Glossary of Bio-Medical Terms



Waardenburg's Syndrome

MS = Rare, autosomal dominant disease with variable penetrance and several known clinical types. Characteristics may include depigmentation of the hair and skin, congenital deafness, heterochromia iridis, medial eyebrow hyperplasia, hypertrophy of the nasal root, and especially dystopia canthorum. The underlying cause may be defective development of the neural crest (neurocristopathy). Waardenburg's syndrome may be closely related to piebaldism. Klein-Waardenburg Syndrome refers to a disorder that also includes upper limb abnormalities.

AN = a syndrome of multiple abnorm; check syndrome book for other Waardenburg skull deform syndromes; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D014849


WAGR Syndrome

MS = A contiguous gene syndrome associated with hemizygous deletions of chromosome region 11p13. The condition is marked by the combination of Wilms' tumor (W), ANIRIDIA (A), genitourinary abnormalities (G), and MENTAL RETARDATION (R).

UI = D017624



MS = A genus of plant viruses in the family SEQUIVIRIDAE. Transmission is by leafhoppers or APHIDS and depends on a self-encoded helper protein. The type species is Rice tungro spherical virus.

AN = coord IM with specific plant (often RICE) /virol

UI = D019193


Waiting Lists

MS = Prospective patient listings for appointments.

AN = no qualif

UI = D014850



MS = A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.

UI = D014851


Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

MS = A plasma cell dyscrasia resembling leukemia with cells of lymphocytic, plasmacytic, or intermediate morphology, which secrete an IMMUNOGLOBULIN M monoclonal component. There is diffuse infiltration of bone marrow and also, in many cases, of the spleen, liver, or lymph nodes. The circulating macroglobulin produces symptoms of hyperviscosity syndrome: weakness, fatigue, bleeding disorders, and visual disturbances. Peak incidence is in the sixth and seventh decades. (Dorland, 28th ed)

AN = in titles & translations use diacrit: Waldenström

UI = D008258



UI = D014852



MS = Walking aids generally having two handgrips and four legs.

UI = D014853



MS = An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.

AN = human & animal; /inj: coord IM with specific inj (IM); /physiol permitted; differentiate from GAIT, the way one walks

UI = D016138


Wallerian Degeneration

MS = Degeneration of distal aspects of a nerve axon following injury to the cell body or proximal portion of the axon. The process is characterized by fragmentation of the axon and its MYELIN SHEATH.

UI = D014855



AN = IM; qualif permitted

UI = D014856



MS = Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.

AN = war wounds: index under WOUNDS AND INJURIES or specific inj (IM) + WAR (IM or NIM); Persian Gulf War: index under WAR + MIDDLE EAST

UI = D014857


War Crimes

MS = Criminal acts committed during, or in connection with, war, e.g., maltreatment of prisoners, willful killing of civilians, etc.

UI = D014858



MS = An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.

AN = an anticoagulant & rodenticide

UI = D014859



MS = Benign epidermal proliferations or tumors; some are viral in origin.

AN = a non-neoplastic tumor virus infect; coord IM with precoord organ/dis term (IM)

UI = D014860



MS = A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE used for its hot peppery root.

AN = HORSERADISH see ARMORACIA is also available; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031228



AN = the state; for Washington, D. C. use DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

UI = D014861


Wasp Venoms

MS = Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.

AN = /antag permitted but consider also ANTIVENINS; /enzymol permitted

UI = D014862



MS = Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.

AN = /microbiol /parasitol /virol permitted; wasp stings: coord IM with INSECT BITES AND STINGS (IM)

UI = D014863


Waste Disposal, Fluid

MS = The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.

UI = D014865


Waste Management

MS = Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.

UI = D018505


Waste Products

MS = Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)

AN = MEDICAL WASTE & DENTAL WASTE are also available

UI = D014866


Wasting Disease, Chronic

MS = A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of DEER and elk characterized by chronic weight loss leading to death. It is thought to spread by direct contact between animals or through environmental contamination with the prion protein (PRIONS).

