIS (IM); for antigens, coord with ANTIGENS, HELMINTH, for antibodies, coord with ANTIBODIES, HELMINTH

UI = D010124

 

Oysters

MS = Marine bivalve mollusks of several genera (Ostrea, Crassostrea, Pinctada, Meleagrina) with a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle. It includes oysters as food.

AN = as animal & food; IM; as food, coord IM with SHELLFISH (IM); /microbiol /parasitol /virol permitted

UI = D010125

 

Ozone

MS = An unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3, that exists in the atmosphere in varying proportions. It is produced continuously in the outer layers of the atmosphere by the action of solar UV-radiation on the oxygen of the air.

UI = D010126