Glossary of Bio-Medical Terms



Y Chromosome

MS = The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.

AN = abnorm; coord IM with SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS (IM) or specific dis (IM) + SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS (NIM); Y CHROMOSOME, HUMAN is also available

UI = D014998


Yaba monkey tumor virus

MS = The type species of YATAPOXVIRUS, a tumor-producing DNA virus discovered in monkeys in Yaba, Nigeria. It has been found to produce histiocytomas in monkeys and humans.

AN = infection: coord IM with POXVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM) + TUMOR VIRUS INFECTIONS (IM); DF: note short X ref

UI = D014999


Yang Deficiency

MS = In the YIN-YANG system of philosophy and medicine, a lack of vital energy (called yangxu in Chinese). It manifests itself in various systemic and organic diseases. (The Pinyin Chinese-English Dictionary, 1979)

AN = coord IM with clin manifest (IM) or precoord organ/dis term (IM); DF: YANG DEFIC

UI = D016711



MS = A genus of ascomycetous yeast in the family Dipodascaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.

UI = D025062



MS = A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, causing tumors in primates. The type species is YABA MONKEY TUMOR VIRUS.


UI = D018158



MS = An involuntary deep inspiration with the mouth open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.

UI = D015000



MS = A systemic non-venereal infection of the tropics caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue.

AN = caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue

UI = D015001


Yeast, Dried

MS = The dry cells of any suitable strain of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE or CANDIDA. It can be obtained as a by-product from the brewing of beer or by growing on media not suitable for beer production. Dried yeast serves as a source of protein and VITAMIN B COMPLEX.

AN = when brewer's or baker's yeast is given as therapy, index here; when the yeast is the source of matter in enzyme or other metab studies, index as SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

UI = D015002



MS = A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.

AN = not for "yeast" ( = YEAST, DRIED; see note there); most "yeast infections" = CANDIDIASIS or specific but if general or unspecified yeast infect, index under MYCOSES

UI = D015003


Yellow Fever

MS = An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus.

AN = caused by a flavivirus

UI = D015004


Yellow Fever Vaccine

MS = Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.

UI = D022341


Yellow fever virus

MS = The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.

AN = infection = YELLOW FEVER

UI = D015005



UI = D015006



MS = A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod- to coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that occurs in a broad spectrum of habitats.


UI = D015007


Yersinia enterocolitica

MS = A species of the genus YERSINIA, isolated from both man and animal. It is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in children.

AN = infection: coord IM with YERSINIA INFECTIONS (IM)

UI = D015008


Yersinia Infections

MS = Infections with bacteria of the genus YERSINIA.

AN = gram-neg bact infect; Yersinia pestis infect = PLAGUE; Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infect = YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS INFECTIONS

UI = D015009


Yersinia pestis

MS = The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.

AN = infection = PLAGUE

UI = D015010


Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

MS = A human and animal pathogen causing mesenteric lymphadenitis, diarrhea, and bacteremia.


UI = D015011


Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infections

MS = Infections with bacteria of the species YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS.

UI = D015012


Yin Deficiency

MS = In the YIN-YANG system of philosophy and medicine, an insufficiency of body fluid (called yinxu), manifesting often as irritability, thirst, constipation, etc. (The Pinyin Chinese-English Dictionary, 1979).

AN = coord IM with clin manifest (IM) or precoord organ/dis term (IM); DF: YIN DEFIC

UI = D016710



MS = In Chinese philosophy and religion, two principles, one negative, dark, and feminine (yin) and one positive, bright, and masculine (yang), from whose interaction all things are produced and all things are dissolved. As a concept the two polar elements referred originally to the shady and sunny sides of a valley or a hill but it developed into the relationship of any contrasting pair: those specified above (female-male, etc.) as well as cold-hot, wet-dry, weak-strong, etc. It is not a distinct system of thought by itself but permeates Chinese life and thought. A balance of yin and yang is essential to health. A deficiency of either principle can manifest as disease. (Encyclopedia Americana)

AN = yang exuberance syndrome can go here, defic syndromes: index YIN DEFICIENCY or YANG DEFICIENCY: see notes there

UI = D016709



MS = A major orthodox system of Hindu philosophy based on Sankhya (metaphysical dualism) but differing from it in being theistic and characterized by the teaching of raja-yoga as a practical method of liberating the self. It includes a system of exercises for attaining bodily or mental control and well-being with liberation of the self and union with the universal spirit. (From Webster, 3d ed)

AN = IM; specify geog if pertinent

UI = D015013



MS = A slightly acid milk food produced by fermentation due to the combined action of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus.

UI = D015014



UI = D015015



MS = A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of impotence. It is also alleged to be an aphrodisiac.

UI = D015016


Yolk Sac

MS = An embryonic membrane formed from endoderm and mesoderm. In reptiles and birds it incorporates the yolk into the digestive tract for nourishing the embryo. In placental mammals its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of most of the intestinal mucosa and the site of formation of the germ cells. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the vitelline membrane of the egg.

AN = "sometimes called vitelline sac": do not confuse with VITELLINE MEMBRANE; mammal (including human) & non-mammal

UI = D015017



MS = Ytterbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Yb, atomic number 70, and atomic weight 173. Ytterbium has been used in lasers and as a portable x-ray source.

AN = a rare earth metal; Yb-174; Yb-168, 170-173, 176 = YTTERBIUM (IM) + ISOTOPES (NIM); Yb-164-167, 169, 175, 177 = YTTERBIUM (IM) + RADIOISOTOPES (IM)

UI = D015018



MS = An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Y, atomic number 39, and atomic weight 88.91. In conjunction with other rare earths, yttrium is used as a phosphor in television receivers and is a component of the yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers.

AN = a rare earth metal; Y-89

UI = D015019


Yttrium Isotopes

MS = Stable yttrium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element yttrium, but differ in atomic weight. Y-89 is the only naturally occurring stable isotope of yttrium.

AN = Y-89; NIM

UI = D015020


Yttrium Radioisotopes

MS = Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.

AN = Y-82-88, 90-96; NIM; /blood-csf-urine /metab permitted but not for tracer studies ( = /diag use)

UI = D015021



MS = A genus (and common name) in the AGAVACEAE family. It is known for SAPONINS in the root that are used in SOAPS.

AN = coord with specific PLANT COMPONENTS term if pertinent; for use in therapy coord IM with PHYTOTHERAPY (IM) + disease/drug ther (IM) + PLANT PREPARATION or its indentations/ther use (IM or NIM) + specific plant chemical /ther use (IM) if pertinent; Manual 26.29

UI = D027623



MS = Created as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in 1918. Yugoslavia became the official name in 1929. BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA; CROATIA; and SLOVENIA formed independent countries and split from Yugoslavia 7 April 1992. Macedonia, one of the Yugoslav republics, became an independent country 8 February 1994 as The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (MACEDONIA (REPUBLIC)).

AN = see tree for YUGOSLAVIA as an Eastern European nation & indentions as a historical entity

UI = D015022


Yukon Territory

MS = A territory of northwest Canada, bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the south by British Columbia, and on the west by Alaska. Its capital is Whitehorse. It takes its name from the Yukon River, the Indian yu-kun-ah, meaning big river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1367 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p608)

AN = a division of northwest Canada

UI = D015874