UI = D034081


Wasting Syndrome

MS = Any disease marked especially by progressive emaciation and weakness. (Dorland, 28th ed, p490)

AN = do not confuse with CACHEXIA: do not make diagnoses, use words of text; HIV WASTING SYNDROME is also available

UI = D019282



MS = Water. A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

AN = note category: D1 as H2O, G3 as environmental; in body or tissue = BODY WATER; /admin: consider also FLUID THERAPY or INFUSIONS, PARENTERAL or REHYDRATION SOLUTIONS; /adv eff: consider also WATER INTOXICATION; /metab must refer to metab of exogenous water: for water content of organs & tissue use BODY WATER /metab or BODY WATER /chem; /stand: consider also WATER SUPPLY; /ther use: try HYDROTHERAPY & related terms; /microbiol = WATER MICROBIOLOGY (IM) + specific microbe (IM), /parasitol permitted: coord IM with specific parasite (IM), /virol = WATER MICROBIOLOGY (IM) + specific virus (IM); atmospheric water = HUMIDITY; heavy water = DEUTERIUM OXIDE; water intake = DRINKING; hardness or softness of water: probably WATER /chem & not also HARDNESS but consider also WATER SOFTENING; water consumption = WATER or WATER SUPPLY if on a wide scale: on a personal level = DRINKING

UI = D014867


Water Deprivation

MS = The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.

AN = human & animal; /physiol permitted for physiol & metab eff

UI = D014868


Water Intoxication

MS = A condition resulting from the excessive retention of water with sodium depletion.

UI = D014869


Water Loss, Insensible

MS = Loss of water by diffusion through the skin and by evaporation from the respiratory tract.

UI = D014870


Water Microbiology

MS = The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.

AN = IM; coord with specific bact, virus or fungus (IM); DF: WATER MICROBIOL

UI = D014871


Water Movements

AN = no qualif; for waves, currents, tides; floods = NATURAL DISASTERS

UI = D014872


Water Pollutants

MS = Substances which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.

AN = specify pollutant if pertinent (IM or NIM)

UI = D014873


Water Pollutants, Chemical

MS = Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.

AN = restrict to in situ water in rivers, reservoirs, streams, lakes, sea & the like; specify pollutant if pertinent (IM or NIM)

UI = D014874


Water Pollutants, Radioactive

MS = Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.

AN = specify radiopollutant if pertinent (IM or NIM)

UI = D014875


Water Pollution

AN = IM; coord with source of pollution (IM); note X ref THERMAL WATER POLLUTION: coord with HEAT (IM) only if heat is particularly discussed; specify geog if pertinent

UI = D014876


Water Pollution, Chemical

AN = IM; coord with specific source of pollution (IM); specify geog if pertinent

UI = D014877


Water Pollution, Radioactive

AN = IM; coord with specific source of pollution (IM); specify geog if pertinent

UI = D014878


Water Purification

MS = Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of waste water to provide potable and hygiene water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

UI = D018508


Water Softening

UI = D014880


Water Supply

MS = Source, means, or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)

AN = do not use WATER SUPPLY with regard to FLUORIDATION: assume to be of the water supply

UI = D014881


Water-Electrolyte Balance

MS = The state of the body in relation to the intake and excretion of water and electrolytes, particularly sodium and potassium. It exists in a metabolic balance internally with BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS, total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; etc., externally through sensible and insensible SWEATING. The hypothalamus controls water balance. (Dorland, 27th ed; Mountcastle, Medical Physiology, 14th ed, 1980, p1152)

UI = D014882


Water-Electrolyte Imbalance

MS = Disturbances in the body's water-electrolyte metabolism.

AN = note category

UI = D014883


Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome

MS = A condition characterized by the abrupt onset of fever, petechiae, ARTHRALGIA, weakness, and myalgias followed by acute hemorrhagic necrosis of the adrenal glands and severe cardiovascular dysfunction. The syndrome is most often associated with meningococcal septicemia but may occur as a complication of sepsis caused by other organisms, including certain STREPTOCOCCUS species. This disorder may be associated with a prior history of SPLENECTOMY. (From J Emerg Med 1998 Jul-Aug;16(4):643-7)

AN = do not coord with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS unless particularly discussed; if caused by other organism, coord IM with precoord organism/infection term

UI = D014884



MS = A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = D25-26 qualif

UI = D014885



MS = Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

AN = human & animal; no qualif; NIM when merely an aspect of growth (as "in newborn, suckling & weaned")

UI = D014886



AN = no qualif; do not confuse X ref FOG with SMOG, a mixture of smoke & fog

UI = D014887


Wechsler Scales

MS = Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.

UI = D014888



MS = A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain wedelolactone and wedeloside.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031209


Wedge Argument

MS = An assertion that an action apparently unobjectionable in itself would set in motion a train of events leading ultimately to an undesirable outcome. (From Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995)

UI = D035761


Wegener's Granulomatosis

MS = A multisystem disease chiefly affecting males, characterized by necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis involving the upper and lower respiratory tracts, glomerulonephritis, and variable degrees of systemic, small vessel vasculitis, which is generally considered to represent an aberrant hypersensitivity reaction to an unknown antigen. (Dorland, 27th ed)

AN = necrotizing granulomas of resp tract & multisystem dis

UI = D014890


Weibel-Palade Bodies

MS = Rod-shaped storage granules for VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR specific to endothelial cells.

UI = D020302


Weight Gain

MS = Increase in body weight over existing weight.

UI = D015430


Weight Lifting

MS = A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.

AN = /inj: coord IM with specific inj (IM); /physiol permitted; Manual 30.15+; includes body building if restricted to weight lifting, otherwise index under EXERCISE

UI = D014891


Weight Loss

MS = Decrease in existing body weight.

UI = D015431


Weight Perception

MS = Recognition and discrimination of the heaviness of a lifted object.

UI = D014892



MS = The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.

AN = by machines & humans or animals; for weight-bearing bones or joints, coord NIM with specific bone or joint with /physiol (IM)

UI = D016474



MS = Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)

AN = natural only: WEIGHTLESSNESS SIMULATION is also available; /adv eff permitted

UI = D014893


Weightlessness Countermeasures

MS = Techniques and routines designed to prevent or reverse unwanted effects of weightlessness experienced during actual and simulated space flight, including physiologic changes related to removal of gravitational loading. Specific measures include creation of artificial gravity, exercise, low-level lower body negative pressure, and use of anti-deconditioning devices. (From Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp294-297)

AN = in actual or simulated space flight; no qualif

UI = D018544


Weightlessness Simulation

MS = Condition under normal Earth gravity where the force of gravity itself is not actually altered but its influence or effect may be modified and studied. (From ASGSB Bull 1992;5(2):27)

UI = D018474


Weights and Measures

MS = A unit or standard of measurement. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

AN = METRIC SYSTEM is available; TN 192: not for "weight" of anything; DF: WEIGHTS

UI = D014894


Weil Disease

MS = A severe form of LEPTOSPIROSIS, usually caused by LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS SEROVAR ICTEROHAEMORRHAGIAE and occasionally other serovars. It is transmitted to humans by the rat and is characterized by hemorrhagic and renal symptoms with accompanying JAUNDICE.

AN = if not caused by LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS SEROVAR ICTEROHAEMORRHAGIAE, coord IM with specific Leptospira interrogans serovar (IM) or LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS (IM)

UI = D014895



UI = D014896


Werner Syndrome

MS = An autosomal recessive disorder that causes premature aging in adults, characterized by sclerodermal skin changes, cataracts, subcutaneous calcification, muscular atrophy, a tendency to diabetes mellitus, aged appearance of the face, baldness, and a high incidence of neoplastic disease.

UI = D014898


Wernicke Encephalopathy

MS = An acute neurological disorder characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and disturbances of mental activity or consciousness. Eye movement abnormalities include nystagmus, external rectus palsies, and reduced conjugate gaze. THIAMINE DEFICIENCY and chronic ALCOHOLISM are associated conditions. Pathologic features include periventricular petechial hemorrhages and neuropil breakdown in the diencephalon and brainstem. Chronic thiamine deficiency may lead to KORSAKOFF'S SYNDROME. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1139-42; Davis & Robertson, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp452-3)


UI = D014899


West Indies

MS = Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)

AN = the indentions can be grouped as the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles & the Bahamas: see MeSH definition

UI = D014900


West Nile Fever

MS = A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE, FEVER, maculopapular rash, gastrointestinal symptoms, and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)

UI = D014901


West Nile virus

MS = A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which produces encephalitis experimentally when inoculated into some rodents, chicks, birds, or monkeys. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). It is transmitted by CULEX spp mosquitoes.

AN = infection = WEST NILE FEVER

UI = D014902


West Virginia

UI = D014903


Western Australia

MS = A state in western Australia. Its capital is Perth. It was first visited by the Dutch in 1616 but the English took possession in 1791 and permanent colonization began in 1829. It was a penal settlement 1850-1888, became part of the colonial government in 1886, and was granted self government in 1890. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1329)

AN = a state of Australia

UI = D014904


Western World

MS = A historical and cultural entity dispersed across the wide geographical area of Europe, as opposed to the East, Asia, and Africa. The term was used by scholars through the late medieval period. Thereafter, with the impact of colonialism and the transmission of cultures, Western World was sometimes expanded to include the Americas. (Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)

AN = note category; refers usually to Europe & the Americas; IM; specify Category Z continent or country if relevant

UI = D019366



MS = The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.

AN = almost never IM

UI = D017155


Wetting Agents

MS = A surfactant that renders a surface wettable by water or enhances the spreading of water over the surface; used in foods and cosmetics; important in contrast media; also with contact lenses, dentures, and some prostheses. Synonyms: humectants; hydrating agents.

AN = D25-26 qualif; also called "hydrating agents" but do not confuse these with intravenous solutions for rehydrating dehydrated subjects

UI = D014906



MS = Large marine mammals of the order Cetacea. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in animal feed and fertilizer, and for baleen. The sperm whale produces AMBERGRIS, an intestinal secretion used in perfumery. (From Webster, 3d ed)

AN = mammals; IM; qualif permitted; some dolphins are misnamed "whales": note FALSE KILLER WHALES see DOLPHINS, KILLER WHALES see DOLPHINS, MELON-HEADED WHALES see DOLPHINS, PIGMY WHALES see DOLPHINS, PILOT WHALES see DOLPHINS

UI = D014907


Wheat Germ Agglutinin-Horseradish Peroxidase Conjugate

MS = The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.

AN = DF: note short X ref

UI = D018998


Wheat Germ Agglutinins

MS = Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.

UI = D014909


Wheat Hypersensitivity

MS = Allergic reaction to wheat that is triggered by the immune system.

AN = differentiate from CELIAC DISEASE

UI = D021182



MS = Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.

UI = D014910


Whiplash Injuries

MS = Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

UI = D014911


Whipple's Disease

MS = A disease marked by diarrhea with fatty stools, arthritis, emaciation, and loss of strength, and attended with deposits of fat in the intestinal lymphatic tissue. Rod-shaped bacteria-like forms are present, presumed to be infectious, although no organism has been consistently isolated from patient specimens. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992).

AN = a malabsorption syndrome

UI = D008061



MS = The reporting of observed or suspected PROFESSIONAL MISCONDUCT or incompetence to appropriate authorities or to the public.

UI = D035642


White Muscle Disease

MS = A myodegeneration most frequent in calves and lambs whose dams have been fed during gestation or longer on feeds, especially legumes (FABACEAE), grown in certain areas where selenium is either deficient or unavailable in the soil. It has been recorded in many countries. It has been produced experimentally in several species of animals on low-selenium intake. A similar myopathy occurs naturally in goats, deer, foals, and dogs but proof of the etiology is lacking. (Merck Veterinary Manual, 5th ed)

AN = a form of musc dystrophy usually in calves & lambs; manifest of selenium defic; check tag ANIMAL; coord IM with precoord animal/dis term (IM) + animal (NIM) or with animal (IM) in absence of precoord

UI = D014912



MS = An ethnic group of the Caucasoid Race.

AN = see note under CAUCASOID RACE; do not index WHITES routinely: only when pertinent as cultural, social, sociol, polit, psychol entity; /genetics = CAUCASOID RACE /genet; Manual 30.8-30.10: policy on ethnic groups; differentiate from CAUCASOID RACE, genetic & physiol entity; specify geog

UI = D014913


Whole Blood Coagulation Time

MS = Measurement of the time required by whole blood to produce a visible clot. Factors that could influence the test are all but III, VII, and XIII. Activation may be by contact with the glass tube or exposure to diatomaceous earth. Delay of onset of coagulation may be achieved by use of nonwettable plastic or silicone-coated glass tubes. It is used for monitoring heparin therapy and as a bedside screening test for deficiencies in the intrinsic coagulation pathway. "Activated coagulation time" is sometimes referred to as ACT.


UI = D014914


Whole-Body Counting

MS = Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.

UI = D014915


Whole-Body Irradiation

MS = Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.

AN = in rad experiments IM when point of article is irrad of entire animal & coord with organ or process /rad eff (IM or NIM); no qualif when NIM; in radiother coord IM with disease /radiother (IM); TN 198: when not to use; DF: WHOLE BODY IRRAD

UI = D014916


Whooping Cough

MS = A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.

AN = caused by Bordetella pertussis

UI = D014917



MS = The state of having lost a marital partner by death.

AN = woman or man: note X refs; spousal bereavement: coord IM with BEREAVEMENT (IM); coping behavior, coping strategy, coping style: coord IM with ADAPTATION, PSYCHOLOGICAL

UI = D017805



MS = A plant genus of the family THYMELAEACEAE. Members contain daphnoretin and wikstroelides and daphnane-type DITERPENES.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D032365


Williams Syndrome

MS = A contiguous gene syndrome associated with a heterozygous microdeletion in the chromosomal region 7q11.23, encompassing the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include supravalvular aortic stenosis (AORTIC STENOSIS, SUPRAVALVULAR), MENTAL RETARDATION, elfin facies, impaired visuospatial constructive abilities, and transient hypercalcemia in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.

AN = do not confuse with Williams-Campbell syndrome, congen bronchomalacia causing bronchiectasis

UI = D018980



MS = Legal documents that are declarations of individuals' wishes regarding the disposal of their property or estate after death; esp: written instruments, legally executed, by which dispositions are made of estates. LIVING WILLS are written declarations regarding prolongation of life by extraordinary means.

AN = do not confuse X ref INHERITANCE with HEREDITY

UI = D014918



AN = no qualif; for cyclones, typhoons & hurricanes consider NATURAL DISASTERS

UI = D014919



MS = Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.

UI = D014920



AN = for bird, insect or bat

UI = D014921



MS = A plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The wood lacks water-conducting cells but has acrid sap. The leaves are gland-dotted, leathery, and smooth-margined. The flowers are small, in clusters, with two to six sepals, petals in two or more series, several stamens, and one to several carpels.

AN = prefer specific plant; coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D032423



UI = D014922


Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome

MS = A rare, X-linked immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by eczema, thrombocytopenic purpura, and recurrent pyogenic infection. It is seen exclusively in young boys. Typically, IMMUNOGLOBULIN M levels are low and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN E levels are elevated. Lymphoreticular malignancies are common.

UI = D014923


Wissler's Syndrome

MS = A rheumatic syndrome of possibly allergic origin, usually affecting children and adolescents, and characterized by high fever, exanthema, arthralgia, leukocytosis, and increased sedimentation rate.

AN = a form of rheumatic fever

UI = D014924



MS = A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain wistarin.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D032447


Wit and Humor

MS = The faculty of expressing the amusing, clever, or comical or the keen perception and cleverly apt expression of connections between ideas that awaken amusement and pleasure. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)


UI = D014925



MS = An act of employing sorcery (the use of power gained from the assistance or control of spirits), especially with malevolent intent, and the exercise of supernatural powers and alleged intercourse with the devil or a familiar. (From Webster, 3d ed)

AN = IM; MAGIC is also available

UI = D018599



MS = A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain withanolides. Withania somnifera is the source of ashwagandha and aswal.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D032341


Withholding Treatment

MS = Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.

AN = human only; EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE: do not coord with WITHHOLDING TREATMENT unless particularly discussed

UI = D028761



MS = A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)

UI = D020577


Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome

MS = A form of pre-excitation characterized by a short PR interval and a long QRS interval with a delta wave.

AN = short PR interval & long QRS interval with delta wave; see PRE-EXCITATION SYNDROMES for other ECG notes

UI = D014927


Wolffian Duct

MS = An excretory duct of the embryonic kidney.

UI = D014928


Wolfram Syndrome


AN = X ref = Diabetes Insipidus-Diabetes Mellitus-Optic Atrophy-Deafness

UI = D014929



MS = A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the bovine rumen, the human gingival sulcus, and dental root canal infections.

AN = infection: coord IM with BACTEROIDACEAE INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D016968


Wolman Disease

MS = The severe infantile form of inherited lysosomal lipid storage diseases, due to deficiency of acid lipase. It results in accumulation of neutral lipids, particularly cholesterol esters, within cells (particularly leukocytes, fibroblasts, and liver cells). An allelic variant of CHOLESTEROL ESTER STORAGE DISEASE, it is also known as Wolman's xanthomatosis.

AN = a lysosomal storage dis; do not use /congen & do not coord with INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES

UI = D015223



MS = Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family Canidae usually hunting in packs, formerly common throughout the Northern Hemisphere but now chiefly restricted to the more unpopulated parts of its range. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

AN = IM; qualif permitted

UI = D019596



MS = Human adult females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.

AN = for women only as a cultural, social, sociol, polit, economic force; do not confuse with FEMALE for disease, organs, physiol, genetics, etc.; check tags HUMAN & FEMALE; Manual 18.9.6, 34.12

UI = D014930


Women's Health

MS = The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.

AN = no qualif; specify geog if pertinent

UI = D016387


Women's Health Services

MS = Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.

AN = does not include maternal care services: index under MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES; check also tags HUMAN and FEMALE; DF: WOMENS HEALTH SERV

UI = D014932


Women's Rights

MS = The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.

AN = specify geog

UI = D014933


Women, Working

MS = Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.

UI = D014931



AN = no qualif

UI = D014934



MS = A plant genus of the family LYTHRACEAE. Members contain woodfordins.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATIONS or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D031565



AN = as animal hair & as textile; use qualif cautiously

UI = D014935


Word Association Tests

MS = Lists of words to which individuals are asked to respond ascertaining the conceptual meaning held by the individual.


UI = D014936


Word Processing

MS = Automated production of typewritten documents with text editing and storage functions using computer software.

UI = D015443



MS = Productive or purposeful activities.

AN = purposeful activity: differentiate from EXERTION (physiol effort), EMPLOYMENT (for pay), ENERGY EXPENDITURE (metab); /physiol permitted; BURNOUT, PROFESSIONAL is available

UI = D014937


Work Capacity Evaluation

MS = Assessment of physiological capacities in relation to job requirements. It is usually done by measuring certain physiological (e.g., circulatory and respiratory) variables during a gradually increasing workload until specific limitations occur with respect to those variables.


UI = D014938


Work of Breathing

MS = Respiratory muscle contraction during inspiration. The work is accomplished in three phases: that required to expand the lungs against its elastic forces (LUNG COMPLIANCE work), that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures (tissue resistance work), and that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs (AIRWAY RESISTANCE work). Work of breaking does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)

AN = a resp funct test

UI = D014939


Work Schedule Tolerance

MS = Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.

AN = /physiol /psychol permitted

UI = D014940


Work Simplification

MS = The construction or arrangement of a task so that it may be done with the greatest possible efficiency.

AN = no qualif

UI = D014941


Workers' Compensation

MS = Insurance coverage providing compensation and medical benefits to individuals because of work-connected injuries or disease.

AN = specify country or state

UI = D014942



MS = The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.

UI = D016526



MS = Place or physical location of work or employment.

AN = NIM; coord with specific industry or occupation (IM) or specific milieu (as clinic, laboratory, hosp, school, etc.) (IM)

UI = D017132


World Health

MS = The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.

AN = no qualif

UI = D014943


World Health Organization

MS = A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.

AN = DF: WHO CATALOG: use NAF entry

UI = D014944


Wound Healing

MS = Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.

AN = also available is FRACTURE HEALING; not for invertebrates or plants

UI = D014945


Wound Infection

MS = Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.

AN = IM; do not coord with BACTERIAL INFECTIONS unless particularly discussed but coord IM with specific bact infect (IM)

UI = D014946


Wounds and Injuries

MS = Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.

AN = GEN or unspecified; prefer /inj with organs (Manual 19.7+, 19.8.38) or specific organ /inj precoords; policy: Manual 23.23+; types of wounds are also available, as WOUNDS, PENETRATING, etc.; MULTIPLE TRAUMA is available; wound suction: coord wd & inj concept with DRAINAGE; DF: WOUNDS

UI = D014947


Wounds, Gunshot

MS = Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.

AN = IM; coord with organ /inj or precoord inj term (IM); ballistics in gunshot wds goes here & under FORENSIC MEDICINE if pertinent

UI = D014948


Wounds, Nonpenetrating

MS = Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.

AN = IM; coord with organ /inj or precoord inj term (IM)

UI = D014949


Wounds, Penetrating

MS = Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.

AN = note WOUNDS, GUNSHOT & WOUNDS, STAB; IM; coord with organ /inj or precoord inj term (IM)

UI = D014950


Wounds, Stab

MS = Penetrating wounds caused by a pointed object.

AN = IM; coord with organ /inj or precoord inj term (IM)

UI = D014951



MS = A sport consisting of hand-to-hand combat between two unarmed contestants seeking to pin or press each other's shoulders to the ground.

AN = /inj: coord IM with specific inj (IM); /physiol permitted

UI = D014952



MS = The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.

AN = primates only; for non-primate vertebrates: Manual 21.58; wrist ganglion is indexed under WRIST (IM) + SYNOVIAL CYST (IM); differentiate from WRIST JOINT; wrist bone = CARPAL BONES or specifics

UI = D014953


Wrist Injuries

MS = Injuries to the wrist or the wrist joint.

AN = consider also CARPAL BONES /inj

UI = D014954


Wrist Joint

AN = primates only; wrist ganglion is indexed under WRIST (IM) + SYNOVIAL CYST (IM); TN 238: differentiation from WRIST & indexing instructions; use CARPUS, ANIMAL for non-primate vertebrates; TN 117: other animal joints

UI = D014955



MS = The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.

AN = the act or profession of writing or its product, i.e., being a writer or creating text for books, articles, speeches, etc.: do not confuse with PUBLISHING (the industry & dissemination of knowledge & research) or LITERATURE (literary production) or AUTHORSHIP (identity as author) or JOURNALISM (writing for publication in the media); "medical writing" can go here but consider JOURNALISM; style of writing goes here; editing for publication goes under PUBLISHING; writing for periodicals goes under PERIODICALS; HANDWRITING is also available; includes typewriting; letters & correspondence of biographees & famous persons are indexed as CORRESPONDENCE (IM) + required biog terms & hist tags

UI = D014956


Wrongful Life

MS = In civil law a cause of action which alleges that a defendant has wrongfully caused a child to be born.

AN = legal action alleging "that a defendant has wrongfully caused a child to be born"

UI = D015974


WT1 Proteins

MS = Isoforms encoded by the WT1 Wilms tumor suppressor gene (GENES, WILMS TUMOR) and produced by alternative splicings. They are zinc finger-containing transcription factors involved in both transactivation and repression, and are critical for normal development and function of the urogenital tract.

UI = D025721



MS = A genus of filarial nematodes.

AN = infection: coord IM with FILARIASIS (IM); coord with specific helminth term (ANTIGENS, HELMINTH, etc) if pertinent; /drug eff: consider FILARICIDES

UI = D014957


Wuchereria bancrofti

MS = A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.

AN = infection: coord IM with probably ELEPHANTIASIS, FILARIAL (IM) but if elephantiasis is not present, coord with FILARIASIS (IM) instead; coord with specific helminth term (ANTIGENS, HELMINTH, etc) if pertinent; /drug eff: consider FILARICIDES

UI = D014958



UI = D014959